Two Factor Model of ASD Symptoms
One of the key factors in determining whether an individual has Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is in their social and communication skills. Individuals who are diagnosed with ASD have delayed joint attention, eye gazing, and other social interactions such as pointing (Swain et al., 2014).
Joint attention is an important social skill to master because it is a building block for developing theory of mind which, helps us to understand other’s perspectives. Korhonen et al. (2014) found that individuals with autism have impaired joint attention. However, some did not show impairment in joint attention, which lead to evidence that suggests there are different trajectories for joint attention. One suggestion as to why Korhonen et al. (2014) found mixed results, is that there is evidence that joint attention may not be directly linked to individuals with ASD since they were unable to find a difference in joint attention between ASD and developmentally delayed (DD) individuals. Another suggestion for the mixed results, is individual interest in the task vary. Research has found that while individualized studies are beneficial in detecting personal potential and abilities, it would be difficult to generalize the study in order to further research to ASD as a whole (Korhonen et al., 2014). In addition to joint attention, atypical gaze shifts is a distinguishing factor in individuals with ASD. Swain et al. (2014) found the main difference between typically developing (TD) and ASD individuals in the first 12 months of life is in gaze shifts. Individuals that were diagnosed with ASD earlier had lower scores on positive affect, joint attention, and gaze shifts, however those diagnosed later differed from typically developing (TD) only in gaze shifts. It is not until 24 months that later onset ASD individuals significantly differ from their TD peers, by displaying lower positive affect and gestures (Swain et al., 2014). These findings may lead to other ASD trajectories.
Another defining characteristic of ASD is the excess of restrictive patterns of interest and repetitive motor movements. These patterns and movements often impaired the individual from completing daily tasks. Like joint attention and gaze shifts, these repetitive movements and patterns of interest have different trajectories (Joseph et al., 2013). Joseph et al. (2013) found that individuals with high cognitive functioning ASD engage in more distinct and specific interests and less in repetitive motor movements than individuals with lower cognitive functioning ASD. Another finding showed that at the age of two, repetitive motor and play patterns were more common than compulsion. By the age of four all these behaviors increased however, repetitive use of specific objects was found to be less frequent in older children than younger children. This finding suggests that the ritualistic behaviors and motor movements may present themselves differently based on the age of the individual (Joseph et al., 2013).
Joseph et al. (2013), Korhornen et al. (2014), and Swain et al. (2014) all defined key characteristics of an ASD individual and explains the different trajectories of each characteristic. The difficulty with the trajectories is that it is specific to each individual, some symptoms may worsen while others remain stable. It is also difficult to generalize finding with small sample sizes (Joseph et al., 2013).
1. Korhonen et al. (2014) did not use preference-based stimuli to look for joint attention and did not separate high- from low-functioning ASD individuals. Do you think that there could be a difference in level of motivation from each group? If so, how do you think this could change the results?
2. Swain et al. (2014) found that early and late onset of ASD did not differ in their social skills scores at the age of 12 months. If we know that their social skills do not differ then, is there another factor that would allow diagnosis of late onset ASD to be diagnosed at an earlier point in development?
3. Joseph et al. (2013) explains that it is difficult to assess the trajectories of ASD with a small sample size however, how do you think that their findings still help advance the research on ASD?