Solved by verified expert:I need help to paraphrase an article with citation to one paragraph and to write a conclusion for the essay
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Mobile phone develops from devise just making calls to approximately doing everything
browsing, reading books, watching videos and finish projects in University … etc. Now a
days there is studies appear to the people that with development of mobile phones, such as
problems with health’s, effecting children, connecting the world. Therefore, we chose this
topic to focus on this important devise.
Mobile phone and children neurocognitive development:
With increasing of use mobile phone around the world, the study shows health of effects of
using mobile phone for long time. The study done for women on pregnancy period to 12
months post birth in Taipei, Taiwan. A total of 133 parents and their children was participate
in this study, which is part of Taiwan Birth Panel study. In study used high intelligent devises
to monitor the children like: CDIIT, WISC-IV and SPM+. Mothers completed questionnaires
to report phone uses. Regression modeling analyze to compare between phones exposure and
children neurocognitive development. The result after the monitor the mothers who answered
less than 3 phones call, and the duration less than three minutes. There is no major
association between phone use and neurocognitive development in children. In conclusion
there is no evidence up to now till that the phones use effect on children. (Wu, et al., 2012)
Development of problems mobile phones uses with University students:
This study about development of problems mobile phone used by university students. 725
students were participate for re-test (EFA) & (CFA) [exploratory factory analysis and
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confirmatory factory analysis]. The test results show that EFA 0.91 and 0.93 for CFA,
furthermore, appositive high found between mobile phone use scale and university students.
(Pamuk & Atli, 2016)
Finland and the mobile phone industry: A case study of the return on
investment from government-funded research and development
The unexpected and quick increase of the mobile phone production department in Finland is a
good issue research for science and technology (S&T) policy analysts. Especially with the
consideration of quick of this expansion against a relatively static condition for the other subsectors, the Finnish economic information facts within the term 1990-2001 can be used
without confusion to quantify the return of primary people sector research and development
(R&D) cost on the increase of economical section. Although it is obvious from the data that
this economic gaining story is to some size now run out of flow, the returns till today for all
the participants was amazing. Using the Patterson-Hartmann sample, which has been
developed to connect the company-grade R&D cost with product income, it is shown that
government has succeeded to obtain a multiplier outcome of around 66 first R&D cost
through at first a leveraging of business R&D cost (at a grade of 1:3) and then the translation
of the final into a growing in gross local product at level of (1:22). These numbers are
extraordinarily high, even in comparison multipliers achieved by big private sector
(Walwyn, (Jun/Jul 2007))
Mobile phone-enabled control of medical care and handicapped assistance
What really is playing more important role in people’s daily live are the mobile phones.
Which talking and sending messages are not the only options that it is serving, but
substitution of different knowledge as well. However, the functional limit of the phone
remains away from accomplished. Between many of the promising applications, using cell
phones led to control data or devices is helpful totally emerging medical care and
handicapped support by favour of its wireless communication feature. In this essay, selected
advances of mobile phone controlling has been summarized, with more concentrate on
evaluating its emerging role in medical care. Many of the applications in the zone are
illustrated and some effort technical challenges and key cases deserved to be followed up.
The target of the essay to give fundamental information for people with various backgrounds,
like electrical or biomedical engineers, also people who are working on interdisciplinary
fields. It is expected that medical care will be available anywhere and anytime through the
applications given by the mobile phone and mobile medicine will be pushed forward to a new
level in the arriving years. (Liu & Liu,Jing, (Nov 2011))
Effect of mobile phones on children
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When we were young, mobile phones were the last thing we could ask for, as it was not that
popular or developed as today. Nowadays, many children cannot live without their mobile
phones. Young people and teens have constantly been interested in taking the opportunities
offered by means of new technologies, and mobile phones are certainly no exception. Most
kids are ready to raise more cash just to be up-to-date and have the latest features installed on
their device. Moreover, children have become less reliant on other devices to the fact that
their mobiles have all the technology they could need. Also, this dependence on their mobile
phones makes them feel like they can’t live without their phones and they need it with them
all the time. (Varghese & Nalini, 2013)
Unfortunately, this excessive use of mobile phones has various effects on children’s both
social life and health. A significant number of mobile phone features can be utilized to
engage in bad and inappropriate conduct. Mobile phones are also considered distracting and
troublesome, which lead many schools to prohibit students from bringing them to school. In
addition, many parents have noticed a big change in the relationship between them and their
kids. After having access to mobile phones, children are spending more time in
communicating with their friends rather than spending time with the family. Mobile phones
have been affecting children’s sleep as well. Children tend to spend hours at night on their
phones, which resulted in disturbing their sleep. Another thing that gets affected from mobile
phones is the children’s academic performance. If a child is addictively engaged with his
phone, it can reduce their academic performance. (Varghese & Nalini, 2013)
Beside all the above issues that can occur, children’s use of mobile phones can also lead to
series health issues. Several specialists fear that the use of mobile phones amongst children
could cause brain cancer in the future. They believe that cumulative chronic contact to
microwaves from phones can lead to tumors. A study shows that people who began using
phones before the age of 20 were 5 times more probable to deal with brain cancer. Even
though mobile phones can also affect adults brain activity, children are at higher risk to the
fact that their brains and nervous system are still developing. (Stacey, 2010)
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Liu, L., & Liu,Jing. ((Nov 2011)). Mobile phone-enabled control of medical care and handicapped assistance.
Expert Review of Medical Devices, 757-68.
Pamuk, M., & Atli, A. (2016, Mars). Development of a Problematic Mobile Phone Use Scale for University
Students: Validity and Reliability Study. Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 29(1), 49.
Stacey, S. (2010). A TOUGH CALL FOR CHILDREN: HEALTH NOTES. Mail on Sunday. Retrieved from
Varghese, E. M., & Nalini, M. (2013). A qualitative study on expressed views of parents regarding the use of
mobile phones and its impact on mental health among their children in selected urban areas in
mangalore taluk. International Journal of Nursing Education, 135-140. Retrieved from
Walwyn, D. ((Jun/Jul 2007)). Finland and the mobile phone industry: A case study of the return on investment
from government-funded research and development. Technovation, 335-341.
Wu, P.-H., Lin, C.-C., Liao, H.-F., Tsao, F.-M., Hsieh, W.-S., & Chen, P.-C. (2012, October). Maternal mobile phone
use and children’s neurocognitive development. 31(5), 436.
Purpose – Society may be on the verge of a revolutionary phase of mobile device use in higher
education generally and in libraries in particular. This paper seeks to address this issue.
Design/methodology/approach – Through an examination of trends and technological
developments in the area of mobile devices and a review of the potential of mobile devices, the
paper analyzes the potential of mobile devices in academic libraries. Findings – Most college
students own cell phones and laptops and the capabilities of these and other devices are
expanding. Research limitations/implications – Libraries have the opportunity to extend new
types of services to users of mobile devices and to develop, license, or otherwise make available
scholarly content that is configured for mobile devices. Ideally, libraries will become part of an
institutional planning process for the development of services for mobile devices. Practical
implications – The more pervasive use by students of smartphones, the uptake of e-book readers,
and the increasing use of mobile devices in some areas of the curriculum all have implications
for libraries. Social implications – Some writers in this area believe that the increased capabilities
of mobile devices could lead to new forms of engagement with student learning; this possibility
can be embraced by academic libraries that seek to be strong partners in the teaching and
learning process of their institution. Originality/value – The paper synthesizes developments and
provides suggestions for the future.
m Services in libraries
Edited by Brena Smith and Michelle Jacobs
In the past few decades, some technological changes have appeared gradually and their impact
on higher education has been incremental. In other cases, over relatively short periods of time,
technological changes, such as the introduction of Web browsers, have had a major, and some
would say revolutionary, impact on higher education as well as the broader society. Which will it
be for mobile devices? Will their impact be gradual and incremental or sudden and
revolutionary? There is a case for both points of view. Since individuals have been using devices
such as laptops and mobile phones for decades, one might argue that the impact of the use of
mobile devices on peoples’ behavior in general and on higher education in particular has been
relatively gradual. On the other hand, as devices with compelling new features emerge and
wireless connectivity is almost ubiquitously available, we may be on the verge of a revolutionary
phase of mobile device impact on higher education and libraries.
This article will examine trends and developments for mobile devices and will discuss what
impact they may have on the future of academic library services. The article focuses on a few
types of mobile devices (particularly smartphones and e-book readers), selected applications for
mobile devices, and provides some thoughts on the implications for library information and
While many academic libraries are experimenting with various types of reference services for
users of mobile devices, fewer are thinking of the potentially dramatic changes that the uptake of
devices with sophisticated capabilities may have on their user community and more specifically
on the use of digital information resources. Keeping abreast of this rapidly changing arena can be
challenging, and this article attempts to provide an overview of developments of significance to
The 2010 edition of the annual and influential Horizon Report ( New Media Consortium,
2010), sponsored by the New Media Consortium and the EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative, came
out at the time of the writing of this article. Mobile computing was the first trend they identified,
with an adoption timeframe of one year or less. The 2010 report marks the fourth appearance of
mobile computing on this annual list of key technology trends for higher education. The report is
compiled through a process to first identify a wide array of current and emerging technologies,
which are then ranked in importance by an international advisory board using a modified Delphi
process . Therefore, many individuals around the world who are involved in developing,
using, and monitoring technologies in higher education believe that mobile computing has great
significance for our education institutions. Last year’s report commented, “Over the past several
years, we have watched mobiles become ever more capable and more common. The rapid pace
of innovation in this arena continues to increase the potential of these little devices, challenging
our ideas of how they should be used and presenting additional options with each new generation
of mobiles” ( New Media Consortium, 2009, p. 9).
The students that we serve in higher education often own a variety of mobile devices, including
laptop computers, cell phones, and MP3 players or other audio player devices. In 2008, the
annual EDUCAUSE survey of undergraduates’ use of technology stopped asking about student
ownership of cell phones because they are so ubiquitous. However, they have been asking about
ownership of Internet-capable handheld devices for the past few years so that they can monitor
this emerging trend. In the 2009 survey, about half of students reported owning an Internet
capable handheld device and around 12 percent said they plan to purchase one in the next year
( Smith et al. , 2009, p. 87). Many students do not use the internet capabilities of their
devices at present, primarily due to cost considerations. In order to better understand how
students might want to use internet-capable cell phones, the survey asked this year about
potential uses. Only 14.8 percent selected “library services” as one of the top three institutional
services they would most likely use from a smartphone ( Smith et al. , 2009, p. 102). While
librarians might feel discouraged by this number, I think it is likely that students do not yet
understand the full range of library content and services that they might potentially reach via a
Mobile devices include laptops, netbooks, notebook computers, cell phones, audio players such
as MP3 players, cameras, and other items. This article will focus on smartphones (and assumes
the inclusion of the iPod Touch, which has the features of a smartphone minus traditional
telephone capabilities) and on e-book readers. The array of names used for telephone handheld
devices can be confusing, e.g. cell phone, mobile phone, handheld device, smartphone, etc. The
use of the term “smartphone” has become popular to identify devices that have Internet
capability and functionalities that are similar to computers, although there is no industry-wide
standard definition of the term ( Wikipedia, 2009). The capabilities and uses of smartphones
have gone well beyond the simple cell phones of 20 years ago. When Americans first bought cell
phones, they used them for communication on-the-go and the communication was solely via
voice phone calls. While Europeans, Asians, and Africans have long used their mobile phones
for text messaging, many Americans were much slower to move into this different mode of
communication via the phone device. Only when the service became more predictably affordable
and teenagers in households quickly adopted the mode of communication did texting begin to
take off in the US. The third way that individuals use some cell phones – smartphones – for
communication is e-mail; internet-capable models such as Blackberries and iPhones make
checking and writing e-mail from many venues possible and more convenient than carrying a
laptop computer in all travel situations. In a period of around twenty years, mobile phone devices
have become much more versatile, allowing communication between and among individuals in
at least three ways that are now considered mainstream, e.g. voice, texting, and e-mail. In
addition, other modes of communication, such as the use of Twitter or communicating updates
on a Facebook page, are becoming popular activities on cell phones.
While this range of communication capabilities has significance for libraries, especially in the
provision of reference service, it is possible that it will actually be the use of smartphones for
reading, watching, listening to, and producing digital content that will have the most impact on
libraries. The lightning pace of development of new applications, or apps, for smartphones such
as the iPhone, is enhancing the ability to use a wide range of information resources in various
formats on handheld devices. At MIT, with the introduction of the iPhone in spring, 2007, they
found that the functionalities “spurred mobile web access on the MIT campus, especially among
students. For many users, the mobile device was no longer just a telephone; rather, it was quickly
evolving into a handheld information retrieval device ( Albrecht and Pirani, 2009, p. 6).”
The 2010 Horizon Report states, “Third party applications for all kinds of tasks can now be
developed once and ported to a variety of mobile platforms… It is these applications that are
making mobiles such an indispensable part of our lives. Tools for study, productivity, task
management, and more have been integrated into a single device that we grab along with car
keys and wallet ( New Media Consortium, 2010).”
It is truly remarkable to consider the kinds of activities one can engage in today using a single
handheld device, including:
– Voice and video calling.
– Sending and receiving e-mail.
– SMS text messaging.
– Searching the internet.
– Searching databases of scholarly information.
– Organizing citations.
– Accessing a course management system.
– Reading or listening to books and articles.
– Taking photos.
– Playing videos.
– Making videos.
– Setting an alarm clock.
– Using a GPS navigation system.
– Playing games.
In effect, the smartphone can provide capabilities that are very similar to laptop computers.
One of the questions for the future is whether individuals will prefer to own one device that has
many functions but may not perform all of them well or own a number of devices. It is likely that
individuals will vary in their reliance on a smartphone for various functions. For example, a
serious photographer will likely own and use a separate camera, and someone who writes
lengthy documents (e.g. college students and faculty) will likely continue to have some type of
computer that has a larger monitor and keyboard. Another question is what other types of devices
will emerge and win popularity. Roy  Tennant (2009) reports on prototype wearable
technology devices that include cameras that can record information and use it to find
information related to an item and then project that information onto a surface. A library user
could aim the camera to a code on a book in the stacks, software could connect the code to
information or reviews about the book, and then project that information onto a surface. We may
see more use of codes on labels, similar to bar codes that will link physical objects to information
on the internet. Lorcan  Dempsey (2009) reports that the University of Bath in the UK is
already using codes – specifically a type called QR codes ( EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative,
2009), in its catalog. A user can scan the code into his or her phone and go into the stacks to find
it with the call number readily available on the phone. In addition, the user can save the
information provided by the code to begin compiling a bibliography.
Libraries have traditionally served as a public good, providing resources and services to all,
including those who could not afford to purchase some types of content or services on their own.
While it is unlikely that li …
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