IT for Management: On-Demand Strategies for Performance, Growth, and Sustainability

Eleventh Edition

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Turban, Pollard, Wood

Chapter 11

Data Visualization and Geographic Information Systems

Assignments for Module 11

Critical Thinking Assignment

Delta Corporation has developed new clothing line that is designed for young people

In order to create a suitable image for this new product line they are launching a subsidiary called EchoDelta, with a new image, logo and tag line

Given that the target market for this new product line is primarily young people

They have engaged a Social Media Marketing Consultant to launch the new product line 

Assignments for Module 11

Critical Thinking Assignment

You are that consultant. Unfortunately, the executives of Delta Corporation are unfamiliar with Social Media and how it can be utilized for marketing purposes

As a result, you need to:

Explain what a Digital Dashboard is and how it can be of use to monitor activity in real time

Make recommendations on what should actually be displayed, in terms of type of data, sources for that data and frequency of updates

Explain the benefits of using Data Visualization technology to monitor their online sales and marketing activity

Assignments for Module 11

Critical Thinking Assignment

Explain what a mashup is, and why the corporation needs to utilize such technology

Provide reasons as to why they should also consider using geospatial technology

To provide the executives with an example, select an organization that uses data visualization and/or geospatial technology

Detail how they use it and outline what benefits you feel they have gained from it

Assignments for Module 11

Critical Thinking Assignment

Your well-written report should be 4-5 pages in length, not including the title and reference pages.

To make it easier to read and therefore grade, make sure you clearly delineate each section of your answer so it can be matched with the relevant question.

Use Saudi Electronic University academic writing standards and APA style guidelines, citing at least two references as appropriate.

Review the grading rubric to see how you will be graded for this assignment.

Learning Objectives (1 of 4)

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What is Data Visualization in 3 minutes ?

Data Visualization: Terminology

Data visualization

Presentation of data in a graphical format

Easier for decision makers to grasp difficult concepts or identify new patterns in the data

Drill down

Searching for something on a computer moving from general information to more detailed in-formation by focusing in on something of interest, e.g., quarterly sales – monthly sales – daily sales

Geospatial data

Has an explicitly geographic component, ranging from vector and raster data to tabular data with site locations

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Data Visualization Technologies

Figure 11.3 Tools and technologies in this chapter fall into three related categories.

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Data Visualization Technologies

Figure 11.3 Tools and technologies in this chapter fall into three related categories.

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Data Visualization Technologies

Figure 11.3 Tools and technologies in this chapter fall into three related categories.

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Data Visualization and Learning

Learning, Exploring, and Discovery with Visualization

Data discovery: discovering hidden relationships through visualization.

Used with predictive analytics to improve departmental decisions.

Summary data rather than statistical data for higher level absorption.

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Data Visualization: Heat Maps

The heat map is like a spreadsheet whose cells are formatted with colors instead of numbers.

This heat map uses three colors to convey information at a glance.

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

An example of a Heat Map

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What are Heatmaps and How to use them to improve your website

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Examples of Visualizations

Dials, charts, graphs, timelines, geospatial maps, and heat maps with interactivity and drill-downs making it easier to understand data and identify patterns, trends, and relationships

Require human expertise to interpret

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Figure 11.7: Data Discovery Tools pull data from multiple data sources, manipulates the data and displays the metrics

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Data Visualization Tools (1 of 2)

Performance Management Visualizations

SAS Visual Catalyst

Intelligent autocharting feature presents most appropriate visualization of a set of data

IBM SPSS Analytic Catalyst

Advanced analysis designed for experts in statistical software

IBM Watson Analytics

Cloud-based, automates predictive analytics

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Data Visualization Tools (2 of 2)

Tableau

Easier to implement, requiring just basic database information

Roambi Analytics

Leading mobile reporting and data visualization app designed for iPads and iPhones

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Top 10 Data Visualization Tools For Business Intelligence

Data Visualization and Learning Review

How does data visualization contribute to learning?

Visuals are the single best way our brain processes information

Data visualization harnesses the power of analytics and adds a visual display to capitalize on how our brains work

Visual displays make it easier for individuals to understand data and identify patterns that offer answers to business questions

By using data visualization, companies are able to discover hidden data relationships and learn how to improve performance

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Visuals are the single best way our brain processes information. Data visualization harnesses the power of analytics and adds a visual display to capitalize on how our brains work. Visual displays make it easier for individuals to understand data and identify patterns that offer answers to business questions. By using data visualization, companies are able to discover hidden data relationships and learn how to improve performance.

 

2. Heat maps use colors to convey information at a glance. A heat map is like a spreadsheet whose cells are formatted with colors instead of numbers.

 

3. Answers may vary. Data discovery is expected to take on a greater role in corporate decision making. Companies are investing in the latest data discovery solutions largely because of their speed and flexibility. Data visualization software vendors continue to focus on business users of all levels and backgrounds. Experts and non-experts can collect data quickly from disparate sources and then explore the dataset with easy-to-use interactive visualizations and search interfaces. Drill-down paths are not predefined, which gives users more flexibility in how they view detailed data. Today’s data discovery technologies provide greater data exploration and ease of use to help users find answers to “why” and “what if” questions through self-service analytic apps. Enterprise apps for Androids, Apple iPads, and BlackBerry Playbooks are replacing static business reports with real-time data, analytics, and interactive reporting tools.

 

4. Answers may vary.

 

Vendor Aqumin provides real time visual interpretation solutions for the financial services industry. Aqumin’s OptionVision enables traders, risk managers, and market participants to spot opportunities, risk, and market changes. AlphaVision for Excel enables visual interpretation capabilities directly within the Microsoft Excel platform, and AlphaVision for Bloomberg is developed for professional portfolio managers, traders, and risk analysts and is connected directly to the Bloomberg Terminal to leverage data provided by Bloomberg.

 

IBM SPSS Analytic Catalyst has made sophisticated analytics accessible. Analytic Catalyst enables business users to conduct the kind of advanced analysis that had been designed for experts in statistical software. The software fast tracks analytics by identifying key drivers, selecting an appropriate model, testing it, and then explaining the results in plain English.

 

Roambi Analytics is a leading mobile reporting and data visualization app designed for iPads and iPhones. The app can take data from most sources, including Box, Google Docs, spreadsheets, BI systems, databases, and Salesforce.com, and transform them into interactive data visualizations.

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Data Visualization and Learning Review

How does data visualization contribute to learning?

Data visualization enables learning that is the basis for continuous improvement

When companies, political parties, sports teams, or fund-raising agencies invest in marketing programs, campaigns, promotions, special events or other projects, they use visualization to learn something from them

Visualization is also used as a data explorer and data discovery tool.

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Visuals are the single best way our brain processes information. Data visualization harnesses the power of analytics and adds a visual display to capitalize on how our brains work. Visual displays make it easier for individuals to understand data and identify patterns that offer answers to business questions. By using data visualization, companies are able to discover hidden data relationships and learn how to improve performance.

 

2. Heat maps use colors to convey information at a glance. A heat map is like a spreadsheet whose cells are formatted with colors instead of numbers.

 

3. Answers may vary. Data discovery is expected to take on a greater role in corporate decision making. Companies are investing in the latest data discovery solutions largely because of their speed and flexibility. Data visualization software vendors continue to focus on business users of all levels and backgrounds. Experts and non-experts can collect data quickly from disparate sources and then explore the dataset with easy-to-use interactive visualizations and search interfaces. Drill-down paths are not predefined, which gives users more flexibility in how they view detailed data. Today’s data discovery technologies provide greater data exploration and ease of use to help users find answers to “why” and “what if” questions through self-service analytic apps. Enterprise apps for Androids, Apple iPads, and BlackBerry Playbooks are replacing static business reports with real-time data, analytics, and interactive reporting tools.

 

4. Answers may vary.

 

Vendor Aqumin provides real time visual interpretation solutions for the financial services industry. Aqumin’s OptionVision enables traders, risk managers, and market participants to spot opportunities, risk, and market changes. AlphaVision for Excel enables visual interpretation capabilities directly within the Microsoft Excel platform, and AlphaVision for Bloomberg is developed for professional portfolio managers, traders, and risk analysts and is connected directly to the Bloomberg Terminal to leverage data provided by Bloomberg.

 

IBM SPSS Analytic Catalyst has made sophisticated analytics accessible. Analytic Catalyst enables business users to conduct the kind of advanced analysis that had been designed for experts in statistical software. The software fast tracks analytics by identifying key drivers, selecting an appropriate model, testing it, and then explaining the results in plain English.

 

Roambi Analytics is a leading mobile reporting and data visualization app designed for iPads and iPhones. The app can take data from most sources, including Box, Google Docs, spreadsheets, BI systems, databases, and Salesforce.com, and transform them into interactive data visualizations.

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Data Visualization and Learning Review

How do heat maps convey information?

Heat maps use colors to convey information at a glance

A heat map is like a spreadsheet whose cells are formatted with colors instead of numbers.

Tag clouds use data, typically from unstructured content

They represent the relative frequency of words and terms by their sizes

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Visuals are the single best way our brain processes information. Data visualization harnesses the power of analytics and adds a visual display to capitalize on how our brains work. Visual displays make it easier for individuals to understand data and identify patterns that offer answers to business questions. By using data visualization, companies are able to discover hidden data relationships and learn how to improve performance.

 

2. Heat maps use colors to convey information at a glance. A heat map is like a spreadsheet whose cells are formatted with colors instead of numbers.

 

3. Answers may vary. Data discovery is expected to take on a greater role in corporate decision making. Companies are investing in the latest data discovery solutions largely because of their speed and flexibility. Data visualization software vendors continue to focus on business users of all levels and backgrounds. Experts and non-experts can collect data quickly from disparate sources and then explore the dataset with easy-to-use interactive visualizations and search interfaces. Drill-down paths are not predefined, which gives users more flexibility in how they view detailed data. Today’s data discovery technologies provide greater data exploration and ease of use to help users find answers to “why” and “what if” questions through self-service analytic apps. Enterprise apps for Androids, Apple iPads, and BlackBerry Playbooks are replacing static business reports with real-time data, analytics, and interactive reporting tools.

 

4. Answers may vary.

 

Vendor Aqumin provides real time visual interpretation solutions for the financial services industry. Aqumin’s OptionVision enables traders, risk managers, and market participants to spot opportunities, risk, and market changes. AlphaVision for Excel enables visual interpretation capabilities directly within the Microsoft Excel platform, and AlphaVision for Bloomberg is developed for professional portfolio managers, traders, and risk analysts and is connected directly to the Bloomberg Terminal to leverage data provided by Bloomberg.

 

IBM SPSS Analytic Catalyst has made sophisticated analytics accessible. Analytic Catalyst enables business users to conduct the kind of advanced analysis that had been designed for experts in statistical software. The software fast tracks analytics by identifying key drivers, selecting an appropriate model, testing it, and then explaining the results in plain English.

 

Roambi Analytics is a leading mobile reporting and data visualization app designed for iPads and iPhones. The app can take data from most sources, including Box, Google Docs, spreadsheets, BI systems, databases, and Salesforce.com, and transform them into interactive data visualizations.

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Data Visualization and Learning Review

Why are data visualization and discovery usage increasing?

Data discovery is expected to take on a greater role in corporate decision making

Companies are investing in the latest data discovery solutions largely because of their speed and flexibility

Data visualization software vendors continue to focus on business users of all levels and backgrounds

Experts and non-experts can collect data quickly from disparate sources and then explore the dataset with easy-to-use interactive visualizations and search interfaces

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Visuals are the single best way our brain processes information. Data visualization harnesses the power of analytics and adds a visual display to capitalize on how our brains work. Visual displays make it easier for individuals to understand data and identify patterns that offer answers to business questions. By using data visualization, companies are able to discover hidden data relationships and learn how to improve performance.

 

2. Heat maps use colors to convey information at a glance. A heat map is like a spreadsheet whose cells are formatted with colors instead of numbers.

 

3. Answers may vary. Data discovery is expected to take on a greater role in corporate decision making. Companies are investing in the latest data discovery solutions largely because of their speed and flexibility. Data visualization software vendors continue to focus on business users of all levels and backgrounds. Experts and non-experts can collect data quickly from disparate sources and then explore the dataset with easy-to-use interactive visualizations and search interfaces. Drill-down paths are not predefined, which gives users more flexibility in how they view detailed data. Today’s data discovery technologies provide greater data exploration and ease of use to help users find answers to “why” and “what if” questions through self-service analytic apps. Enterprise apps for Androids, Apple iPads, and BlackBerry Playbooks are replacing static business reports with real-time data, analytics, and interactive reporting tools.

 

4. Answers may vary.

 

Vendor Aqumin provides real time visual interpretation solutions for the financial services industry. Aqumin’s OptionVision enables traders, risk managers, and market participants to spot opportunities, risk, and market changes. AlphaVision for Excel enables visual interpretation capabilities directly within the Microsoft Excel platform, and AlphaVision for Bloomberg is developed for professional portfolio managers, traders, and risk analysts and is connected directly to the Bloomberg Terminal to leverage data provided by Bloomberg.

 

IBM SPSS Analytic Catalyst has made sophisticated analytics accessible. Analytic Catalyst enables business users to conduct the kind of advanced analysis that had been designed for experts in statistical software. The software fast tracks analytics by identifying key drivers, selecting an appropriate model, testing it, and then explaining the results in plain English.

 

Roambi Analytics is a leading mobile reporting and data visualization app designed for iPads and iPhones. The app can take data from most sources, including Box, Google Docs, spreadsheets, BI systems, databases, and Salesforce.com, and transform them into interactive data visualizations.

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Data Visualization and Learning Review

Why are data visualization and discovery usage increasing?

Drill-down paths are not predefined, which gives users more flexibility in how they view detailed data

Today’s data discovery technologies provide greater data exploration and ease of use to help users find answers to “why” and “what if” questions through self-service analytic apps

Enterprise apps for Androids and Apple iPads are replacing static business reports with real-time data, analytics, and interactive reporting tools

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Visuals are the single best way our brain processes information. Data visualization harnesses the power of analytics and adds a visual display to capitalize on how our brains work. Visual displays make it easier for individuals to understand data and identify patterns that offer answers to business questions. By using data visualization, companies are able to discover hidden data relationships and learn how to improve performance.

 

2. Heat maps use colors to convey information at a glance. A heat map is like a spreadsheet whose cells are formatted with colors instead of numbers.

 

3. Answers may vary. Data discovery is expected to take on a greater role in corporate decision making. Companies are investing in the latest data discovery solutions largely because of their speed and flexibility. Data visualization software vendors continue to focus on business users of all levels and backgrounds. Experts and non-experts can collect data quickly from disparate sources and then explore the dataset with easy-to-use interactive visualizations and search interfaces. Drill-down paths are not predefined, which gives users more flexibility in how they view detailed data. Today’s data discovery technologies provide greater data exploration and ease of use to help users find answers to “why” and “what if” questions through self-service analytic apps. Enterprise apps for Androids, Apple iPads, and BlackBerry Playbooks are replacing static business reports with real-time data, analytics, and interactive reporting tools.

 

4. Answers may vary.

 

Vendor Aqumin provides real time visual interpretation solutions for the financial services industry. Aqumin’s OptionVision enables traders, risk managers, and market participants to spot opportunities, risk, and market changes. AlphaVision for Excel enables visual interpretation capabilities directly within the Microsoft Excel platform, and AlphaVision for Bloomberg is developed for professional portfolio managers, traders, and risk analysts and is connected directly to the Bloomberg Terminal to leverage data provided by Bloomberg.

 

IBM SPSS Analytic Catalyst has made sophisticated analytics accessible. Analytic Catalyst enables business users to conduct the kind of advanced analysis that had been designed for experts in statistical software. The software fast tracks analytics by identifying key drivers, selecting an appropriate model, testing it, and then explaining the results in plain English.

 

Roambi Analytics is a leading mobile reporting and data visualization app designed for iPads and iPhones. The app can take data from most sources, including Box, Google Docs, spreadsheets, BI systems, databases, and Salesforce.com, and transform them into interactive data visualizations.

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Learning Objectives (2 of 4)

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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What is Mashup (web application hybrid)?, Explain Mashup (web application hybrid)

Enterprise Mashups

Combine business data and applications from multiple sources

Typically a mix of internal data and applications with externally sourced data to create an integrated experience.

It does not require a huge investment and can be developed in hours rather than days or weeks.

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Enterprise Data Mashups

Combinations of data from various business systems and external sources

Often in real time

Without necessarily relying on a middle step of ETL (extract, transform, and load) from a data warehouse.

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Enterprise Mashups Types

Customer:

Provides a quick view of customer data for a sales person in preparation for a customer site visit.

Logistics:

Displays inventory for a group of department stores based on specific criteria.

Human resource:

Provides a quick glance at employee data such as profiles, salary, ratings, benefits status, and activities.

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Benefits of Enterprise Mashups: Table 11.2 Enterprise Mashups Benefits

Summary of benefits of mashup technology to an enterprise: Dramatically reduces time and effort needed to combine disparate data sources.Users can define their own data mashups by combining fields from different data sources that were not previously needed. Users can create new dashboards. Enables the building of complex queries by nonexperts with a drag-and-drop query building tool.Enables agile BI because new data sources can be added to a BI system quickly via direct links to operational data sources, bypassing the need to load them to a data warehouse. Provides a mechanism to easily customize and share knowledge throughout the company.

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Benefits of Enterprise Mashups: Table 11.2 Enterprise Mashups Benefits

Summary of benefits of mashup technology to an enterprise: Dramatically reduces time and effort needed to combine disparate data sources.Users can define their own data mashups by combining fields from different data sources that were not previously needed. Users can create new dashboards. Enables the building of complex queries by nonexperts with a drag-and-drop query building tool.Enables agile BI because new data sources can be added to a BI system quickly via direct links to operational data sources, bypassing the need to load them to a data warehouse. Provides a mechanism to easily customize and share knowledge throughout the company.

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Benefits of Enterprise Mashups: Table 11.2 Enterprise Mashups Benefits

Summary of benefits of mashup technology to an enterprise: Dramatically reduces time and effort needed to combine disparate data sources.Users can define their own data mashups by combining fields from different data sources that were not previously needed. Users can create new dashboards. Enables the building of complex queries by nonexperts with a drag-and-drop query building tool.Enables agile BI because new data sources can be added to a BI system quickly via direct links to operational data sources, bypassing the need to load them to a data warehouse. Provides a mechanism to easily customize and share knowledge throughout the company.

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Benefits of Enterprise Mashups: Table 11.2 Enterprise Mashups Benefits

Summary of benefits of mashup technology to an enterprise: Dramatically reduces time and effort needed to combine disparate data sources.Users can define their own data mashups by combining fields from different data sources that were not previously needed. Users can create new dashboards. Enables the building of complex queries by nonexperts with a drag-and-drop query building tool.Enables agile BI because new data sources can be added to a BI system quickly via direct links to operational data sources, bypassing the need to load them to a data warehouse. Provides a mechanism to easily customize and share knowledge throughout the company.

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Benefits of Enterprise Mashups: Table 11.2 Enterprise Mashups Benefits

Summary of benefits of mashup technology to an enterprise: Dramatically reduces time and effort needed to combine disparate data sources.Users can define their own data mashups by combining fields from different data sources that were not previously needed. Users can create new dashboards. Enables the building of complex queries by nonexperts with a drag-and-drop query building tool.Enables agile BI because new data sources can be added to a BI system quickly via direct links to operational data sources, bypassing the need to load them to a data warehouse. Provides a mechanism to easily customize and share knowledge throughout the company.

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Benefits of Enterprise Mashups: Table 11.2 Enterprise Mashups Benefits

Summary of benefits of mashup technology to an enterprise: Dramatically reduces time and effort needed to combine disparate data sources.Users can define their own data mashups by combining fields from different data sources that were not previously needed. Users can create new dashboards. Enables the building of complex queries by nonexperts with a drag-and-drop query building tool.Enables agile BI because new data sources can be added to a BI system quickly via direct links to operational data sources, bypassing the need to load them to a data warehouse. Provides a mechanism to easily customize and share knowledge throughout the company.

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Benefits of Enterprise Mashups: Table 11.2 Enterprise Mashups Benefits

Summary of benefits of mashup technology to an enterprise: Dramatically reduces time and effort needed to combine disparate data sources.Users can define their own data mashups by combining fields from different data sources that were not previously needed. Users can create new dashboards. Enables the building of complex queries by nonexperts with a drag-and-drop query building tool.Enables agile BI because new data sources can be added to a BI system quickly via direct links to operational data sources, bypassing the need to load them to a data warehouse. Provides a mechanism to easily customize and share knowledge throughout the company.

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Enterprise Data Mashups Review

Sketch or describe the architecture of an enterprise mashup application.

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Figure 11.7 illustrates the architecture of an enterprise mashup application.

 

The general architecture of an enterprise mashup application integrates data from operational data stores, business systems, external data (economic data, suppliers, information, competitors’ activities), and real-time news feeds to generate an enterprise mashup.

 

2. Enterprise mashups are combinations of data from various business systems and external sources, often in real time, and without necessarily relying on a middle step of ETL (extract, transform, and load) from a data warehouse.

 

3. Enterprise mashups improve operational efficiency, optimize the sales pipeline, enhance customer satisfaction, and drive profitability. In an enterprise environment, mashups can be used to solve a wide variety of business problems and day-to-day situations. Examples of these types of mashups are:

Customer. A customer data mashup that provides a quick view of customer data for a sales person in preparation for a customer site visit. Data can be pulled from internal data stores and Web sources, such as contact information, links to related websites, recent customer orders, lists of critical situations, and more.

Logistics. A logistics mashup that displays inventory for a group of department stores based on specific criteria. For example, you can mash current storm information onto a map of store locations and then wire the map to inventory data to show which stores located in the path of storms are low on generators.

Human resource. An HR mashup that provides a quick glance at employee data such as profiles, salary, ratings, benefits status, and activities. Data can be filtered to show custom views, for example, products whose average quarterly sales are lower than last quarter.

 

Data mashup apps are used in organizations:

For real-time awareness and data freshness

To feed data to cross-functional dashboards

For competitive analysis

To monitor compliance and manage risk

For disaster monitoring and disaster response

To generate external vendor reports

 

4. Using data mashup apps, nontechnical users can easily and quickly access, integrate, and display BI data from a variety of operational data sources, including those that are not integrated into the existing data warehouse, without having to understand the intricacies of the underlying data infrastructures or schemas.

 

5. Below is a summary of benefits of mashup technology to an enterprise:

Dramatically reduces time and effort needed to combine disparate data sources.

Users can define their own data mashups by combining fields from different data sources that were not previously modeled.

Users can import external data sources, e.g., spreadsheets and competitor data, to create new dashboards.

Enables the building of complex queries by non-experts with a drag-and-drop query-building tool.

Enables agile BI because new data sources can be added to a BI system quickly via direct links to operational data sources, bypassing the need to load them to a data warehouse.

Provides a mechanism to easily customize and share knowledge throughout the company.

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Enterprise Data Mashups Review

What is an enterprise data mashup?

Enterprise mashups combine business data and applications from multiple sources

They are typically a mix of internal data and applications with externally sourced data, SaaS (software as a service) and Web content

These are combined to create an integrated experience

Mashups, in general, became popular because of social and mobile technology

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Figure 11.7 illustrates the architecture of an enterprise mashup application.

 

The general architecture of an enterprise mashup application integrates data from operational data stores, business systems, external data (economic data, suppliers, information, competitors’ activities), and real-time news feeds to generate an enterprise mashup.

 

2. Enterprise mashups are combinations of data from various business systems and external sources, often in real time, and without necessarily relying on a middle step of ETL (extract, transform, and load) from a data warehouse.

 

3. Enterprise mashups improve operational efficiency, optimize the sales pipeline, enhance customer satisfaction, and drive profitability. In an enterprise environment, mashups can be used to solve a wide variety of business problems and day-to-day situations. Examples of these types of mashups are:

Customer. A customer data mashup that provides a quick view of customer data for a sales person in preparation for a customer site visit. Data can be pulled from internal data stores and Web sources, such as contact information, links to related websites, recent customer orders, lists of critical situations, and more.

Logistics. A logistics mashup that displays inventory for a group of department stores based on specific criteria. For example, you can mash current storm information onto a map of store locations and then wire the map to inventory data to show which stores located in the path of storms are low on generators.

Human resource. An HR mashup that provides a quick glance at employee data such as profiles, salary, ratings, benefits status, and activities. Data can be filtered to show custom views, for example, products whose average quarterly sales are lower than last quarter.

 

Data mashup apps are used in organizations:

For real-time awareness and data freshness

To feed data to cross-functional dashboards

For competitive analysis

To monitor compliance and manage risk

For disaster monitoring and disaster response

To generate external vendor reports

 

4. Using data mashup apps, nontechnical users can easily and quickly access, integrate, and display BI data from a variety of operational data sources, including those that are not integrated into the existing data warehouse, without having to understand the intricacies of the underlying data infrastructures or schemas.

 

5. Below is a summary of benefits of mashup technology to an enterprise:

Dramatically reduces time and effort needed to combine disparate data sources.

Users can define their own data mashups by combining fields from different data sources that were not previously modeled.

Users can import external data sources, e.g., spreadsheets and competitor data, to create new dashboards.

Enables the building of complex queries by non-experts with a drag-and-drop query-building tool.

Enables agile BI because new data sources can be added to a BI system quickly via direct links to operational data sources, bypassing the need to load them to a data warehouse.

Provides a mechanism to easily customize and share knowledge throughout the company.

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Enterprise Data Mashups Review

What is an enterprise data mashup?

The ability of enterprise mashups to quickly and easily consolidate data and functionality that is normally spread across several applications

Onto a single webpage or mobile device screen offers real business opportunities for companies of all shapes and sizes around the world.

Enterprises use mashups as quick, cost-effective solutions to a range of issues

Because mashups use preexisting technology, they do not require a huge investment and can be developed in hours rather than days or weeks.

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Figure 11.7 illustrates the architecture of an enterprise mashup application.

 

The general architecture of an enterprise mashup application integrates data from operational data stores, business systems, external data (economic data, suppliers, information, competitors’ activities), and real-time news feeds to generate an enterprise mashup.

 

2. Enterprise mashups are combinations of data from various business systems and external sources, often in real time, and without necessarily relying on a middle step of ETL (extract, transform, and load) from a data warehouse.

 

3. Enterprise mashups improve operational efficiency, optimize the sales pipeline, enhance customer satisfaction, and drive profitability. In an enterprise environment, mashups can be used to solve a wide variety of business problems and day-to-day situations. Examples of these types of mashups are:

Customer. A customer data mashup that provides a quick view of customer data for a sales person in preparation for a customer site visit. Data can be pulled from internal data stores and Web sources, such as contact information, links to related websites, recent customer orders, lists of critical situations, and more.

Logistics. A logistics mashup that displays inventory for a group of department stores based on specific criteria. For example, you can mash current storm information onto a map of store locations and then wire the map to inventory data to show which stores located in the path of storms are low on generators.

Human resource. An HR mashup that provides a quick glance at employee data such as profiles, salary, ratings, benefits status, and activities. Data can be filtered to show custom views, for example, products whose average quarterly sales are lower than last quarter.

 

Data mashup apps are used in organizations:

For real-time awareness and data freshness

To feed data to cross-functional dashboards

For competitive analysis

To monitor compliance and manage risk

For disaster monitoring and disaster response

To generate external vendor reports

 

4. Using data mashup apps, nontechnical users can easily and quickly access, integrate, and display BI data from a variety of operational data sources, including those that are not integrated into the existing data warehouse, without having to understand the intricacies of the underlying data infrastructures or schemas.

 

5. Below is a summary of benefits of mashup technology to an enterprise:

Dramatically reduces time and effort needed to combine disparate data sources.

Users can define their own data mashups by combining fields from different data sources that were not previously modeled.

Users can import external data sources, e.g., spreadsheets and competitor data, to create new dashboards.

Enables the building of complex queries by non-experts with a drag-and-drop query-building tool.

Enables agile BI because new data sources can be added to a BI system quickly via direct links to operational data sources, bypassing the need to load them to a data warehouse.

Provides a mechanism to easily customize and share knowledge throughout the company.

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Enterprise Data Mashups Review

What are the functions and uses of enterprise mashups?

Enterprise mashups

Improve operational efficiency

Optimize the sales pipeline

Enhance customer satisfaction

Drive profitability

In an enterprise environment, mashups can be used to solve a wide variety of business problems and day-to-day situations.

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Figure 11.7 illustrates the architecture of an enterprise mashup application.

 

The general architecture of an enterprise mashup application integrates data from operational data stores, business systems, external data (economic data, suppliers, information, competitors’ activities), and real-time news feeds to generate an enterprise mashup.

 

2. Enterprise mashups are combinations of data from various business systems and external sources, often in real time, and without necessarily relying on a middle step of ETL (extract, transform, and load) from a data warehouse.

 

3. Enterprise mashups improve operational efficiency, optimize the sales pipeline, enhance customer satisfaction, and drive profitability. In an enterprise environment, mashups can be used to solve a wide variety of business problems and day-to-day situations. Examples of these types of mashups are:

Customer. A customer data mashup that provides a quick view of customer data for a sales person in preparation for a customer site visit. Data can be pulled from internal data stores and Web sources, such as contact information, links to related websites, recent customer orders, lists of critical situations, and more.

Logistics. A logistics mashup that displays inventory for a group of department stores based on specific criteria. For example, you can mash current storm information onto a map of store locations and then wire the map to inventory data to show which stores located in the path of storms are low on generators.

Human resource. An HR mashup that provides a quick glance at employee data such as profiles, salary, ratings, benefits status, and activities. Data can be filtered to show custom views, for example, products whose average quarterly sales are lower than last quarter.

 

Data mashup apps are used in organizations:

For real-time awareness and data freshness

To feed data to cross-functional dashboards

For competitive analysis

To monitor compliance and manage risk

For disaster monitoring and disaster response

To generate external vendor reports

 

4. Using data mashup apps, nontechnical users can easily and quickly access, integrate, and display BI data from a variety of operational data sources, including those that are not integrated into the existing data warehouse, without having to understand the intricacies of the underlying data infrastructures or schemas.

 

5. Below is a summary of benefits of mashup technology to an enterprise:

Dramatically reduces time and effort needed to combine disparate data sources.

Users can define their own data mashups by combining fields from different data sources that were not previously modeled.

Users can import external data sources, e.g., spreadsheets and competitor data, to create new dashboards.

Enables the building of complex queries by non-experts with a drag-and-drop query-building tool.

Enables agile BI because new data sources can be added to a BI system quickly via direct links to operational data sources, bypassing the need to load them to a data warehouse.

Provides a mechanism to easily customize and share knowledge throughout the company.

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Enterprise Data Mashups Review

What are the functions and uses of enterprise mashups?

Examples of these types of mashups are:

Customer. A customer data mashup that provides a quick view of customer data for a sales person in preparation for a customer site visit

Logistics. A logistics mashup that displays inventory for a group of department stores based on specific criteria

Human resource. An HR mashup that provides a quick glance at employee data such as profiles, salary, ratings, benefits status, and activities

42

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Figure 11.7 illustrates the architecture of an enterprise mashup application.

 

The general architecture of an enterprise mashup application integrates data from operational data stores, business systems, external data (economic data, suppliers, information, competitors’ activities), and real-time news feeds to generate an enterprise mashup.

 

2. Enterprise mashups are combinations of data from various business systems and external sources, often in real time, and without necessarily relying on a middle step of ETL (extract, transform, and load) from a data warehouse.

 

3. Enterprise mashups improve operational efficiency, optimize the sales pipeline, enhance customer satisfaction, and drive profitability. In an enterprise environment, mashups can be used to solve a wide variety of business problems and day-to-day situations. Examples of these types of mashups are:

Customer. A customer data mashup that provides a quick view of customer data for a sales person in preparation for a customer site visit. Data can be pulled from internal data stores and Web sources, such as contact information, links to related websites, recent customer orders, lists of critical situations, and more.

Logistics. A logistics mashup that displays inventory for a group of department stores based on specific criteria. For example, you can mash current storm information onto a map of store locations and then wire the map to inventory data to show which stores located in the path of storms are low on generators.

Human resource. An HR mashup that provides a quick glance at employee data such as profiles, salary, ratings, benefits status, and activities. Data can be filtered to show custom views, for example, products whose average quarterly sales are lower than last quarter.

 

Data mashup apps are used in organizations:

For real-time awareness and data freshness

To feed data to cross-functional dashboards

For competitive analysis

To monitor compliance and manage risk

For disaster monitoring and disaster response

To generate external vendor reports

 

4. Using data mashup apps, nontechnical users can easily and quickly access, integrate, and display BI data from a variety of operational data sources, including those that are not integrated into the existing data warehouse, without having to understand the intricacies of the underlying data infrastructures or schemas.

 

5. Below is a summary of benefits of mashup technology to an enterprise:

Dramatically reduces time and effort needed to combine disparate data sources.

Users can define their own data mashups by combining fields from different data sources that were not previously modeled.

Users can import external data sources, e.g., spreadsheets and competitor data, to create new dashboards.

Enables the building of complex queries by non-experts with a drag-and-drop query-building tool.

Enables agile BI because new data sources can be added to a BI system quickly via direct links to operational data sources, bypassing the need to load them to a data warehouse.

Provides a mechanism to easily customize and share knowledge throughout the company.

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Enterprise Data Mashups Review

What are the functions and uses of enterprise mashups?

Data mashup apps are used in organizations:

For real-time awareness and data freshness

To feed data to cross-functional dashboards

For competitive analysis

To monitor compliance and manage risk

For disaster monitoring and disaster response

To generate external vendor reports

43

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Figure 11.7 illustrates the architecture of an enterprise mashup application.

 

The general architecture of an enterprise mashup application integrates data from operational data stores, business systems, external data (economic data, suppliers, information, competitors’ activities), and real-time news feeds to generate an enterprise mashup.

 

2. Enterprise mashups are combinations of data from various business systems and external sources, often in real time, and without necessarily relying on a middle step of ETL (extract, transform, and load) from a data warehouse.

 

3. Enterprise mashups improve operational efficiency, optimize the sales pipeline, enhance customer satisfaction, and drive profitability. In an enterprise environment, mashups can be used to solve a wide variety of business problems and day-to-day situations. Examples of these types of mashups are:

Customer. A customer data mashup that provides a quick view of customer data for a sales person in preparation for a customer site visit. Data can be pulled from internal data stores and Web sources, such as contact information, links to related websites, recent customer orders, lists of critical situations, and more.

Logistics. A logistics mashup that displays inventory for a group of department stores based on specific criteria. For example, you can mash current storm information onto a map of store locations and then wire the map to inventory data to show which stores located in the path of storms are low on generators.

Human resource. An HR mashup that provides a quick glance at employee data such as profiles, salary, ratings, benefits status, and activities. Data can be filtered to show custom views, for example, products whose average quarterly sales are lower than last quarter.

 

Data mashup apps are used in organizations:

For real-time awareness and data freshness

To feed data to cross-functional dashboards

For competitive analysis

To monitor compliance and manage risk

For disaster monitoring and disaster response

To generate external vendor reports

 

4. Using data mashup apps, nontechnical users can easily and quickly access, integrate, and display BI data from a variety of operational data sources, including those that are not integrated into the existing data warehouse, without having to understand the intricacies of the underlying data infrastructures or schemas.

 

5. Below is a summary of benefits of mashup technology to an enterprise:

Dramatically reduces time and effort needed to combine disparate data sources.

Users can define their own data mashups by combining fields from different data sources that were not previously modeled.

Users can import external data sources, e.g., spreadsheets and competitor data, to create new dashboards.

Enables the building of complex queries by non-experts with a drag-and-drop query-building tool.

Enables agile BI because new data sources can be added to a BI system quickly via direct links to operational data sources, bypassing the need to load them to a data warehouse.

Provides a mechanism to easily customize and share knowledge throughout the company.

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Enterprise Data Mashups Review

Explain why business workers may need data mashup technology.

Using data mashup apps

Nontechnical users can easily and quickly access, integrate, and display BI data from a variety of operational data sources,

Including those that are not integrated into the existing data warehouse

Without having to understand the intricacies of the underlying data infrastructures or schemas

44

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Figure 11.7 illustrates the architecture of an enterprise mashup application.

 

The general architecture of an enterprise mashup application integrates data from operational data stores, business systems, external data (economic data, suppliers, information, competitors’ activities), and real-time news feeds to generate an enterprise mashup.

 

2. Enterprise mashups are combinations of data from various business systems and external sources, often in real time, and without necessarily relying on a middle step of ETL (extract, transform, and load) from a data warehouse.

 

3. Enterprise mashups improve operational efficiency, optimize the sales pipeline, enhance customer satisfaction, and drive profitability. In an enterprise environment, mashups can be used to solve a wide variety of business problems and day-to-day situations. Examples of these types of mashups are:

Customer. A customer data mashup that provides a quick view of customer data for a sales person in preparation for a customer site visit. Data can be pulled from internal data stores and Web sources, such as contact information, links to related websites, recent customer orders, lists of critical situations, and more.

Logistics. A logistics mashup that displays inventory for a group of department stores based on specific criteria. For example, you can mash current storm information onto a map of store locations and then wire the map to inventory data to show which stores located in the path of storms are low on generators.

Human resource. An HR mashup that provides a quick glance at employee data such as profiles, salary, ratings, benefits status, and activities. Data can be filtered to show custom views, for example, products whose average quarterly sales are lower than last quarter.

 

Data mashup apps are used in organizations:

For real-time awareness and data freshness

To feed data to cross-functional dashboards

For competitive analysis

To monitor compliance and manage risk

For disaster monitoring and disaster response

To generate external vendor reports

 

4. Using data mashup apps, nontechnical users can easily and quickly access, integrate, and display BI data from a variety of operational data sources, including those that are not integrated into the existing data warehouse, without having to understand the intricacies of the underlying data infrastructures or schemas.

 

5. Below is a summary of benefits of mashup technology to an enterprise:

Dramatically reduces time and effort needed to combine disparate data sources.

Users can define their own data mashups by combining fields from different data sources that were not previously modeled.

Users can import external data sources, e.g., spreadsheets and competitor data, to create new dashboards.

Enables the building of complex queries by non-experts with a drag-and-drop query-building tool.

Enables agile BI because new data sources can be added to a BI system quickly via direct links to operational data sources, bypassing the need to load them to a data warehouse.

Provides a mechanism to easily customize and share knowledge throughout the company.

44

Enterprise Data Mashups Review

What are some of the benefits of mashup technology to the organization

Dramatically reduces time and effort needed to combine disparate data sources.

Users can define their own data mashups by combining fields from different data sources that were not previously modeled.

Users can import external data sources, e.g., spreadsheets and competitor data, to create new dashboards.

Enables the building of complex queries by non-experts with a drag-and-drop query-building tool.

45

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Figure 11.7 illustrates the architecture of an enterprise mashup application.

 

The general architecture of an enterprise mashup application integrates data from operational data stores, business systems, external data (economic data, suppliers, information, competitors’ activities), and real-time news feeds to generate an enterprise mashup.

 

2. Enterprise mashups are combinations of data from various business systems and external sources, often in real time, and without necessarily relying on a middle step of ETL (extract, transform, and load) from a data warehouse.

 

3. Enterprise mashups improve operational efficiency, optimize the sales pipeline, enhance customer satisfaction, and drive profitability. In an enterprise environment, mashups can be used to solve a wide variety of business problems and day-to-day situations. Examples of these types of mashups are:

Customer. A customer data mashup that provides a quick view of customer data for a sales person in preparation for a customer site visit. Data can be pulled from internal data stores and Web sources, such as contact information, links to related websites, recent customer orders, lists of critical situations, and more.

Logistics. A logistics mashup that displays inventory for a group of department stores based on specific criteria. For example, you can mash current storm information onto a map of store locations and then wire the map to inventory data to show which stores located in the path of storms are low on generators.

Human resource. An HR mashup that provides a quick glance at employee data such as profiles, salary, ratings, benefits status, and activities. Data can be filtered to show custom views, for example, products whose average quarterly sales are lower than last quarter.

 

Data mashup apps are used in organizations:

For real-time awareness and data freshness

To feed data to cross-functional dashboards

For competitive analysis

To monitor compliance and manage risk

For disaster monitoring and disaster response

To generate external vendor reports

 

4. Using data mashup apps, nontechnical users can easily and quickly access, integrate, and display BI data from a variety of operational data sources, including those that are not integrated into the existing data warehouse, without having to understand the intricacies of the underlying data infrastructures or schemas.

 

5. Below is a summary of benefits of mashup technology to an enterprise:

Dramatically reduces time and effort needed to combine disparate data sources.

Users can define their own data mashups by combining fields from different data sources that were not previously modeled.

Users can import external data sources, e.g., spreadsheets and competitor data, to create new dashboards.

Enables the building of complex queries by non-experts with a drag-and-drop query-building tool.

Enables agile BI because new data sources can be added to a BI system quickly via direct links to operational data sources, bypassing the need to load them to a data warehouse.

Provides a mechanism to easily customize and share knowledge throughout the company.

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Enterprise Data Mashups Review

What are some of the benefits of mashup technology to the organization

Enables agile BI because new data sources can be added to a BI system quickly

Via direct links to operational data sources

Bypassing the need to load them to a data warehouse.

Provides a mechanism to easily customize and share knowledge throughout the company.

46

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Figure 11.7 illustrates the architecture of an enterprise mashup application.

 

The general architecture of an enterprise mashup application integrates data from operational data stores, business systems, external data (economic data, suppliers, information, competitors’ activities), and real-time news feeds to generate an enterprise mashup.

 

2. Enterprise mashups are combinations of data from various business systems and external sources, often in real time, and without necessarily relying on a middle step of ETL (extract, transform, and load) from a data warehouse.

 

3. Enterprise mashups improve operational efficiency, optimize the sales pipeline, enhance customer satisfaction, and drive profitability. In an enterprise environment, mashups can be used to solve a wide variety of business problems and day-to-day situations. Examples of these types of mashups are:

Customer. A customer data mashup that provides a quick view of customer data for a sales person in preparation for a customer site visit. Data can be pulled from internal data stores and Web sources, such as contact information, links to related websites, recent customer orders, lists of critical situations, and more.

Logistics. A logistics mashup that displays inventory for a group of department stores based on specific criteria. For example, you can mash current storm information onto a map of store locations and then wire the map to inventory data to show which stores located in the path of storms are low on generators.

Human resource. An HR mashup that provides a quick glance at employee data such as profiles, salary, ratings, benefits status, and activities. Data can be filtered to show custom views, for example, products whose average quarterly sales are lower than last quarter.

 

Data mashup apps are used in organizations:

For real-time awareness and data freshness

To feed data to cross-functional dashboards

For competitive analysis

To monitor compliance and manage risk

For disaster monitoring and disaster response

To generate external vendor reports

 

4. Using data mashup apps, nontechnical users can easily and quickly access, integrate, and display BI data from a variety of operational data sources, including those that are not integrated into the existing data warehouse, without having to understand the intricacies of the underlying data infrastructures or schemas.

 

5. Below is a summary of benefits of mashup technology to an enterprise:

Dramatically reduces time and effort needed to combine disparate data sources.

Users can define their own data mashups by combining fields from different data sources that were not previously modeled.

Users can import external data sources, e.g., spreadsheets and competitor data, to create new dashboards.

Enables the building of complex queries by non-experts with a drag-and-drop query-building tool.

Enables agile BI because new data sources can be added to a BI system quickly via direct links to operational data sources, bypassing the need to load them to a data warehouse.

Provides a mechanism to easily customize and share knowledge throughout the company.

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What are Enterprise systems?

Enterprise Systems: An Introduction

Large organizations often used different information systems to serve different business functions such as:

Sales

Marketing

Production

Manufacturing

These systems were separate and did not communicate with each other

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Enterprise Systems: An Introduction

Because the business processes in each business function were disparate and not capable of sharing information with each other

It was difficult for the managers to assemble the data fragmented into separate systems to present an overall picture of the organization’s operations and take firm-wide decisions

B y way of example

When a customer placed an order

The salesperson might not be able to tell them whether the desired items are in inventory or are to be produced

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Enterprise Systems: An Introduction

To overcome such difficulties many organizations have opted to replace several distinct information systems with a single integrated system

Such a system can support business activities for different business functions

These systems are called enterprise systems.

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Enterprise Systems: An Introduction

An Enterprise System is a large-scale application software package that supports business processes, information flows, reporting, and data analytics in complex organizations.

Four Types of Enterprise Systems:

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)

Supply Chain Management (SCM)

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

Enterprise Social Platforms

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Enterprise Systems: Challenges

Complexity from incorporating different organizational facets

Time-consuming coordinating an enterprise integration

Typically requires consulting, vendor, or value-added reseller (VAR) assistance

Difficult to get new modules to interface with legacy systems

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Enterprise Systems: Best Practices

Redesign of business processes through simplification and redesign so that they can be automated, either totally or partially, or removed.

Changes in how people perform their jobs or accommodate the new processes.

Integration of many types of information systems so that data can flow seamlessly among departments and business partners.

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Enterprise Systems: Insights

Provide and support applications that enable workers to access, use, and understand data

Enable companies to use data about buying behaviors and help identify its loyal customers and which ones are profitable

Improved communication and integration among firms in a global supply chain justifies billions invested in ERP systems

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Enterprise Resource Planning Systems Past

Integrating accounting, finance, HR, marketing, and other critical business functions

Originally run on client-server architecture and customer-designed apps

Now web-based with a focus on social collaboration, deployment flexibility, faster response, and accessibility from mobile devices

An enterprise application integration (EAI) layer enables the ERP to interface with legacy apps

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Enterprise Resource Planning Selection

Select an ERP solution that targets the company’s requirements

Evaluation potential ERP vendors’ strengths and weaknesses

Meet with each vendor and get a hands-on demo of its ERP solutions

Calculate the ERP’s total cost of ownership (TCO)

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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How to Choose an ERP Solution

Enterprise Resource Planning Failures

ERP Failure Factors

Cost misrepresentation

Unrealistic implementation timeframes

Software-license issues

50-70% of ERP projects fail due to one or more of these factors.

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Enterprise Resource Planning Failures

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How to Avoid Digital Transformation and ERP Failure

Enterprise Resource Planning Success

Focus on business processes and requirements

Focus on achieving a measurable ROI

Use a strong project management approach and secure commitment of resources

Obtain strong and continuing commitment from senior executives

Take sufficient time to plan an prepare up-front

Provide thorough training and change management

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Learning Objectives (3 of 4)

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Digital Dashboards

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What is a Dashboard?

Digital Dashboards

A style of reporting that depicts KPIs, operational or strategic information with intuitive and interactive displays.

Custom programmed to automatically and securely pull, analyze, and display data from enterprise systems, cloud apps, data feeds, and external sources and then display the metrics.

Components of dashboards are:

Design

Performance metrics

API

Access

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Dashboard Functions

Dashboard Functions

Displays performance metrics for company functions

Eliminates need to log into multiple applications to view business performance

Examples of Financial Metrics:

Net income

Cash Balance, Aactual vs. Expected

Profit, current month projection

Changes in A/R and A/P

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Dashboards are Real Time (1 of 2)

Having real-time, or near-real-time, data is essential to keep users aware of any meaningful changes in the metrics as they occur and to provide information for making decisions in real time.

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Dashboards are Real Time (2 of 2)

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Look & Learn – Viewing dashboards

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Digital Dashboard Benefits

Visibility: blind spots are minimized or eliminated; Threats and opportunities are detected as soon as possible.

Continuous improvement: custom designed to display the user’s critical metrics and measures.

Single sign on: save time and effort logging onto numerous corporate information systems.

Budget or planning deviations: metrics can be programmed to display deviations from targets.

Accountability: employees tend to be motivated to improve their performance when tracked.

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Digital Dashboards Review

Describe business dashboards and their functions

Digital dashboards pull data from disparate data sources and feeds to report KPIs and operational or strategic information on intuitive dashboards and interactive displays

An executive dashboard displays a company’s performance metrics

Which are automatically updated in real time based on custom programming and connectivity with existing business systems

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. The journey that a product travels, starting with raw material suppliers, to manufacturers or assemblers, then distributors and retail sales shelves, and ultimately to customers is its supply chain. Supply chain starts with the acquisition of raw materials or the procurement (purchase) of products and proceeds through manufacture, transport, and delivery—and the disposal or recycling of products.

 

2. The supply chain is like a pipeline composed of multiple suppliers, distributors, manufacturers, retailers, and logistics providers that:

purchase (procurement) raw materials or products

transform materials (i.e., manufacture, service) into intermediate or finished products

transport and deliver finished products to retailers or customers, and

dispose or recycle product

 

3. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. Descriptions of these three main flows are:

Material or product flow: This is the movement of materials and goods from a supplier to its consumer. For example, Ford supplies dealerships that, in turn, sell to end-users. Products that are returned make up what is called the reverse supply chain because goods are moving in the reverse direction.

Information flow: This is the movement of detailed data among members of the supply chain, for example, order information, customer information, order fulfillment, delivery status, and proof-of-delivery confirmation. Most information flows are done electronically, although paper invoices or receipts are still common for non-commercial customers.

Financial flow: This is the transfer of payments and financial arrangements, for example, billing payment schedules, credit terms, and payment via electronic funds transfer (EFT). EFT provides for electronic payments and collections. It is safe, secure, efficient, and less expensive than paper check payments and collections.

 

4. Supply chain management (SCM) is the efficient management of the flows of material, data, and payments along the companies in the supply chain, from suppliers to consumers. SCM systems are configured to achieve the following business goals:

To reduce uncertainty and variability in order to improve the accuracy of forecasting

To increase control over the processes in order to achieve optimal inventory levels, cycle time, and customer service.

 

5. Step 1: Make sure the customer will pay. Depending on the payment method and prior arrangements with the customer, verify that the customer can and will pay, and agrees to the payment terms. This activity is done by the finance department for B2B sales or an external company, such as PayPal or a credit card issuer such as Visa for B2C sales. Any holdup in payment may cause a shipment to be delayed, resulting in a loss of goodwill or a customer. In B2C, the customers usually pay by credit card, but with major credit card data theft at Target and other retailers, the buyer may be using a stolen card.

Step 2: Check in-stock availability and reorder as necessary. As soon as an order is received, the stock is checked to determine the availability of the product or materials. If there is not enough stock, the ordering system places an order, typically automatically using EDI (electronic data interchange). To perform these operations, the ordering system needs to interface with the inventory system.

Step 3: Arrange shipments. When the product is available, shipment to the customer is arranged (otherwise, go to Step 5). Products can be digital or physical. If the item is physical and available, packaging and shipment arrangements are made. Both the packaging/shipping department and internal shippers or outside transporters may be involved. Digital items are usually available because their “inventory” is not depleted. However, a digital product, such as software, may be under revision, and thus unavailable for delivery at certain times. In either case, information needs to flow among several partners.

Step 4: Insurance. The contents of a shipment may need to be insured. Both the finance department and an insurance company could be involved, and again, information needs to be exchanged with the customer and insurance agent.

Step 5: Replenishment. Customized orders will always trigger a need for some manufacturing or assembly operation. Similarly, if standard items are out of stock, they need to be produced or procured. Production is done in-house or outsourced.

Step 6: In-house production. In-house production needs to be planned and actual production needs to be scheduled. Production planning involves people, materials, components, machines, financial resources, and possibly suppliers and subcontractors. In the case of assembly and/or manufacturing, several plant services may be needed, including collaboration with business partners. Production facilities may be located in a different country than the company’s headquarters or retailers. This may further complicate the flow of information.

Step 7: Use suppliers. A manufacturer may opt to buy products or subassemblies from suppliers. Similarly, if the seller is a retailer, such as in the case of Amazon. com or Walmart.com, the retailer must purchase products from its manufacturers. In this case, appropriate receiving and quality assurance of incoming materials and products must take place.

Once production (Step 6) or purchasing from suppliers (Step 7) is completed, shipments to the customers (Step 3) are arranged.

Step 8: Contacts with customers. Sales representatives keep in contact with customers, especially in B2B, starting with the notification of orders received and ending with notification of a shipment or change in delivery date. These contacts are frequently generated automatically.

Step 9: Returns. In some cases, customers want to exchange or return items. The movement of returns from customers back to vendors is reverse logistics. Such returns can be a major problem, especially when they occur in large volumes.

 

6. Logistics entails all the processes and information needed to move products from origin to destination efficiently. The order fulfillment process is part of logistics.

7. The top two strategic priorities of executives are supply chain analytics and multichannel fulfillment.

 

8. The two major barriers preventing innovation in the supply chain are a talent shortage and a continuing focus on cost reduction.

 

9. The top innovative digital technologies impacting SCM are: Robotics and automation, Inventory and Network Optimization Tools, Sensors and automatic identification, Predictive Analytics,

Wearables and mobile technology, Driverless vehicles and drones, Cloud computing and storage, 3D printing

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Digital Dashboards Review

Describe business dashboards and their functions

Dashboards improve the information synthesis process by:

Bringing in multiple, disparate data feeds and sources, extracting features of interest

Manipulating the data so the information is in a more accessible format

Users no longer need to log into multiple applications to see how the business is performing

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Suggested Answers:

1. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. The journey that a product travels, starting with raw material suppliers, to manufacturers or assemblers, then distributors and retail sales shelves, and ultimately to customers is its supply chain. Supply chain starts with the acquisition of raw materials or the procurement (purchase) of products and proceeds through manufacture, transport, and delivery—and the disposal or recycling of products.

 

2. The supply chain is like a pipeline composed of multiple suppliers, distributors, manufacturers, retailers, and logistics providers that:

purchase (procurement) raw materials or products

transform materials (i.e., manufacture, service) into intermediate or finished products

transport and deliver finished products to retailers or customers, and

dispose or recycle product

 

3. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. Descriptions of these three main flows are:

Material or product flow: This is the movement of materials and goods from a supplier to its consumer. For example, Ford supplies dealerships that, in turn, sell to end-users. Products that are returned make up what is called the reverse supply chain because goods are moving in the reverse direction.

Information flow: This is the movement of detailed data among members of the supply chain, for example, order information, customer information, order fulfillment, delivery status, and proof-of-delivery confirmation. Most information flows are done electronically, although paper invoices or receipts are still common for non-commercial customers.

Financial flow: This is the transfer of payments and financial arrangements, for example, billing payment schedules, credit terms, and payment via electronic funds transfer (EFT). EFT provides for electronic payments and collections. It is safe, secure, efficient, and less expensive than paper check payments and collections.

 

4. Supply chain management (SCM) is the efficient management of the flows of material, data, and payments along the companies in the supply chain, from suppliers to consumers. SCM systems are configured to achieve the following business goals:

To reduce uncertainty and variability in order to improve the accuracy of forecasting

To increase control over the processes in order to achieve optimal inventory levels, cycle time, and customer service.

 

5. Step 1: Make sure the customer will pay. Depending on the payment method and prior arrangements with the customer, verify that the customer can and will pay, and agrees to the payment terms. This activity is done by the finance department for B2B sales or an external company, such as PayPal or a credit card issuer such as Visa for B2C sales. Any holdup in payment may cause a shipment to be delayed, resulting in a loss of goodwill or a customer. In B2C, the customers usually pay by credit card, but with major credit card data theft at Target and other retailers, the buyer may be using a stolen card.

Step 2: Check in-stock availability and reorder as necessary. As soon as an order is received, the stock is checked to determine the availability of the product or materials. If there is not enough stock, the ordering system places an order, typically automatically using EDI (electronic data interchange). To perform these operations, the ordering system needs to interface with the inventory system.

Step 3: Arrange shipments. When the product is available, shipment to the customer is arranged (otherwise, go to Step 5). Products can be digital or physical. If the item is physical and available, packaging and shipment arrangements are made. Both the packaging/shipping department and internal shippers or outside transporters may be involved. Digital items are usually available because their “inventory” is not depleted. However, a digital product, such as software, may be under revision, and thus unavailable for delivery at certain times. In either case, information needs to flow among several partners.

Step 4: Insurance. The contents of a shipment may need to be insured. Both the finance department and an insurance company could be involved, and again, information needs to be exchanged with the customer and insurance agent.

Step 5: Replenishment. Customized orders will always trigger a need for some manufacturing or assembly operation. Similarly, if standard items are out of stock, they need to be produced or procured. Production is done in-house or outsourced.

Step 6: In-house production. In-house production needs to be planned and actual production needs to be scheduled. Production planning involves people, materials, components, machines, financial resources, and possibly suppliers and subcontractors. In the case of assembly and/or manufacturing, several plant services may be needed, including collaboration with business partners. Production facilities may be located in a different country than the company’s headquarters or retailers. This may further complicate the flow of information.

Step 7: Use suppliers. A manufacturer may opt to buy products or subassemblies from suppliers. Similarly, if the seller is a retailer, such as in the case of Amazon. com or Walmart.com, the retailer must purchase products from its manufacturers. In this case, appropriate receiving and quality assurance of incoming materials and products must take place.

Once production (Step 6) or purchasing from suppliers (Step 7) is completed, shipments to the customers (Step 3) are arranged.

Step 8: Contacts with customers. Sales representatives keep in contact with customers, especially in B2B, starting with the notification of orders received and ending with notification of a shipment or change in delivery date. These contacts are frequently generated automatically.

Step 9: Returns. In some cases, customers want to exchange or return items. The movement of returns from customers back to vendors is reverse logistics. Such returns can be a major problem, especially when they occur in large volumes.

 

6. Logistics entails all the processes and information needed to move products from origin to destination efficiently. The order fulfillment process is part of logistics.

7. The top two strategic priorities of executives are supply chain analytics and multichannel fulfillment.

 

8. The two major barriers preventing innovation in the supply chain are a talent shortage and a continuing focus on cost reduction.

 

9. The top innovative digital technologies impacting SCM are: Robotics and automation, Inventory and Network Optimization Tools, Sensors and automatic identification, Predictive Analytics,

Wearables and mobile technology, Driverless vehicles and drones, Cloud computing and storage, 3D printing

70

Digital Dashboards Review

Why do you think dashboards must be in real time and customized for the executive or manager?

The purpose of dashboards is to give users a clear view of the current state of KPIs, real time alerts, and other metrics about operations

Having real time, or near real time, data is essential

This keeps users aware of any meaningful changes in the metrics as they occur

It provides information for making decisions in real time

As a result, users can take corrective actions promptly.

71

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. The journey that a product travels, starting with raw material suppliers, to manufacturers or assemblers, then distributors and retail sales shelves, and ultimately to customers is its supply chain. Supply chain starts with the acquisition of raw materials or the procurement (purchase) of products and proceeds through manufacture, transport, and delivery—and the disposal or recycling of products.

 

2. The supply chain is like a pipeline composed of multiple suppliers, distributors, manufacturers, retailers, and logistics providers that:

purchase (procurement) raw materials or products

transform materials (i.e., manufacture, service) into intermediate or finished products

transport and deliver finished products to retailers or customers, and

dispose or recycle product

 

3. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. Descriptions of these three main flows are:

Material or product flow: This is the movement of materials and goods from a supplier to its consumer. For example, Ford supplies dealerships that, in turn, sell to end-users. Products that are returned make up what is called the reverse supply chain because goods are moving in the reverse direction.

Information flow: This is the movement of detailed data among members of the supply chain, for example, order information, customer information, order fulfillment, delivery status, and proof-of-delivery confirmation. Most information flows are done electronically, although paper invoices or receipts are still common for non-commercial customers.

Financial flow: This is the transfer of payments and financial arrangements, for example, billing payment schedules, credit terms, and payment via electronic funds transfer (EFT). EFT provides for electronic payments and collections. It is safe, secure, efficient, and less expensive than paper check payments and collections.

 

4. Supply chain management (SCM) is the efficient management of the flows of material, data, and payments along the companies in the supply chain, from suppliers to consumers. SCM systems are configured to achieve the following business goals:

To reduce uncertainty and variability in order to improve the accuracy of forecasting

To increase control over the processes in order to achieve optimal inventory levels, cycle time, and customer service.

 

5. Step 1: Make sure the customer will pay. Depending on the payment method and prior arrangements with the customer, verify that the customer can and will pay, and agrees to the payment terms. This activity is done by the finance department for B2B sales or an external company, such as PayPal or a credit card issuer such as Visa for B2C sales. Any holdup in payment may cause a shipment to be delayed, resulting in a loss of goodwill or a customer. In B2C, the customers usually pay by credit card, but with major credit card data theft at Target and other retailers, the buyer may be using a stolen card.

Step 2: Check in-stock availability and reorder as necessary. As soon as an order is received, the stock is checked to determine the availability of the product or materials. If there is not enough stock, the ordering system places an order, typically automatically using EDI (electronic data interchange). To perform these operations, the ordering system needs to interface with the inventory system.

Step 3: Arrange shipments. When the product is available, shipment to the customer is arranged (otherwise, go to Step 5). Products can be digital or physical. If the item is physical and available, packaging and shipment arrangements are made. Both the packaging/shipping department and internal shippers or outside transporters may be involved. Digital items are usually available because their “inventory” is not depleted. However, a digital product, such as software, may be under revision, and thus unavailable for delivery at certain times. In either case, information needs to flow among several partners.

Step 4: Insurance. The contents of a shipment may need to be insured. Both the finance department and an insurance company could be involved, and again, information needs to be exchanged with the customer and insurance agent.

Step 5: Replenishment. Customized orders will always trigger a need for some manufacturing or assembly operation. Similarly, if standard items are out of stock, they need to be produced or procured. Production is done in-house or outsourced.

Step 6: In-house production. In-house production needs to be planned and actual production needs to be scheduled. Production planning involves people, materials, components, machines, financial resources, and possibly suppliers and subcontractors. In the case of assembly and/or manufacturing, several plant services may be needed, including collaboration with business partners. Production facilities may be located in a different country than the company’s headquarters or retailers. This may further complicate the flow of information.

Step 7: Use suppliers. A manufacturer may opt to buy products or subassemblies from suppliers. Similarly, if the seller is a retailer, such as in the case of Amazon. com or Walmart.com, the retailer must purchase products from its manufacturers. In this case, appropriate receiving and quality assurance of incoming materials and products must take place.

Once production (Step 6) or purchasing from suppliers (Step 7) is completed, shipments to the customers (Step 3) are arranged.

Step 8: Contacts with customers. Sales representatives keep in contact with customers, especially in B2B, starting with the notification of orders received and ending with notification of a shipment or change in delivery date. These contacts are frequently generated automatically.

Step 9: Returns. In some cases, customers want to exchange or return items. The movement of returns from customers back to vendors is reverse logistics. Such returns can be a major problem, especially when they occur in large volumes.

 

6. Logistics entails all the processes and information needed to move products from origin to destination efficiently. The order fulfillment process is part of logistics.

7. The top two strategic priorities of executives are supply chain analytics and multichannel fulfillment.

 

8. The two major barriers preventing innovation in the supply chain are a talent shortage and a continuing focus on cost reduction.

 

9. The top innovative digital technologies impacting SCM are: Robotics and automation, Inventory and Network Optimization Tools, Sensors and automatic identification, Predictive Analytics,

Wearables and mobile technology, Driverless vehicles and drones, Cloud computing and storage, 3D printing

71

Digital Dashboards Review

Why do you think dashboards must be in real time and customized for the executive or manager?

Dashboard design is a critical factor because:

Business users need to be able to understand the significance of the dashboard information at a glance

They also need the capability to drill down to one or more levels of detail

72

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. The journey that a product travels, starting with raw material suppliers, to manufacturers or assemblers, then distributors and retail sales shelves, and ultimately to customers is its supply chain. Supply chain starts with the acquisition of raw materials or the procurement (purchase) of products and proceeds through manufacture, transport, and delivery—and the disposal or recycling of products.

 

2. The supply chain is like a pipeline composed of multiple suppliers, distributors, manufacturers, retailers, and logistics providers that:

purchase (procurement) raw materials or products

transform materials (i.e., manufacture, service) into intermediate or finished products

transport and deliver finished products to retailers or customers, and

dispose or recycle product

 

3. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. Descriptions of these three main flows are:

Material or product flow: This is the movement of materials and goods from a supplier to its consumer. For example, Ford supplies dealerships that, in turn, sell to end-users. Products that are returned make up what is called the reverse supply chain because goods are moving in the reverse direction.

Information flow: This is the movement of detailed data among members of the supply chain, for example, order information, customer information, order fulfillment, delivery status, and proof-of-delivery confirmation. Most information flows are done electronically, although paper invoices or receipts are still common for non-commercial customers.

Financial flow: This is the transfer of payments and financial arrangements, for example, billing payment schedules, credit terms, and payment via electronic funds transfer (EFT). EFT provides for electronic payments and collections. It is safe, secure, efficient, and less expensive than paper check payments and collections.

 

4. Supply chain management (SCM) is the efficient management of the flows of material, data, and payments along the companies in the supply chain, from suppliers to consumers. SCM systems are configured to achieve the following business goals:

To reduce uncertainty and variability in order to improve the accuracy of forecasting

To increase control over the processes in order to achieve optimal inventory levels, cycle time, and customer service.

 

5. Step 1: Make sure the customer will pay. Depending on the payment method and prior arrangements with the customer, verify that the customer can and will pay, and agrees to the payment terms. This activity is done by the finance department for B2B sales or an external company, such as PayPal or a credit card issuer such as Visa for B2C sales. Any holdup in payment may cause a shipment to be delayed, resulting in a loss of goodwill or a customer. In B2C, the customers usually pay by credit card, but with major credit card data theft at Target and other retailers, the buyer may be using a stolen card.

Step 2: Check in-stock availability and reorder as necessary. As soon as an order is received, the stock is checked to determine the availability of the product or materials. If there is not enough stock, the ordering system places an order, typically automatically using EDI (electronic data interchange). To perform these operations, the ordering system needs to interface with the inventory system.

Step 3: Arrange shipments. When the product is available, shipment to the customer is arranged (otherwise, go to Step 5). Products can be digital or physical. If the item is physical and available, packaging and shipment arrangements are made. Both the packaging/shipping department and internal shippers or outside transporters may be involved. Digital items are usually available because their “inventory” is not depleted. However, a digital product, such as software, may be under revision, and thus unavailable for delivery at certain times. In either case, information needs to flow among several partners.

Step 4: Insurance. The contents of a shipment may need to be insured. Both the finance department and an insurance company could be involved, and again, information needs to be exchanged with the customer and insurance agent.

Step 5: Replenishment. Customized orders will always trigger a need for some manufacturing or assembly operation. Similarly, if standard items are out of stock, they need to be produced or procured. Production is done in-house or outsourced.

Step 6: In-house production. In-house production needs to be planned and actual production needs to be scheduled. Production planning involves people, materials, components, machines, financial resources, and possibly suppliers and subcontractors. In the case of assembly and/or manufacturing, several plant services may be needed, including collaboration with business partners. Production facilities may be located in a different country than the company’s headquarters or retailers. This may further complicate the flow of information.

Step 7: Use suppliers. A manufacturer may opt to buy products or subassemblies from suppliers. Similarly, if the seller is a retailer, such as in the case of Amazon. com or Walmart.com, the retailer must purchase products from its manufacturers. In this case, appropriate receiving and quality assurance of incoming materials and products must take place.

Once production (Step 6) or purchasing from suppliers (Step 7) is completed, shipments to the customers (Step 3) are arranged.

Step 8: Contacts with customers. Sales representatives keep in contact with customers, especially in B2B, starting with the notification of orders received and ending with notification of a shipment or change in delivery date. These contacts are frequently generated automatically.

Step 9: Returns. In some cases, customers want to exchange or return items. The movement of returns from customers back to vendors is reverse logistics. Such returns can be a major problem, especially when they occur in large volumes.

 

6. Logistics entails all the processes and information needed to move products from origin to destination efficiently. The order fulfillment process is part of logistics.

7. The top two strategic priorities of executives are supply chain analytics and multichannel fulfillment.

 

8. The two major barriers preventing innovation in the supply chain are a talent shortage and a continuing focus on cost reduction.

 

9. The top innovative digital technologies impacting SCM are: Robotics and automation, Inventory and Network Optimization Tools, Sensors and automatic identification, Predictive Analytics,

Wearables and mobile technology, Driverless vehicles and drones, Cloud computing and storage, 3D printing

72

Digital Dashboards Review

How do business dashboards differ from other types of visual reports?

Dashboards are often mistakenly thought of as reports consisting of various gauges, charts, and dials

But the purpose of business dashboards is much more specific and directed

The purpose of dashboards is to give users a clear view of the current state of KPIs, real time alerts, and other metrics about operations

Having real time, or near real time, data is essential to keep users aware of any meaningful changes in the metrics as they occur and to provide information for making decisions in real time

73

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. The journey that a product travels, starting with raw material suppliers, to manufacturers or assemblers, then distributors and retail sales shelves, and ultimately to customers is its supply chain. Supply chain starts with the acquisition of raw materials or the procurement (purchase) of products and proceeds through manufacture, transport, and delivery—and the disposal or recycling of products.

 

2. The supply chain is like a pipeline composed of multiple suppliers, distributors, manufacturers, retailers, and logistics providers that:

purchase (procurement) raw materials or products

transform materials (i.e., manufacture, service) into intermediate or finished products

transport and deliver finished products to retailers or customers, and

dispose or recycle product

 

3. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. Descriptions of these three main flows are:

Material or product flow: This is the movement of materials and goods from a supplier to its consumer. For example, Ford supplies dealerships that, in turn, sell to end-users. Products that are returned make up what is called the reverse supply chain because goods are moving in the reverse direction.

Information flow: This is the movement of detailed data among members of the supply chain, for example, order information, customer information, order fulfillment, delivery status, and proof-of-delivery confirmation. Most information flows are done electronically, although paper invoices or receipts are still common for non-commercial customers.

Financial flow: This is the transfer of payments and financial arrangements, for example, billing payment schedules, credit terms, and payment via electronic funds transfer (EFT). EFT provides for electronic payments and collections. It is safe, secure, efficient, and less expensive than paper check payments and collections.

 

4. Supply chain management (SCM) is the efficient management of the flows of material, data, and payments along the companies in the supply chain, from suppliers to consumers. SCM systems are configured to achieve the following business goals:

To reduce uncertainty and variability in order to improve the accuracy of forecasting

To increase control over the processes in order to achieve optimal inventory levels, cycle time, and customer service.

 

5. Step 1: Make sure the customer will pay. Depending on the payment method and prior arrangements with the customer, verify that the customer can and will pay, and agrees to the payment terms. This activity is done by the finance department for B2B sales or an external company, such as PayPal or a credit card issuer such as Visa for B2C sales. Any holdup in payment may cause a shipment to be delayed, resulting in a loss of goodwill or a customer. In B2C, the customers usually pay by credit card, but with major credit card data theft at Target and other retailers, the buyer may be using a stolen card.

Step 2: Check in-stock availability and reorder as necessary. As soon as an order is received, the stock is checked to determine the availability of the product or materials. If there is not enough stock, the ordering system places an order, typically automatically using EDI (electronic data interchange). To perform these operations, the ordering system needs to interface with the inventory system.

Step 3: Arrange shipments. When the product is available, shipment to the customer is arranged (otherwise, go to Step 5). Products can be digital or physical. If the item is physical and available, packaging and shipment arrangements are made. Both the packaging/shipping department and internal shippers or outside transporters may be involved. Digital items are usually available because their “inventory” is not depleted. However, a digital product, such as software, may be under revision, and thus unavailable for delivery at certain times. In either case, information needs to flow among several partners.

Step 4: Insurance. The contents of a shipment may need to be insured. Both the finance department and an insurance company could be involved, and again, information needs to be exchanged with the customer and insurance agent.

Step 5: Replenishment. Customized orders will always trigger a need for some manufacturing or assembly operation. Similarly, if standard items are out of stock, they need to be produced or procured. Production is done in-house or outsourced.

Step 6: In-house production. In-house production needs to be planned and actual production needs to be scheduled. Production planning involves people, materials, components, machines, financial resources, and possibly suppliers and subcontractors. In the case of assembly and/or manufacturing, several plant services may be needed, including collaboration with business partners. Production facilities may be located in a different country than the company’s headquarters or retailers. This may further complicate the flow of information.

Step 7: Use suppliers. A manufacturer may opt to buy products or subassemblies from suppliers. Similarly, if the seller is a retailer, such as in the case of Amazon. com or Walmart.com, the retailer must purchase products from its manufacturers. In this case, appropriate receiving and quality assurance of incoming materials and products must take place.

Once production (Step 6) or purchasing from suppliers (Step 7) is completed, shipments to the customers (Step 3) are arranged.

Step 8: Contacts with customers. Sales representatives keep in contact with customers, especially in B2B, starting with the notification of orders received and ending with notification of a shipment or change in delivery date. These contacts are frequently generated automatically.

Step 9: Returns. In some cases, customers want to exchange or return items. The movement of returns from customers back to vendors is reverse logistics. Such returns can be a major problem, especially when they occur in large volumes.

 

6. Logistics entails all the processes and information needed to move products from origin to destination efficiently. The order fulfillment process is part of logistics.

7. The top two strategic priorities of executives are supply chain analytics and multichannel fulfillment.

 

8. The two major barriers preventing innovation in the supply chain are a talent shortage and a continuing focus on cost reduction.

 

9. The top innovative digital technologies impacting SCM are: Robotics and automation, Inventory and Network Optimization Tools, Sensors and automatic identification, Predictive Analytics,

Wearables and mobile technology, Driverless vehicles and drones, Cloud computing and storage, 3D printing

73

Digital Dashboards Review

Explain the components of dashboards

Design

The visualization techniques and descriptive captions to convey information so that they are correctly understood

Infographics are widely used because they convey information in interesting and informative designs.

Performance metrics

KPIs and other real time content displayed on the dashboard

All dashboard data should reflect the current value of each metric.

74

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. The journey that a product travels, starting with raw material suppliers, to manufacturers or assemblers, then distributors and retail sales shelves, and ultimately to customers is its supply chain. Supply chain starts with the acquisition of raw materials or the procurement (purchase) of products and proceeds through manufacture, transport, and delivery—and the disposal or recycling of products.

 

2. The supply chain is like a pipeline composed of multiple suppliers, distributors, manufacturers, retailers, and logistics providers that:

purchase (procurement) raw materials or products

transform materials (i.e., manufacture, service) into intermediate or finished products

transport and deliver finished products to retailers or customers, and

dispose or recycle product

 

3. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. Descriptions of these three main flows are:

Material or product flow: This is the movement of materials and goods from a supplier to its consumer. For example, Ford supplies dealerships that, in turn, sell to end-users. Products that are returned make up what is called the reverse supply chain because goods are moving in the reverse direction.

Information flow: This is the movement of detailed data among members of the supply chain, for example, order information, customer information, order fulfillment, delivery status, and proof-of-delivery confirmation. Most information flows are done electronically, although paper invoices or receipts are still common for non-commercial customers.

Financial flow: This is the transfer of payments and financial arrangements, for example, billing payment schedules, credit terms, and payment via electronic funds transfer (EFT). EFT provides for electronic payments and collections. It is safe, secure, efficient, and less expensive than paper check payments and collections.

 

4. Supply chain management (SCM) is the efficient management of the flows of material, data, and payments along the companies in the supply chain, from suppliers to consumers. SCM systems are configured to achieve the following business goals:

To reduce uncertainty and variability in order to improve the accuracy of forecasting

To increase control over the processes in order to achieve optimal inventory levels, cycle time, and customer service.

 

5. Step 1: Make sure the customer will pay. Depending on the payment method and prior arrangements with the customer, verify that the customer can and will pay, and agrees to the payment terms. This activity is done by the finance department for B2B sales or an external company, such as PayPal or a credit card issuer such as Visa for B2C sales. Any holdup in payment may cause a shipment to be delayed, resulting in a loss of goodwill or a customer. In B2C, the customers usually pay by credit card, but with major credit card data theft at Target and other retailers, the buyer may be using a stolen card.

Step 2: Check in-stock availability and reorder as necessary. As soon as an order is received, the stock is checked to determine the availability of the product or materials. If there is not enough stock, the ordering system places an order, typically automatically using EDI (electronic data interchange). To perform these operations, the ordering system needs to interface with the inventory system.

Step 3: Arrange shipments. When the product is available, shipment to the customer is arranged (otherwise, go to Step 5). Products can be digital or physical. If the item is physical and available, packaging and shipment arrangements are made. Both the packaging/shipping department and internal shippers or outside transporters may be involved. Digital items are usually available because their “inventory” is not depleted. However, a digital product, such as software, may be under revision, and thus unavailable for delivery at certain times. In either case, information needs to flow among several partners.

Step 4: Insurance. The contents of a shipment may need to be insured. Both the finance department and an insurance company could be involved, and again, information needs to be exchanged with the customer and insurance agent.

Step 5: Replenishment. Customized orders will always trigger a need for some manufacturing or assembly operation. Similarly, if standard items are out of stock, they need to be produced or procured. Production is done in-house or outsourced.

Step 6: In-house production. In-house production needs to be planned and actual production needs to be scheduled. Production planning involves people, materials, components, machines, financial resources, and possibly suppliers and subcontractors. In the case of assembly and/or manufacturing, several plant services may be needed, including collaboration with business partners. Production facilities may be located in a different country than the company’s headquarters or retailers. This may further complicate the flow of information.

Step 7: Use suppliers. A manufacturer may opt to buy products or subassemblies from suppliers. Similarly, if the seller is a retailer, such as in the case of Amazon. com or Walmart.com, the retailer must purchase products from its manufacturers. In this case, appropriate receiving and quality assurance of incoming materials and products must take place.

Once production (Step 6) or purchasing from suppliers (Step 7) is completed, shipments to the customers (Step 3) are arranged.

Step 8: Contacts with customers. Sales representatives keep in contact with customers, especially in B2B, starting with the notification of orders received and ending with notification of a shipment or change in delivery date. These contacts are frequently generated automatically.

Step 9: Returns. In some cases, customers want to exchange or return items. The movement of returns from customers back to vendors is reverse logistics. Such returns can be a major problem, especially when they occur in large volumes.

 

6. Logistics entails all the processes and information needed to move products from origin to destination efficiently. The order fulfillment process is part of logistics.

7. The top two strategic priorities of executives are supply chain analytics and multichannel fulfillment.

 

8. The two major barriers preventing innovation in the supply chain are a talent shortage and a continuing focus on cost reduction.

 

9. The top innovative digital technologies impacting SCM are: Robotics and automation, Inventory and Network Optimization Tools, Sensors and automatic identification, Predictive Analytics,

Wearables and mobile technology, Driverless vehicles and drones, Cloud computing and storage, 3D printing

74

Digital Dashboards Review

API

APIs (application programming interfaces) connect disparate data sources and feeds to display on the dashboard

The alternative is for users or IT to manually enter data to the dashboard

Dashboards created in this manner tend to fail because of the risk of incomplete, outdated, or wrong data, which users learn not to trust.

Access

Preferred access is via a secure Web browser from a mobile device.

75

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. The journey that a product travels, starting with raw material suppliers, to manufacturers or assemblers, then distributors and retail sales shelves, and ultimately to customers is its supply chain. Supply chain starts with the acquisition of raw materials or the procurement (purchase) of products and proceeds through manufacture, transport, and delivery—and the disposal or recycling of products.

 

2. The supply chain is like a pipeline composed of multiple suppliers, distributors, manufacturers, retailers, and logistics providers that:

purchase (procurement) raw materials or products

transform materials (i.e., manufacture, service) into intermediate or finished products

transport and deliver finished products to retailers or customers, and

dispose or recycle product

 

3. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. Descriptions of these three main flows are:

Material or product flow: This is the movement of materials and goods from a supplier to its consumer. For example, Ford supplies dealerships that, in turn, sell to end-users. Products that are returned make up what is called the reverse supply chain because goods are moving in the reverse direction.

Information flow: This is the movement of detailed data among members of the supply chain, for example, order information, customer information, order fulfillment, delivery status, and proof-of-delivery confirmation. Most information flows are done electronically, although paper invoices or receipts are still common for non-commercial customers.

Financial flow: This is the transfer of payments and financial arrangements, for example, billing payment schedules, credit terms, and payment via electronic funds transfer (EFT). EFT provides for electronic payments and collections. It is safe, secure, efficient, and less expensive than paper check payments and collections.

 

4. Supply chain management (SCM) is the efficient management of the flows of material, data, and payments along the companies in the supply chain, from suppliers to consumers. SCM systems are configured to achieve the following business goals:

To reduce uncertainty and variability in order to improve the accuracy of forecasting

To increase control over the processes in order to achieve optimal inventory levels, cycle time, and customer service.

 

5. Step 1: Make sure the customer will pay. Depending on the payment method and prior arrangements with the customer, verify that the customer can and will pay, and agrees to the payment terms. This activity is done by the finance department for B2B sales or an external company, such as PayPal or a credit card issuer such as Visa for B2C sales. Any holdup in payment may cause a shipment to be delayed, resulting in a loss of goodwill or a customer. In B2C, the customers usually pay by credit card, but with major credit card data theft at Target and other retailers, the buyer may be using a stolen card.

Step 2: Check in-stock availability and reorder as necessary. As soon as an order is received, the stock is checked to determine the availability of the product or materials. If there is not enough stock, the ordering system places an order, typically automatically using EDI (electronic data interchange). To perform these operations, the ordering system needs to interface with the inventory system.

Step 3: Arrange shipments. When the product is available, shipment to the customer is arranged (otherwise, go to Step 5). Products can be digital or physical. If the item is physical and available, packaging and shipment arrangements are made. Both the packaging/shipping department and internal shippers or outside transporters may be involved. Digital items are usually available because their “inventory” is not depleted. However, a digital product, such as software, may be under revision, and thus unavailable for delivery at certain times. In either case, information needs to flow among several partners.

Step 4: Insurance. The contents of a shipment may need to be insured. Both the finance department and an insurance company could be involved, and again, information needs to be exchanged with the customer and insurance agent.

Step 5: Replenishment. Customized orders will always trigger a need for some manufacturing or assembly operation. Similarly, if standard items are out of stock, they need to be produced or procured. Production is done in-house or outsourced.

Step 6: In-house production. In-house production needs to be planned and actual production needs to be scheduled. Production planning involves people, materials, components, machines, financial resources, and possibly suppliers and subcontractors. In the case of assembly and/or manufacturing, several plant services may be needed, including collaboration with business partners. Production facilities may be located in a different country than the company’s headquarters or retailers. This may further complicate the flow of information.

Step 7: Use suppliers. A manufacturer may opt to buy products or subassemblies from suppliers. Similarly, if the seller is a retailer, such as in the case of Amazon. com or Walmart.com, the retailer must purchase products from its manufacturers. In this case, appropriate receiving and quality assurance of incoming materials and products must take place.

Once production (Step 6) or purchasing from suppliers (Step 7) is completed, shipments to the customers (Step 3) are arranged.

Step 8: Contacts with customers. Sales representatives keep in contact with customers, especially in B2B, starting with the notification of orders received and ending with notification of a shipment or change in delivery date. These contacts are frequently generated automatically.

Step 9: Returns. In some cases, customers want to exchange or return items. The movement of returns from customers back to vendors is reverse logistics. Such returns can be a major problem, especially when they occur in large volumes.

 

6. Logistics entails all the processes and information needed to move products from origin to destination efficiently. The order fulfillment process is part of logistics.

7. The top two strategic priorities of executives are supply chain analytics and multichannel fulfillment.

 

8. The two major barriers preventing innovation in the supply chain are a talent shortage and a continuing focus on cost reduction.

 

9. The top innovative digital technologies impacting SCM are: Robotics and automation, Inventory and Network Optimization Tools, Sensors and automatic identification, Predictive Analytics,

Wearables and mobile technology, Driverless vehicles and drones, Cloud computing and storage, 3D printing

75

76

What Are APIs? – Simply Explained

Suggested Answers:

1. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. The journey that a product travels, starting with raw material suppliers, to manufacturers or assemblers, then distributors and retail sales shelves, and ultimately to customers is its supply chain. Supply chain starts with the acquisition of raw materials or the procurement (purchase) of products and proceeds through manufacture, transport, and delivery—and the disposal or recycling of products.

 

2. The supply chain is like a pipeline composed of multiple suppliers, distributors, manufacturers, retailers, and logistics providers that:

purchase (procurement) raw materials or products

transform materials (i.e., manufacture, service) into intermediate or finished products

transport and deliver finished products to retailers or customers, and

dispose or recycle product

 

3. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. Descriptions of these three main flows are:

Material or product flow: This is the movement of materials and goods from a supplier to its consumer. For example, Ford supplies dealerships that, in turn, sell to end-users. Products that are returned make up what is called the reverse supply chain because goods are moving in the reverse direction.

Information flow: This is the movement of detailed data among members of the supply chain, for example, order information, customer information, order fulfillment, delivery status, and proof-of-delivery confirmation. Most information flows are done electronically, although paper invoices or receipts are still common for non-commercial customers.

Financial flow: This is the transfer of payments and financial arrangements, for example, billing payment schedules, credit terms, and payment via electronic funds transfer (EFT). EFT provides for electronic payments and collections. It is safe, secure, efficient, and less expensive than paper check payments and collections.

 

4. Supply chain management (SCM) is the efficient management of the flows of material, data, and payments along the companies in the supply chain, from suppliers to consumers. SCM systems are configured to achieve the following business goals:

To reduce uncertainty and variability in order to improve the accuracy of forecasting

To increase control over the processes in order to achieve optimal inventory levels, cycle time, and customer service.

 

5. Step 1: Make sure the customer will pay. Depending on the payment method and prior arrangements with the customer, verify that the customer can and will pay, and agrees to the payment terms. This activity is done by the finance department for B2B sales or an external company, such as PayPal or a credit card issuer such as Visa for B2C sales. Any holdup in payment may cause a shipment to be delayed, resulting in a loss of goodwill or a customer. In B2C, the customers usually pay by credit card, but with major credit card data theft at Target and other retailers, the buyer may be using a stolen card.

Step 2: Check in-stock availability and reorder as necessary. As soon as an order is received, the stock is checked to determine the availability of the product or materials. If there is not enough stock, the ordering system places an order, typically automatically using EDI (electronic data interchange). To perform these operations, the ordering system needs to interface with the inventory system.

Step 3: Arrange shipments. When the product is available, shipment to the customer is arranged (otherwise, go to Step 5). Products can be digital or physical. If the item is physical and available, packaging and shipment arrangements are made. Both the packaging/shipping department and internal shippers or outside transporters may be involved. Digital items are usually available because their “inventory” is not depleted. However, a digital product, such as software, may be under revision, and thus unavailable for delivery at certain times. In either case, information needs to flow among several partners.

Step 4: Insurance. The contents of a shipment may need to be insured. Both the finance department and an insurance company could be involved, and again, information needs to be exchanged with the customer and insurance agent.

Step 5: Replenishment. Customized orders will always trigger a need for some manufacturing or assembly operation. Similarly, if standard items are out of stock, they need to be produced or procured. Production is done in-house or outsourced.

Step 6: In-house production. In-house production needs to be planned and actual production needs to be scheduled. Production planning involves people, materials, components, machines, financial resources, and possibly suppliers and subcontractors. In the case of assembly and/or manufacturing, several plant services may be needed, including collaboration with business partners. Production facilities may be located in a different country than the company’s headquarters or retailers. This may further complicate the flow of information.

Step 7: Use suppliers. A manufacturer may opt to buy products or subassemblies from suppliers. Similarly, if the seller is a retailer, such as in the case of Amazon. com or Walmart.com, the retailer must purchase products from its manufacturers. In this case, appropriate receiving and quality assurance of incoming materials and products must take place.

Once production (Step 6) or purchasing from suppliers (Step 7) is completed, shipments to the customers (Step 3) are arranged.

Step 8: Contacts with customers. Sales representatives keep in contact with customers, especially in B2B, starting with the notification of orders received and ending with notification of a shipment or change in delivery date. These contacts are frequently generated automatically.

Step 9: Returns. In some cases, customers want to exchange or return items. The movement of returns from customers back to vendors is reverse logistics. Such returns can be a major problem, especially when they occur in large volumes.

 

6. Logistics entails all the processes and information needed to move products from origin to destination efficiently. The order fulfillment process is part of logistics.

7. The top two strategic priorities of executives are supply chain analytics and multichannel fulfillment.

 

8. The two major barriers preventing innovation in the supply chain are a talent shortage and a continuing focus on cost reduction.

 

9. The top innovative digital technologies impacting SCM are: Robotics and automation, Inventory and Network Optimization Tools, Sensors and automatic identification, Predictive Analytics,

Wearables and mobile technology, Driverless vehicles and drones, Cloud computing and storage, 3D printing

76

Digital Dashboards Review

What are benefits of dashboards?

Visibility

Blind spots are minimized or eliminated

Threats and opportunities are detected as soon as possible.

Continuous improvement

A famous warning from Peter Drucker was “if you can’t measure it, you can’t improve it.”

Executive dashboards are custom designed to display the user’s critical metrics and measures

77

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. The journey that a product travels, starting with raw material suppliers, to manufacturers or assemblers, then distributors and retail sales shelves, and ultimately to customers is its supply chain. Supply chain starts with the acquisition of raw materials or the procurement (purchase) of products and proceeds through manufacture, transport, and delivery—and the disposal or recycling of products.

 

2. The supply chain is like a pipeline composed of multiple suppliers, distributors, manufacturers, retailers, and logistics providers that:

purchase (procurement) raw materials or products

transform materials (i.e., manufacture, service) into intermediate or finished products

transport and deliver finished products to retailers or customers, and

dispose or recycle product

 

3. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. Descriptions of these three main flows are:

Material or product flow: This is the movement of materials and goods from a supplier to its consumer. For example, Ford supplies dealerships that, in turn, sell to end-users. Products that are returned make up what is called the reverse supply chain because goods are moving in the reverse direction.

Information flow: This is the movement of detailed data among members of the supply chain, for example, order information, customer information, order fulfillment, delivery status, and proof-of-delivery confirmation. Most information flows are done electronically, although paper invoices or receipts are still common for non-commercial customers.

Financial flow: This is the transfer of payments and financial arrangements, for example, billing payment schedules, credit terms, and payment via electronic funds transfer (EFT). EFT provides for electronic payments and collections. It is safe, secure, efficient, and less expensive than paper check payments and collections.

 

4. Supply chain management (SCM) is the efficient management of the flows of material, data, and payments along the companies in the supply chain, from suppliers to consumers. SCM systems are configured to achieve the following business goals:

To reduce uncertainty and variability in order to improve the accuracy of forecasting

To increase control over the processes in order to achieve optimal inventory levels, cycle time, and customer service.

 

5. Step 1: Make sure the customer will pay. Depending on the payment method and prior arrangements with the customer, verify that the customer can and will pay, and agrees to the payment terms. This activity is done by the finance department for B2B sales or an external company, such as PayPal or a credit card issuer such as Visa for B2C sales. Any holdup in payment may cause a shipment to be delayed, resulting in a loss of goodwill or a customer. In B2C, the customers usually pay by credit card, but with major credit card data theft at Target and other retailers, the buyer may be using a stolen card.

Step 2: Check in-stock availability and reorder as necessary. As soon as an order is received, the stock is checked to determine the availability of the product or materials. If there is not enough stock, the ordering system places an order, typically automatically using EDI (electronic data interchange). To perform these operations, the ordering system needs to interface with the inventory system.

Step 3: Arrange shipments. When the product is available, shipment to the customer is arranged (otherwise, go to Step 5). Products can be digital or physical. If the item is physical and available, packaging and shipment arrangements are made. Both the packaging/shipping department and internal shippers or outside transporters may be involved. Digital items are usually available because their “inventory” is not depleted. However, a digital product, such as software, may be under revision, and thus unavailable for delivery at certain times. In either case, information needs to flow among several partners.

Step 4: Insurance. The contents of a shipment may need to be insured. Both the finance department and an insurance company could be involved, and again, information needs to be exchanged with the customer and insurance agent.

Step 5: Replenishment. Customized orders will always trigger a need for some manufacturing or assembly operation. Similarly, if standard items are out of stock, they need to be produced or procured. Production is done in-house or outsourced.

Step 6: In-house production. In-house production needs to be planned and actual production needs to be scheduled. Production planning involves people, materials, components, machines, financial resources, and possibly suppliers and subcontractors. In the case of assembly and/or manufacturing, several plant services may be needed, including collaboration with business partners. Production facilities may be located in a different country than the company’s headquarters or retailers. This may further complicate the flow of information.

Step 7: Use suppliers. A manufacturer may opt to buy products or subassemblies from suppliers. Similarly, if the seller is a retailer, such as in the case of Amazon. com or Walmart.com, the retailer must purchase products from its manufacturers. In this case, appropriate receiving and quality assurance of incoming materials and products must take place.

Once production (Step 6) or purchasing from suppliers (Step 7) is completed, shipments to the customers (Step 3) are arranged.

Step 8: Contacts with customers. Sales representatives keep in contact with customers, especially in B2B, starting with the notification of orders received and ending with notification of a shipment or change in delivery date. These contacts are frequently generated automatically.

Step 9: Returns. In some cases, customers want to exchange or return items. The movement of returns from customers back to vendors is reverse logistics. Such returns can be a major problem, especially when they occur in large volumes.

 

6. Logistics entails all the processes and information needed to move products from origin to destination efficiently. The order fulfillment process is part of logistics.

7. The top two strategic priorities of executives are supply chain analytics and multichannel fulfillment.

 

8. The two major barriers preventing innovation in the supply chain are a talent shortage and a continuing focus on cost reduction.

 

9. The top innovative digital technologies impacting SCM are: Robotics and automation, Inventory and Network Optimization Tools, Sensors and automatic identification, Predictive Analytics,

Wearables and mobile technology, Driverless vehicles and drones, Cloud computing and storage, 3D printing

77

Digital Dashboards Review

What are benefits of dashboards?

Single sign on

Managers can spend a lot of time logging into various business systems and running reports

Single-sign-on dashboards save time and effort.

Deviations from what was budgeted or planned

Any metrics can be programmed to display deviations from targets

Such as comparisons of actual and planned or budgeted.

78

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. The journey that a product travels, starting with raw material suppliers, to manufacturers or assemblers, then distributors and retail sales shelves, and ultimately to customers is its supply chain. Supply chain starts with the acquisition of raw materials or the procurement (purchase) of products and proceeds through manufacture, transport, and delivery—and the disposal or recycling of products.

 

2. The supply chain is like a pipeline composed of multiple suppliers, distributors, manufacturers, retailers, and logistics providers that:

purchase (procurement) raw materials or products

transform materials (i.e., manufacture, service) into intermediate or finished products

transport and deliver finished products to retailers or customers, and

dispose or recycle product

 

3. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. Descriptions of these three main flows are:

Material or product flow: This is the movement of materials and goods from a supplier to its consumer. For example, Ford supplies dealerships that, in turn, sell to end-users. Products that are returned make up what is called the reverse supply chain because goods are moving in the reverse direction.

Information flow: This is the movement of detailed data among members of the supply chain, for example, order information, customer information, order fulfillment, delivery status, and proof-of-delivery confirmation. Most information flows are done electronically, although paper invoices or receipts are still common for non-commercial customers.

Financial flow: This is the transfer of payments and financial arrangements, for example, billing payment schedules, credit terms, and payment via electronic funds transfer (EFT). EFT provides for electronic payments and collections. It is safe, secure, efficient, and less expensive than paper check payments and collections.

 

4. Supply chain management (SCM) is the efficient management of the flows of material, data, and payments along the companies in the supply chain, from suppliers to consumers. SCM systems are configured to achieve the following business goals:

To reduce uncertainty and variability in order to improve the accuracy of forecasting

To increase control over the processes in order to achieve optimal inventory levels, cycle time, and customer service.

 

5. Step 1: Make sure the customer will pay. Depending on the payment method and prior arrangements with the customer, verify that the customer can and will pay, and agrees to the payment terms. This activity is done by the finance department for B2B sales or an external company, such as PayPal or a credit card issuer such as Visa for B2C sales. Any holdup in payment may cause a shipment to be delayed, resulting in a loss of goodwill or a customer. In B2C, the customers usually pay by credit card, but with major credit card data theft at Target and other retailers, the buyer may be using a stolen card.

Step 2: Check in-stock availability and reorder as necessary. As soon as an order is received, the stock is checked to determine the availability of the product or materials. If there is not enough stock, the ordering system places an order, typically automatically using EDI (electronic data interchange). To perform these operations, the ordering system needs to interface with the inventory system.

Step 3: Arrange shipments. When the product is available, shipment to the customer is arranged (otherwise, go to Step 5). Products can be digital or physical. If the item is physical and available, packaging and shipment arrangements are made. Both the packaging/shipping department and internal shippers or outside transporters may be involved. Digital items are usually available because their “inventory” is not depleted. However, a digital product, such as software, may be under revision, and thus unavailable for delivery at certain times. In either case, information needs to flow among several partners.

Step 4: Insurance. The contents of a shipment may need to be insured. Both the finance department and an insurance company could be involved, and again, information needs to be exchanged with the customer and insurance agent.

Step 5: Replenishment. Customized orders will always trigger a need for some manufacturing or assembly operation. Similarly, if standard items are out of stock, they need to be produced or procured. Production is done in-house or outsourced.

Step 6: In-house production. In-house production needs to be planned and actual production needs to be scheduled. Production planning involves people, materials, components, machines, financial resources, and possibly suppliers and subcontractors. In the case of assembly and/or manufacturing, several plant services may be needed, including collaboration with business partners. Production facilities may be located in a different country than the company’s headquarters or retailers. This may further complicate the flow of information.

Step 7: Use suppliers. A manufacturer may opt to buy products or subassemblies from suppliers. Similarly, if the seller is a retailer, such as in the case of Amazon. com or Walmart.com, the retailer must purchase products from its manufacturers. In this case, appropriate receiving and quality assurance of incoming materials and products must take place.

Once production (Step 6) or purchasing from suppliers (Step 7) is completed, shipments to the customers (Step 3) are arranged.

Step 8: Contacts with customers. Sales representatives keep in contact with customers, especially in B2B, starting with the notification of orders received and ending with notification of a shipment or change in delivery date. These contacts are frequently generated automatically.

Step 9: Returns. In some cases, customers want to exchange or return items. The movement of returns from customers back to vendors is reverse logistics. Such returns can be a major problem, especially when they occur in large volumes.

 

6. Logistics entails all the processes and information needed to move products from origin to destination efficiently. The order fulfillment process is part of logistics.

7. The top two strategic priorities of executives are supply chain analytics and multichannel fulfillment.

 

8. The two major barriers preventing innovation in the supply chain are a talent shortage and a continuing focus on cost reduction.

 

9. The top innovative digital technologies impacting SCM are: Robotics and automation, Inventory and Network Optimization Tools, Sensors and automatic identification, Predictive Analytics,

Wearables and mobile technology, Driverless vehicles and drones, Cloud computing and storage, 3D printing

78

Digital Dashboards Review

What are benefits of dashboards?

Accountability

When employees know their performance is tracked in near real time and can see their results

They tend to be motivated to improve their performance.

79

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Suggested Answers:

1. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. The journey that a product travels, starting with raw material suppliers, to manufacturers or assemblers, then distributors and retail sales shelves, and ultimately to customers is its supply chain. Supply chain starts with the acquisition of raw materials or the procurement (purchase) of products and proceeds through manufacture, transport, and delivery—and the disposal or recycling of products.

 

2. The supply chain is like a pipeline composed of multiple suppliers, distributors, manufacturers, retailers, and logistics providers that:

purchase (procurement) raw materials or products

transform materials (i.e., manufacture, service) into intermediate or finished products

transport and deliver finished products to retailers or customers, and

dispose or recycle product

 

3. Supply chains involve the flow of materials, data, and money. Descriptions of these three main flows are:

Material or product flow: This is the movement of materials and goods from a supplier to its consumer. For example, Ford supplies dealerships that, in turn, sell to end-users. Products that are returned make up what is called the reverse supply chain because goods are moving in the reverse direction.

Information flow: This is the movement of detailed data among members of the supply chain, for example, order information, customer information, order fulfillment, delivery status, and proof-of-delivery confirmation. Most information flows are done electronically, although paper invoices or receipts are still common for non-commercial customers.

Financial flow: This is the transfer of payments and financial arrangements, for example, billing payment schedules, credit terms, and payment via electronic funds transfer (EFT). EFT provides for electronic payments and collections. It is safe, secure, efficient, and less expensive than paper check payments and collections.

 

4. Supply chain management (SCM) is the efficient management of the flows of material, data, and payments along the companies in the supply chain, from suppliers to consumers. SCM systems are configured to achieve the following business goals:

To reduce uncertainty and variability in order to improve the accuracy of forecasting

To increase control over the processes in order to achieve optimal inventory levels, cycle time, and customer service.

 

5. Step 1: Make sure the customer will pay. Depending on the payment method and prior arrangements with the customer, verify that the customer can and will pay, and agrees to the payment terms. This activity is done by the finance department for B2B sales or an external company, such as PayPal or a credit card issuer such as Visa for B2C sales. Any holdup in payment may cause a shipment to be delayed, resulting in a loss of goodwill or a customer. In B2C, the customers usually pay by credit card, but with major credit card data theft at Target and other retailers, the buyer may be using a stolen card.

Step 2: Check in-stock availability and reorder as necessary. As soon as an order is received, the stock is checked to determine the availability of the product or materials. If there is not enough stock, the ordering system places an order, typically automatically using EDI (electronic data interchange). To perform these operations, the ordering system needs to interface with the inventory system.

Step 3: Arrange shipments. When the product is available, shipment to the customer is arranged (otherwise, go to Step 5). Products can be digital or physical. If the item is physical and available, packaging and shipment arrangements are made. Both the packaging/shipping department and internal shippers or outside transporters may be involved. Digital items are usually available because their “inventory” is not depleted. However, a digital product, such as software, may be under revision, and thus unavailable for delivery at certain times. In either case, information needs to flow among several partners.

Step 4: Insurance. The contents of a shipment may need to be insured. Both the finance department and an insurance company could be involved, and again, information needs to be exchanged with the customer and insurance agent.

Step 5: Replenishment. Customized orders will always trigger a need for some manufacturing or assembly operation. Similarly, if standard items are out of stock, they need to be produced or procured. Production is done in-house or outsourced.

Step 6: In-house production. In-house production needs to be planned and actual production needs to be scheduled. Production planning involves people, materials, components, machines, financial resources, and possibly suppliers and subcontractors. In the case of assembly and/or manufacturing, several plant services may be needed, including collaboration with business partners. Production facilities may be located in a different country than the company’s headquarters or retailers. This may further complicate the flow of information.

Step 7: Use suppliers. A manufacturer may opt to buy products or subassemblies from suppliers. Similarly, if the seller is a retailer, such as in the case of Amazon. com or Walmart.com, the retailer must purchase products from its manufacturers. In this case, appropriate receiving and quality assurance of incoming materials and products must take place.

Once production (Step 6) or purchasing from suppliers (Step 7) is completed, shipments to the customers (Step 3) are arranged.

Step 8: Contacts with customers. Sales representatives keep in contact with customers, especially in B2B, starting with the notification of orders received and ending with notification of a shipment or change in delivery date. These contacts are frequently generated automatically.

Step 9: Returns. In some cases, customers want to exchange or return items. The movement of returns from customers back to vendors is reverse logistics. Such returns can be a major problem, especially when they occur in large volumes.

 

6. Logistics entails all the processes and information needed to move products from origin to destination efficiently. The order fulfillment process is part of logistics.

7. The top two strategic priorities of executives are supply chain analytics and multichannel fulfillment.

 

8. The two major barriers preventing innovation in the supply chain are a talent shortage and a continuing focus on cost reduction.

 

9. The top innovative digital technologies impacting SCM are: Robotics and automation, Inventory and Network Optimization Tools, Sensors and automatic identification, Predictive Analytics,

Wearables and mobile technology, Driverless vehicles and drones, Cloud computing and storage, 3D printing

79

Learning Objectives (4 of 4)

80

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

80

Geospatial Data and Geographic Information Systems

Geographic Information System (GIS)

Captures, manages, analyzes, and displays multidimensional geographic data, also called geospatial data.

Geospatial Data

Where things or people are and where they are going—with descriptive data—what things are like or what customers are doing.

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

82

What is Spatial Data Science?

GIS Business Applications

Retailers can learn how store sales are impacted by population or the proximity to competitors’ stores.

Analysts can use GIS to identify relevant demographics, proximity to highways, public transportation, and competitors’ stores to select the best location options.

Food and consumer products companies can chart locations of complaint calls enabling product traceability in the event of a crisis or recall.

Sales reps might better target their customer visits by analyzing the geography of sales targets.

83

Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Copyright

Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.

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Copyright ©2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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