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Solved by verified expert:Worth 15% of final mark, due Tuesday, June 4th, 11:30 pm via SAKAI>Assignment
Comparison Essay
Please read this entire document before you begin and before you email me with questions!
This writing assignment is designed to help you learn different ways to write and think about art.
For this assignment you will write a minimum 1000 word comparison (excluding footnotes,
bibliography) of two artworks. You may choose both of the following for this exercise:4 a. Frans Hals, Isaac Massa and Beatrix van der Laen, c. 1622 (14-21), p. 388
b. John Singleton Copley, Thomas Mifflin and Sarah Morris (Mr. and Mrs. Mifflin), 1773
(17-1), p. 446.How to Write a Comparison Essay A comparison is an essay comprised of two aspects: comparing elements (noting the
similarities) and contrasting elements (noting the differences) of one work with another. The aim
of this exercise is to learn more about each work by looking at them alongside one another, as
such this is largely a visual exercise of looking. You will be using the types of observations
discussed in modules but applying this specifically to two works of art. Your paper must have a
thesis and through comparing and contrasting the two works you will argue (prove) your thesis
and reach a conclusion.
There are two main approaches to writing a comparison: split or lump. This refers to the
organization of your points on each artwork. If you want to compare and contrast a number of
elements about each work this is splitting and if you write first of one work and then the other in
separate paragraphs you are lumping. You may write either way but make certain that you have
about the same number of points or observations for each work. Pay close attention to the
organization of your paper, it should make sense and flow naturally back and forth between the
works compared. Try to make a logical progression from one point to the next.
You will want to examine each work of art closely. Ask yourself questions about the artwork:
Why was this work made, for whom, by whom, in what style, what context and when? What is
the work about? How does it convey a story, event, or particular meaning? How does the artist
use form, colour, space, perspective and line? How is the composition arranged? What is the
size and condition of the work, does this convey further meaning?
Once you think about these types of questions for each work separately you will need to
consider them together. Ask yourself, why is this comparison relevant, what becomes more
apparent about the works when you look at them side by side? Consider the visual impact, but
also the context of the artworks’ production and reception. Are they of the same style and time
period or not, why does this matter, are values and cultural elements similar or different? Do
1
VISA 1Q99: Writing Assignment
Worth 15% of final mark, due Tuesday, June 4th, 11:30 pm via SAKAI>Assignment
these works convey the same message or something different, how is this done, how do you
observe this in the works?
Begin by making notes on each work and then the comparative/contrasting elements that you
can write about for both works. From here begin to compose your essay by creating a thesis.
Your thesis is a statement that gives direction to your analysis. Take care to organize, revise and
edit your paper. Poor organization and lack of editing will detract from your observations and
your grade.
Format
The paper must be 1000 words typed, double-spaced pages of your writing with the course
name, your name, and student number on the first page along with a title. You do not need a
separate title page for this assignment but if you use one this does not count towards the page
length of this assignment. The length requirement is 1000 words excluding title page and
bibliography/works cited. You might find it helpful to take a look on SAKAI>Resources>Written
Assignment>Further Reading on Writing a Comparison. Links to websites with helpful
information are posted there. If you have access to one of the optional resources for this course
read Sylvan Barnet, A Short Guide to Writing About Art: “Writing a Comparison.”
Research
You are not required to do a lot of research for this paper–it is meant as a practice of looking,
describing and evaluating. Begin by reading about the work in your textbook, if you find that you
want to use further secondary sources, your paper must follow the Chicago Manual of Style
citation format, MLA or APA. Basic information such as title, artist, date, origin of a work and
general factual historical information do NOT need to be cited. You do need to cite information
and ideas that you take from the textbook. Please see the links on SAKAI under Written
Assignment>How to Cite Sources/Bibliographies, if you need help with citations. You will find
citation style guidelines there. All secondary sources used in your writing (books, articles,
websites, textbook, videos, etc.) must be cited, failure to do so constitutes academic dishonesty
and will result in a grade of zero and possible failure in course. Please remember to CITE the
textbook if you take more than general information from it!
Due Date & Late Policy
Papers are due June 4th by 11:30 pm submitted online (via SAKAI>Assignment). You will find
under Assignments “Written Assignment #2,” from there you will be able to upload your paper as
an attachment in most file types (.doc, .pdf). Be aware that SAKAI does not recognize MAC
pages, please convert your file to .pdf before uploading. If we cannot open your file you will
receive a grade of zero for the assignment. Once you have uploaded it you will be able to see
the originality report for your paper. You will not be able to make changes once you have
submitted your paper. Please do not panic when you view the report, often the material that is
highlighted is simply your references, names of artist, or artworks.
The penalty for late assignments is 5% per day. Failure to submit your paper on time due to
internet difficulties is not a valid reason. Assignments handed in more than 5 days late will not
be accepted. Exceptions to the lateness penalty for valid reasons such as illness, etc. will be
judged by the instructor ONLY when supported by written documentation such as a medical
certificate that are presented within 3 days of your absence.
2
VISA 1Q99: Writing Assignment
Worth 15% of final mark, due Tuesday, June 4th, 11:30 pm via SAKAI>Assignment
A Word about Turnitin.com in Assignment
As it is the responsibility of the instructor to track and report plagiarism, we will be utilizing
turnitin.com in Assignment on SAKAI. This is an anti-plagiarism tool that screens all
assignments against a database of the internet, e-journals, e-books, and a range of other
scanned material including other assignments and papers for courses at universities. This
ensures that all assignments are graded on a level playing field and means the papers can be
read for ideas and content rather than policed for plagiarism. If you should have concerns about
the use of this anti-plagiarism tool these must be expressed to me via email before May 10th.
Grading
Your assignment will be number graded out of 15 with comments online and your numerical
grade recorded under SAKAI>Gradebook. Please be aware because of the large number of
students in this course it may take up to 1-2 weeks for your assignment grade to appear.
Helpful Information:
• Titles of artworks are italicized, dates follow in brackets i.e. Masaccio’s Holy Trinity (1425) is a
fresco depicting the Madonna and child enthroned.
• artists are referred to by full name initially and then subsequently by surname only
• Avoid the use of colloquialisms and contractions in your essay (i.e. I’m, don’t, isn’t, it’s)
• ‘its’ is a possessive form, ‘it’s’ is a contraction for it is
• You may use the first person or chose to write from the third person perspective. For
example: Immediately I noticed the use of saturated colour in the lower portion of the painting
which gives a sense of ground and weight to the composition. OR: The use of saturated
colour in the lower portion of the painting gives a sense of ground and weight to the
composition.
• Footnote or use MLA citations for all secondary material. Include a bibliography or works cited
page.
• You do not need to include images unless you refer to additional artworks.
• If you use quotations (which should be used sparingly and ONLY when they support your
thesis directly) cite them correctly and introduce them with your own text. For example: The
bold use of Christian symbolism in combination with references to popular culture underscore
what art critic Barbara Rose has named as “the religious mundane or popular icon.”1
• Paragraphs need a minimum of three sentences.
• Edit your paper for errors, sometimes reading your paper out loud will help catch small errors.
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VISA 1Q99: Writing Assignment
Worth 15% of final mark, due Tuesday, June 4th, 11:30 pm via SAKAI>Assignment
Comparison Essay
Please read this entire document before you begin and before you email me with questions!
This writing assignment is designed to help you learn different ways to write and think about art.
For this assignment you will write a minimum 1000 word comparison (excluding footnotes,
bibliography) of two artworks.
You may choose one of the following pairs for this exercise:
1. a. Harriet Hosmer, Zenobia in Chains, 1859 (18-6), p. 481.
b. Edmonia Lewis, Forever Free, 1867 (18-24), p. 494.
2. a. Alfred Stieglitz, The Flatiron Building, 1903 (19-18), p. 525.
b. Georgia O’Keeffe, City Night, 1926 (19-19), p. 527.
3. a. Antonio Canova, Cupid and Psyche, 1787-1793 (17-12), p. 458.
b. John Henry Fuseli, The Nightmare, 1781 (17-13), p. 459.
4. a. Frans Hals, Isaac Massa and Beatrix van der Laen, c. 1622 (14-21), p. 388
b. John Singleton Copley, Thomas Mifflin and Sarah Morris (Mr. and Mrs. Mifflin), 1773
(17-1), p. 446.
How to Write a Comparison Essay
A comparison is an essay comprised of two aspects: comparing elements (noting the
similarities) and contrasting elements (noting the differences) of one work with another. The aim
of this exercise is to learn more about each work by looking at them alongside one another, as
such this is largely a visual exercise of looking. You will be using the types of observations
discussed in modules but applying this specifically to two works of art. Your paper must have a
thesis and through comparing and contrasting the two works you will argue (prove) your thesis
and reach a conclusion.
There are two main approaches to writing a comparison: split or lump. This refers to the
organization of your points on each artwork. If you want to compare and contrast a number of
elements about each work this is splitting and if you write first of one work and then the other in
separate paragraphs you are lumping. You may write either way but make certain that you have
about the same number of points or observations for each work. Pay close attention to the
organization of your paper, it should make sense and flow naturally back and forth between the
works compared. Try to make a logical progression from one point to the next.
You will want to examine each work of art closely. Ask yourself questions about the artwork:
Why was this work made, for whom, by whom, in what style, what context and when? What is
the work about? How does it convey a story, event, or particular meaning? How does the artist
use form, colour, space, perspective and line? How is the composition arranged? What is the
size and condition of the work, does this convey further meaning?
Once you think about these types of questions for each work separately you will need to
consider them together. Ask yourself, why is this comparison relevant, what becomes more
apparent about the works when you look at them side by side? Consider the visual impact, but
also the context of the artworks’ production and reception. Are they of the same style and time
period or not, why does this matter, are values and cultural elements similar or different? Do
1
VISA 1Q99: Writing Assignment
Worth 15% of final mark, due Tuesday, June 4th, 11:30 pm via SAKAI>Assignment
these works convey the same message or something different, how is this done, how do you
observe this in the works?
Begin by making notes on each work and then the comparative/contrasting elements that you
can write about for both works. From here begin to compose your essay by creating a thesis.
Your thesis is a statement that gives direction to your analysis. Take care to organize, revise and
edit your paper. Poor organization and lack of editing will detract from your observations and
your grade.
Format
The paper must be 1000 words typed, double-spaced pages of your writing with the course
name, your name, and student number on the first page along with a title. You do not need a
separate title page for this assignment but if you use one this does not count towards the page
length of this assignment. The length requirement is 1000 words excluding title page and
bibliography/works cited. You might find it helpful to take a look on SAKAI>Resources>Written
Assignment>Further Reading on Writing a Comparison. Links to websites with helpful
information are posted there. If you have access to one of the optional resources for this course
read Sylvan Barnet, A Short Guide to Writing About Art: “Writing a Comparison.”
Research
You are not required to do a lot of research for this paper–it is meant as a practice of looking,
describing and evaluating. Begin by reading about the work in your textbook, if you find that you
want to use further secondary sources, your paper must follow the Chicago Manual of Style
citation format, MLA or APA. Basic information such as title, artist, date, origin of a work and
general factual historical information do NOT need to be cited. You do need to cite information
and ideas that you take from the textbook. Please see the links on SAKAI under Written
Assignment>How to Cite Sources/Bibliographies, if you need help with citations. You will find
citation style guidelines there. All secondary sources used in your writing (books, articles,
websites, textbook, videos, etc.) must be cited, failure to do so constitutes academic dishonesty
and will result in a grade of zero and possible failure in course. Please remember to CITE the
textbook if you take more than general information from it!
Due Date & Late Policy
Papers are due June 4th by 11:30 pm submitted online (via SAKAI>Assignment). You will find
under Assignments “Written Assignment #2,” from there you will be able to upload your paper as
an attachment in most file types (.doc, .pdf). Be aware that SAKAI does not recognize MAC
pages, please convert your file to .pdf before uploading. If we cannot open your file you will
receive a grade of zero for the assignment. Once you have uploaded it you will be able to see
the originality report for your paper. You will not be able to make changes once you have
submitted your paper. Please do not panic when you view the report, often the material that is
highlighted is simply your references, names of artist, or artworks.
The penalty for late assignments is 5% per day. Failure to submit your paper on time due to
internet difficulties is not a valid reason. Assignments handed in more than 5 days late will not
be accepted. Exceptions to the lateness penalty for valid reasons such as illness, etc. will be
judged by the instructor ONLY when supported by written documentation such as a medical
certificate that are presented within 3 days of your absence.
2
VISA 1Q99: Writing Assignment
Worth 15% of final mark, due Tuesday, June 4th, 11:30 pm via SAKAI>Assignment
A Word about Turnitin.com in Assignment
As it is the responsibility of the instructor to track and report plagiarism, we will be utilizing
turnitin.com in Assignment on SAKAI. This is an anti-plagiarism tool that screens all
assignments against a database of the internet, e-journals, e-books, and a range of other
scanned material including other assignments and papers for courses at universities. This
ensures that all assignments are graded on a level playing field and means the papers can be
read for ideas and content rather than policed for plagiarism. If you should have concerns about
the use of this anti-plagiarism tool these must be expressed to me via email before May 10th.
Grading
Your assignment will be number graded out of 15 with comments online and your numerical
grade recorded under SAKAI>Gradebook. Please be aware because of the large number of
students in this course it may take up to 1-2 weeks for your assignment grade to appear.
Helpful Information:
• Titles of artworks are italicized, dates follow in brackets i.e. Masaccio’s Holy Trinity (1425) is a
fresco depicting the Madonna and child enthroned.
• artists are referred to by full name initially and then subsequently by surname only
• Avoid the use of colloquialisms and contractions in your essay (i.e. I’m, don’t, isn’t, it’s)
• ‘its’ is a possessive form, ‘it’s’ is a contraction for it is
• You may use the first person or chose to write from the third person perspective. For
example: Immediately I noticed the use of saturated colour in the lower portion of the painting
which gives a sense of ground and weight to the composition. OR: The use of saturated
colour in the lower portion of the painting gives a sense of ground and weight to the
composition.
• Footnote or use MLA citations for all secondary material. Include a bibliography or works cited
page.
• You do not need to include images unless you refer to additional artworks.
• If you use quotations (which should be used sparingly and ONLY when they support your
thesis directly) cite them correctly and introduce them with your own text. For example: The
bold use of Christian symbolism in combination with references to popular culture underscore
what art critic Barbara Rose has named as “the religious mundane or popular icon.”1
• Paragraphs need a minimum of three sentences.
• Edit your paper for errors, sometimes reading your paper out loud will help catch small errors.
1
Author, Source (Place: Publisher, Date) page number. (For Book)
Author, “Article.” Journal Name Volume/Number (Month/Season Year): page number. (For Article)
3
Art & Art History: Formal Analysis & Comparative Analysis
Although a work of art can be analyzed on multiple levels and in multiple contexts, several key details are
almost always addressed in formal analyses and comparative analyses. This handout provides helpful
questions to ask about a piece of art in order to direct attention to the most salient details in the oftenoverwhelming amount of information any one work possesses. These questions should be considered, but
only addressed in the final analysis if they are relevant details to the overall meaning and impact of the work.
Formal Analysis:
A formal analysis is quite simply an analysis of the forms utilized in the work of art. It is a close inspection
of the artist’s use of aspects such as color, shape, line, mass, and space. The formal analysis moves beyond
simple description in that it connects the elements of the work to the effects they have on the viewer.
Considering this connection enables the writer to discuss the meaning of the work.
Begin with a brief but thorough description of the work.




What is the title?
Who is the artist?
What year was it created?
What is the physical condition of the work? Is it dirty, clean, restored?
Include historical information.




What country or region was it made in?
Does it belong to a particular movement, age, or school of thought?
Does it have an influential patron?
Is this work typical or atypical of its period, style, or artist? What artistic influences can be seen in the
artist’s work?
Analyze the work itself.
How does the art “work?” That is, what details in the piece are used to convey its meaning? Consider how
these details function by themselves and together as a whole.
Architecture and Space:





What is the form of the structure, and what is the function? How do form and function complement
each other?
Is the structure useful? How do people move throughout the structure? Are there significant
accommodations or restrictions to this movement?
Is the building or space structurally sound, given its location, design, and materials?
What role does daylight play? Is the inside bright or somber?
Do the exterior and interior complement each other? Is either adorned with ornamentation in the form
of statuary, color, or paintings?
Paintings, Drawings, and Etchings:









How does the artist use color? Are there stark contrasts or is it blended? Are there symbolic meanings
behind the color choices?
How does the artist use line? Are forms linearly arranged or disordered? Are there geometric shapes
implied by the forms in the piece?
Are the forms in the piece realistic or abstract? Are they fully one style or do they mix the two?
Sculpture and 3-D Pieces:
What is the medium of the piece, and how does it affect the viewer’s impression? (For example, stone
gives a sense of permanence and strength.)
What was the purpose of this piece? In what setting was it originally placed?
Is the piece unusually large or small?
Is the piece representational or abstract? Is the artist exploring forms or space within forms?
Is the piece a portrait of a person? What type of impression does it give of the subject? Is the pose
strong or relaxed? Are there objects with the person?
Comparative Analysis:
The comparative analysis starts with a formal analysis of two or more individual pieces, and then adds
another level of discussion that evaluates relevant similarities and differences between the pieces. This added
level is useful in revealing details about trends within historical periods, regional similarities, or growth of an
individual artist over time.
• In describing the individual pieces, keep to the same conventions used when doing an individual formal
analysis.
• Ask yourself why this comparison is relevant. There is a wealth of information in why your professor has
asked for a comparison of two particular pieces.
• Depending on the length and complexity of comparison, one of the two following basic structures will be
more appropriate:
• “Lumping” involves discussing all details of one work, and then all details of the second work. This
method is preferred in lengthy or broad comparisons to avoid zipping back and forth between the works
too quickly. Remember to compare the two works by referring back to the first work when discussing
the second. This will ensure that you don’t simply write two descriptions.
• “Splitting” involves discussing a particular point in both works before moving on to another point. This
method is preferred in comparisons dealing with fine details instead of a broader look at each work as a
whole. Remember to discuss each point evenly to maintain a clear, parallel structure.
Undergraduate Writing Center | The University of Texas at Austin | http://uwc.utexas.edu | FAC 211 | 512.471.6222
Handout created by Zach Garcia, June 2006 | Last revised by Tamara Smith, March 2009
VISA 1Q99 History of Western
Art
Module 8: Seventeenth-Century Art in Europe
Topic: Seventeenth -Century Art
Module Overview
This week we will be examining the visual responses of the
Counter-Reformation in Italy and the unique development of the
arts within the Dutch Republic. We will also consider the
emerging importance of France in the later 1600s.
Readings
Readings: Stokstad, Chapter 14, pp. 367-401.
E-Textbook: Seventeenth-Century Art: Introduction, 14.1-14.5
& Summary
Learning Outcomes
By the end of this module you should be able to:
1.
1. Identify key characteristics of the Baroque.
2. Discuss the importance of royal patronage during the Baroque
period.
3. Consider the resurgence of Classicism in the Seventeenth
Century.
4. Explain the development of portraiture, still life, landscape and
genre scenes in Netherlandish painting.
Seventeenth Century Art
The 16th century reflects a new way of seeing the world. In the North there
was a focus on visual illusion and symbolism, and in Italy on nature within a
rational composition. There is an emphasis on linear and atmospheric
perspective as well as modeling figures in a much more true-to-life manner.
We saw new theories and ideas tested out in art and artists as individuals with
distinct personalities and styles. We witnessed a division within Christianity,
into Protestantism and Catholicism which affected the presence and function
of the visual arts. Protestant areas had much fewer church commissions and
more private paintings, while the Catholic church continued to use art as an
important way of communicating to believers.
The Baroque style corresponds roughly to the closing of the 16th century,
overlaps with Mannerism and lasts as late as 1750 in some areas. Politically
the 17th century was a period of crisis and conflict with religious tensions
escalating. The term Baroque was initially used as a pejorative term with two
origins: the Portuguese barroco meaning irregular and therefore imperfect
pearl yet still beautiful and fascinating, and the Italian barocco referring to a
convoluted medieval logic. We will observer new heights of emotion and
more energetic forms associated with this style.
Naturalism remains a key element within painting and sculpture of this period
but with a definite taste for the representation of dramatic action and often
violent narrative. Gone is the classical restraint of previous work and there is
a new interest in theatrical compositions achieved through contrasts of colour
and light as well as asymmetry.
Rome
The Baroque style, remarkable for its theatricality and drama, was in many
respects a creation of the papacy in Rome. Around 1600 faced in the North
with the challenge of Protestantism, which had steadily grown more powerful
since Martin Luther’s first protests in 1517, the Vatican took action. It called
together as many talents as it could muster with the intention of turning Rome
into the most magnificent city in the world: “for the greater glory of god and
the church.” The result is a new generation of flourishing in the arts in Rome.
Gianlorenzo Bernini, Baldacchino, St. Peter’s Rome, 1624-33. Gilded
bronze, 28.96 m (14-2)
Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) is one of the artists most strongly associated
with Counter Reformation in Rome. At this time there was an effort to refocus
art on the strengths of the Catholic Church and to charge artworks with
emotion in order to evoke intense response from the viewer.
Bernini was primarily a sculptor and with the interior program of St. Peter’s,
Bernini’s renown would be established. The works completed here also
reflect the Baroque tendency to define genius in terms of an artist’s originality
and innovation. The rebuilding of St. Peter’s cathedral in Rome began in 1503
and was completed in the Baroque period. Bernini was appointed in charge of
the interior decoration and he retained the position of official architect of St.
Peter’s to his death in 1680.
The baldacchino is one of the works he made for the interior. It consisted of
four twisted columns decorated with vine scrolls and papal bees surmounted
by angels. The columns support a bronze valance resembling the tasseled
cloth canopy used in religious processions. At the top is a gilded orb
representing the universal rule of Christ.
The spiral forms of the columns add a sense of movement and pulse to the
structure as if there was internal pressure or tension, and the dark bronze and
gilt stand out dramatically against the lighter marble of nave and apse. The
undulating forms and contrasts of light and dark are characteristic of the
Baroque.
Detail, Baldacchino
The angels, putti and tasseled panels are all cast from bronze. The
baldacchino marks the tomb of St. Peter but it also acts as a tribute to pope
who commissioned, Pope Urban VIII. We see Urban’s family emblems
repeated throughout: bees, suns, and laurel leaves.
The baldacchino was constructed in order to reduce the space at the crossing
and provide a framing for the altar to draw worshippers toward it and inspire
awe. The structure is only a third of the height from the floor to the lantern of
St. Peter’s the baldacchino is equivalent to a eight story building and the
foundations reach deep into the old St. Peter’s basilica. The bronze canopy
covers the high altar above St. Peter’s tomb, it is a symbolic structure that links
St. Peter from whom the popes trace their lineage to with current Pope through
his emblems. The message r …
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