PSY 1012 – 2167

Test 3

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Instructions:Enter the letter of the correct response to each question in the space beside the question.

_C_1.The three sub-processes that comprise the overall process of human memory are:

a. sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

b. recollection, free recall, and cued recall.

c. encoding, storage, and retrieval.

d. retention, savings, and consolidation.

e. semantic memory, episodic memory, autobiographical memory.

__2.Grouping information that exceeds the 7 +/- 2 limit in short-term memory into meaningful units that can be remembered as a single item is called:

a. echoic memory.

b. chunking.

c. working memory.

d. iconic memory.

e. serial recall.

__3.Effective ______ of information into long-term memory is directly

related to the successful retrieval of that information at a later time.

a. storage

b. recognition

c. understanding

d. encoding

__4.A(n) ________ is a cue that uses short rhymes (e.g., “Thirty days

hath September, . . .”) or specialized words (e.g., HOMES: Huron,

Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior), among other things, to encode

information into, and to retrieve information from, long-term memory.

a. eidetic memory

b. engram

c. mnemonic device

d. schema

e. recovered memory

__5.Which of the following observations emerged from Ebbinghaus’

study of human memory?

a. Serial position effect

b. Curve of forgetting

c. Savings

d. Curve of learning

e. Overlearning

f. All of the above emerged from Ebbinghaus’ memory research.

__6.The two constituent elements of thinking are:

a.reasoning and problem solving.

b.concepts and mental images.

c. convergent and divergent processes.

d. short-term memory and long-term memory.

e. hopes and dreams

__7.A systematic error in thinking that can lead to inaccurate conclusions/ incorrect decisions is called ______.

a.Representation failure

b.Belief perseverance

c. Bias

d. Mental set

e.Functional fixedness

__8.The experience of sudden awareness of the solution to a problem is called ______.



c. deductive reasoning

d. practical intelligence

e.syllogistic reasoning

__9.Theories of ______ intelligence maintain that intelligence consists of a general factor (i.e., "g") that underlies performance in a number of

different areas.





__10.Intelligence tests do not consider unique talents or special aptitudes/ abilities which contribute to overall behavioral competence. As such, an intelligence test score does not provide a complete measure of an individual's intellectual ability.



__11.The symbols that make up human language are ______.





e.inner speech

__12.According to the ______ perspective, humans are born with the

requisite biological equipment and cognitive capabilities to acquire

language, but language development is largely dependent on

environmental factors.





__13.Literacy instruction based on the constituent sounds of a language (i.e., phonemes) is the most effective approach as it allows readers to decode (i.e., sound-out) and comprehend new/novel words.



__14.Improvements/advancements in which of the following areas explain the dramatic increase in human life expectancy since 1900?

a. Research, Education, and Public policy

b. Activism, Awareness, and Political participation

c. Medicine, Sanitation, and Nutrition

d. Cognitive engagement, Physical fitness, and a Balanced lifestyle

__15.A(n) ______ research approach looks at different groups at a single point in time and tries to identify the factors that differentiate the groups. A(n) ______ research approach starts with a single group and follows that group over a period of time to establish cause-and-effect relationships.

a.longitudinal; cross-sectional

b.observational; descriptive

c.empirical; non-empirical

d.cross-sectional; longitudinal

e.descriptive; observational

f.non-empirical; empirical

__16.A ______ refers to a group of people who are born at a similar point in time and who share similar life experiences as a result.


b.semantic network




__17.Humans are most susceptible to the effects of teratogens during the ______ period.





e.Humans are equally susceptible to teratogen effects during all pre-natal periods

__18.According to Piaget, ______ occurs when individuals add new information to an existing schema, while ______ occurs when individuals change an existing schema, or create an original schema, in response to new information. Both processes move an individual to higher cognitive ground.

a.equilibrium; disequilibrium

b.assimilation; accommodation

c.disequilibrium; equilibrium

d.accommodation; assimilation

__19.The ______ of the mother/caregiver appears to be the determining

factor in the type of attachment formed by the infant.


b.emotional intelligence


d.emotional availability


__20.______ is the adjustment in the level of support provided by a more-

skilled person in response to a child's level of performance.

a.Parental guidance


c.Operational thinking


__21.The engagement in risky and/or health compromising/health defeating behaviors by adolescents can largely be explained by:

a.inadequate parental supervision.

b.cultural expectations of adolescent irresponsibility.

c.the incomplete development of the adolescent brain.

d.the inability of teenagers to get a clue.

e.all of the above.

__22.The most significant physical/cognitive development that occurs during Early Adulthood is:

a.the maturation of the pre-frontal cortex.

b.the maturation of the corpus callosum.

c.the achievement of full adult height and weight.

d.the maturation of sex organs and stabilization of the sex drive.

e.the selection of one's life partner.

__23.Research addressing physical, cognitive, and socio-emotional

development in Middle/Late Adulthood is providing new information that confirms many of the common stereotypes about older adults.



__24.Age-related declines in physical and cognitive function can be slowed, and function maintained, through regular physical activity and cognitive engagement. This is called the ______ principle.

a. Priming

b. "Not dead yet."

c. "Holding on to what you've got."

d. "Use it or lose it."

e. Construction

__25.According to ______, the more active and involved older adults are, and the more they can continue their Middle Adulthood roles into Late Adulthood, the more likely they are to age successfully and to be satisfied with their lives.

a.Disengagement Theory

b.affect optimization

c.Activity Theory

d.Erik Erikson

26.Match the following concepts/observations to the individual associated with the concept/observation by placing the letter in front of the concept/observation in the space beside the individual's name.

__ George Millera.Contact Comfort

__ Karl Lashley b.Fluid/Crystallized intelligence

__ Elizabeth Loftusc.g / g-factor in intelligence

__ Daniel Kahnemand.Engram

__ Wolfgang Kohlere.Self-efficacy

__ Charles Spearmanf.STM capacity of 7 +/- 2 items

__ Howard Gardnerg.Insight

__ Alfred Bineth.8 stages of Psychosocial Development

__ Raymond B. Cattelli.Infant attachment styles

__ Noam Chomskyj.Bias in thinking

__ Erik Eriksonk.Developed first intelligence test

__ Lev Vygotskyl.Memory is fallible

__ Harry Harlowm.Language Acquisition Device

__ Mary Ainsworthn.Zone of Proximal Development

__ Albert Bandurao.Eight "frames of mind"/intelligences

PSY 1012-2167 Test 3Page 6 of 6

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