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Day 6: Scientific Notation & Concentration Terms (Notation, Metric System,
Concentration, Conversion)
Material: Slides 36 – 39
Goal: To learn how to recognize and utilize measurements
Slide 36: Scientific Notation
Slide 37: Metric systems, mg/liter, μg/liter
Slide 38: Concentration terms
Slide 39: Conversions (metric to English)
Day 7 Application of Measurement Units (Plato’s Noble Lie, Alloys, Carat,
Material: Slides 40 – 46
Goal: To learn about base and noble metals, What are the properties of metal mixtures,
jewelry calculations, To review the periodic table
Slide 40: Noble metals
Slide 41: Alloys, review elements names and families
Slide 42: What is a carat?
Slide 43: Making pure gold in air
Slide 44: 24 carat
Slide 45: How much gold, mass fraction
Slide 46: Percent gold
Day 6-7
1. Metric System
The Greek prefixes are used for values greater than one.
The Latin prefixes are used for values less than one.
Greek prefixes: da = 10, h = 100, k = 1000, M = one million, G = 10+9, T = 10+12
Latin prefixes: d = 0.1, c = 0.01, m = 0.001, micro = 10-6 , n = 10-9 , p = 10-12
2. 2-D dimensional Analysis
A = (S1)(S2) = Area of a square or rectangle
example: S1 = 2.54 in and S2 = 2.54 cm
(2.54 in)(2.54 cm)(2.54 cm/ 1in) = (2.54)(2.54)(2.54) cm2 = 16.387064 cm2
Reported answer is A = 16.4 cm2
Learn: 2.54 cm = 1 in, MKS=meter, kilogram, second.
Learn:1000 mL = liter, 1 cm3 = 1 mL,
TK = (1K/1oC)TC + 273.15 K,
TF = (9oF/5oC)TC + 32oF
3. 3-D dimensional Analysis
V=(A)(S3) = volume of a cube or box
S1 = 4.32 m, S2 = 3.25 cm, S3 = 2.54 mm
V = (4.32 m)(3.25 cm)(1m/100cm)(2.54 mm)(1m/1000 mm) =
V = (4.32)(3.25)(2.54) X 10-5 m3
V = 35.6616 X (10-1 X 10+1) X 10-5 m3 = 3.56616 X 10-4 m3
The reported answer is 3.57 X 10-4 m3.
1 troy ounce of four nines fine gold (999.9)
999.999—six nines fine: the purest gold ever produced. Refined by the Perth Mint in 1957.
999.99—five nines fine: the purest type of gold currently produced; the Royal Canadian Mint regularly
produces commemorative coins in this fineness, including the world’s largest at 100 kg.
999.9—four nines fine: e.g., ordinary Canadian Gold Maple Leaf and American Buffalo coins
999—24 karat, also occasionally known as three nines fine: e.g., Chinese Gold Panda coins
995: the minimum allowed in Good Delivery gold bars
990—two nines fine
986—Ducat fineness: formerly used by Venetian and Holy Roman Empire mints; still in use in Austria and
958.3—23 karat
916—22 karat: historically the most widely used fineness for gold bullion coins; currently used for British
Sovereigns, South African Krugerrands and American Gold Eagles
900—one nine fine: mostly used in Latin Monetary Union mintage (e.g. French and Swiss “Napoleon coin” 20
834—20 karat
750—18 karat
625—15 karat
585—14 karat
417—10 karat
376—9 karat
Day 6-7
333—8 karat: minimum standard for gold in Germany after 1884
Alloys are interesting. In the early days, people just mixed the things together and used color to tell the
differences. After a while, people understood alloys.
Prior to introduction of the nickel, five-cent pieces were very small silver coins called half dimes. Due to
shortages of silver during and after the American Civil War, an alternative metal was needed for five-cent
coinage, and the copper-nickel alloy still in use today was selected. Numerous problems plagued the coinage
of nickels through the middle of the 20th century due to the extreme hardness of the alloy, but modern minting
equipment has proven more than adequate for the task.
Applying the term “nickel” to a coin actually precedes the usage of five-cent pieces made from nickel alloy.
The term was originally applied to the Indian cent coin from 1859- 1864 which was composed of coppernickel. Throughout the Civil War these cents were referred to as “nickels” or “nicks.” When the three-cent
nickel came onto the scene in 1865, these were the new “nickels” to the common person on the street. In 1866,
the Shield nickel hit the spotlight and forever changed the way Americans associated coins made from nickel
alloy with a particular denomination.
Jefferson Five Cent Pieces have a weight of 5.00 grams, and they are 21.21 mm in diameter, 1.95 mm thick,
with a plain edge. With the exception of a period during World War II , nickels have been made out of an alloy
of 25% nickel and 75% copper since their introduction in 1866.During World War II the nickel was needed for
the war effort so the composition was changed to 56% copper, 35% silver, and 9% manganese.
Bronze, in metallurgy, is an alloy of copper, tin, zinc, phosphorus, and sometimes small amounts of other
elements. Bronzes are harder than brasses. The properties of brass vary with the proportion of copper and zinc
and with the addition of small amounts of other elements, such as aluminum, lead, tin, or nickel. Most bronzes
are produced by melting the copper and adding the desired amounts of tin, zinc, and other substances. The
properties of the alloy depend on the proportions of its components. Aluminum bronze has high strength and
resists corrosion; it is used for bearings, valve seats, and machine parts. Leaded bronze, containing from 10%
to 29% lead, is cast into heavy–duty bushings and bearings. Silicon bronze is used for telegraph wires and
chemical containers. Phosphor bronze is used for springs. Bronze is used for coins, medals, steam fittings, and
gunmetal and was formerly employed for cannon. Because of its particularly sonorous quality, bell metal,
containing from 20% to 24% tin, is used for casting bells. Bronze has long been used in art, e.g., for castings,
engravings, and forgings. Steel is an alloy of iron, carbon, and small proportions of other elements. Iron
contains impurities in the form of silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, and manganese; steel making involves the
removal of these impurities, known as slag, and the addition of desirable alloying elements. Titanium is
present in the sun and certain other stars, in meteorites, and on the moon. Titanium dioxide causes the star
effect in certain sapphires and rubies. The element was discovered (1791) by William Gregor and rediscovered
(1795) by M. H. Klaproth, who gave it its present name
Plato’s Noble lie was a story he told his students about the soul which was blessed by the gods by mixing select
individuals with gold (philosophical rulers), silver (“auxiliaries” [the military/police force]), or iron and bronze
(craftsmen). I wondered what he thought of the soul of slaves, but that is another story. In chemistry, the word
base is used for those who are low-born. Copper is considered a base metal as it oxidizes relatively easily,
although it does not react with HCl which makes it special. Copper is a noble metal according to the physics
definition of noble metals. Iron is special too because it is so strong. Noble metals are weaker than iron,
however only noble metals have outstanding resistance to oxidation, even at high temperatures. Also, a base
metal is a common and inexpensive metal, as compared to the cost of precious metals. Plato thought believing
in virtues like the golden heart helped society more than telling the truth. We do not have different metals in
our bodies. In reality, we could not live without certain base metals since they help our muscles and blood
function properly, and in society too, we all need to use different skills.
What are the origins of form, matter, and thought? I see form as the specific structure of a phase while matter
has mass and some type of volume. Thought is how the specific forms use the diad of positive and negative
charges. So, whatness is something I need to think about . . .
Monad (atom) vs. Dyad (electron-proton)
The abstract concept of the element begins with the idea that there is a conserved entity which does not change
with time. This concept was developed from the time of Thales (c600 B.C.), arche or the fundamental
Day 6-7
principle, to Empedocles (c450 B.C), the four roots of everything. Plato (c428 B.C.) associated physical
properties with water, air, fire, and earth, and Aristotle (c330 B.C.) described the concept of a direct carrier of
properties being associated with the four entities. Lavoisier (c1770) attempted to apply the idea that oxygen
was the carrier of the acidic, but later the concept led him to reject Aristotle’s hypothesis for use in describing
an element. Rather, Robert Boyle’s idea (c1660) that an element was a pure substance that could not be broken
down into any other pure substances was a better idea. Sub-atomic particles do not fall into this category.
Elements have their own unique properties. They do not carry physical properties associated with
thermodynamic states. Physical and chemical properties are different. Dalton (c1800) thought the defining
physical property of the element was atomic weights. However, Meyers (c1865) thought that it was size. Yet,
Mendeleyev (c1868) examined compounds and grouped the elements by valences. He thought that the element
was a conserved entity in a substance. It was the simple substance in elementary form. This led to a periodic
table based upon reactivity. Following the discovery of the atomic nucleus by Ernest Rutherford (c1911),
Antonius van den Broek proposed that the place of each element in the periodic table is equal to its nuclear
charge, Z. This was confirmed experimentally by Henry Moseley in 1913 using X-ray spectra. This Z is the
unique physical property of each element. The atom was electronic which means that it has electrical fields of
force flowing out from a positive charge to a negative charge with electrical fields of force flowing in. The
electrons move quickly, and they surround the slower positive proton. The charges are balanced, and the atom
has a net neutral charge. All elements have electrons and protons in equal number. The other sub-atomic
particles are interesting phenomena too. The nucleus is made up of up and down quarks which have partial
charges when compared with the electron. One combination makes up the proton (uud), another combination
makes up the neutron (udd). Electrons are not made up of quarks. They are leptons. So, the fundamental
particle is a dyad not a monad. It is the electron and proton, and all elements are made up from these and other
things. The notion of courage and justice on virtue and leadership: Human Excellence (being noble) Vs
Excellence of Property (being human)
Physical Nature: Form, size, matter
Biological Nature: Growth, nourishment, reproduction
Animal Nature: Household management: Workmanship, parent, husband/wife
Human Nature: Acquisition of inanimate things: Ruler/Philosopher, military/auxiliaries, craftsmen
Invisible Nature: Spirit, Soul, Being

Day 4 The Periodic Table ( Review Matter, Periodic Table, Atomic Number, Mass
Number )
Goal: Distinguish between element and compound using periodic table, understand
mass number and mass, counting protons and electrons, learn to read periodic table
Slide 20: Summary of Matter
Slide 21: Groups and periods
Slide 22: Same number of protons and electron, different number of protons
Slide 23: Atomic number, symbol, mass and mass number
Slide 24: Atomic number drill
Slide 25: Mass number drill
Slide 26: Metals, Nonmetals, Metalloids
Slide 27: Summary of the Periodic Table
Day 5: Measurements (Units, Big & Small, Mass Fraction, part per large number);
Material: Slides 28 – 35
Goal: To learn to recognize units, To learn how to write an equation, To recognize and
manipulate big and small quantities
Slide 28: Counting and measuring
Slide 29: What is a measurement?
Slide 30: Formulating a measurement
Slide 31: Measurement quantities, cgs vs. MKS
Slide 32: Measuring pollutants
Slide 33: Particle and mass fraction, parts per hundred
Slide 34: Parts per million
Slide 35: Parts per billion
The term transition elements dates back to 1921, when English chemist Charles Bury
referred to a transition series of elements on the periodic table with an inner layer of
electrons that was in transition between stable groups, going from a stable group of 8 to
one of 18, or from a stable group of 18 to one of 32. Today these elements are also
known as d block elements. The transition elements all are metals, so they are also
known as transition metals.
Aristotle summarized the natural philosophical elements in the Organic Cycle of Life.
Boyle supposed about elements in “The Sceptical Chymist” in 1661.
Antoine Lavoisier publishes a table of elements in his book “Elementary Treatise on
Chemistry” in 1789.
John Dalton in 1808 set up a table of relative masses in his book “A New System of
Chemical Philosophy.”
The “Triads” of Dobereiner (1816): Similarities between the atomic mass, reactivity and
other properties between the middle element of certain three elements (atomic numbers
(3, 11, 19), (20, 38, 56), (16, 34, 52), (17, 35, 53))
Jons Jakob Berzelius in 1828 was the first person to prepare an extensive list of 54
atomic weights.
Dumas (1800-1884) in 1859 extended Dobereiner’s triads into families of elements in
“Telluric Helix” of de Chancourtois (1862): Arranged elements in order of atomic mass
and founded that similar elements fell along the same vertical lines.
“Law of Octaves” by John Newlands (1863): For the first twenty elements, the elements
when arranged by increasing atomic masses showed similar properties for every eighth
Meyer’s system of elements (1868), one of the first periodic tables
Mendeleev’s Periodic Table (1869), The first published and most successful early
periodic table
1. Atomic Weight and mass
Many elements have isotopes. The periodic table is based upon Carbon-12. We can
mathematically calculate the atomic weights of each element per particle. This would be
complicated to do. Rather, one just looks up the values using a periodic table.
For example: Aw(B) =10.811 amu/particle
Aw(O) = 15.9994 amu/particle
Note: many authors leave out the particle because the atomic weight of one B particle is
10.811 amu is implied in the equality.
It is sometimes difficult to count a particle. So, moles and grams are used with atomic
For example: Am(B) =10.811 g/mol
Am(O) = 15.9994 g/mol
This is read: The atomic mass of one mole of B is 10.811 grams.
One mole of anything is equal to 6.022 X 10+23 particles of anything
A liquid is not a solid even though the attractive forces are strong enough to restrict the
motion of molecules. A liquid is not a gas even though there is not a fixed lattice
structure. Liquids are easily viewed in closed systems. If the system is open, then the
kinetic energy of the liquid will allow the molecules to escape into the surroundings as a
gas after some time period. If the kinetic energy of the liquid is allowed to be decreased
over some time period, then the liquid adopts an order which is dependent upon the
quantum mechanical balance between orbital interaction and electrostatic factors.
Intermolecular forces will prevail in systems with lower kinetic energy, and the particles
will first come together to form a primary structure. The primary structure then can form
various types of arrays increasing size and mass due to some sort of exothermic and
exoergic process. These arrays typically form surfaces, coils and shells. These arrays
can be deformed into different geometries before they gather together to form solids
with lower kinetic energies and greater atomic order than the liquid. Most elements are
solids at standard temperature and pressure, STP, due to packing considerations.
Some elements form molecular diatomic gases at STP while the closed shell noble
gases are all monatomic gases. Only monatomic mercury and diatomic bromine are
liquids at STP, and maybe monatomic gallium if the temperature is increased a little to
29.79 degrees centigrade. Most elements do not form liquids at STP. Intramolecular
forces disrupt the packing of elements by arranging them into different geometries. And
so, there are many liquids in nature. Some notable liquids are the polar water molecule
and the nonpolar benzene molecule.
1. 1g = 6.022 X 1023 amu
1. A. Atomic Mass Units = amu
B. Calculate 1 amu = 1.66054 X 10-24 g
2. M(p+) = 1.0073 amu, M(e-) = 5.486 X 10-4 amu, M(n) = 1.0087 amu
A. M(e-) = 9.11 X 10-28 g use the proper conversion to get this number
in atomic mass units.
B. The mass number of an electron is zero. Its unit charge is minus
C. The mass number of a proton is 1. Its unit charge is positive one.
D. The mass number of a neutron is 1. Its unit charge is zero.
3. Isotopes and ions
A. In an atom, the number of electrons are equal to the number of
B. If the number of protons are changed, then the atom is a different
C. If the number of electrons do not equal the number of protons,
then an ion.
D. If the number of electrons are greater than the number of protons,
then an anion.
E. If the number of electrons are less than the number of protons,
then a cation.
F. If there is a change in the number of neutrons, then a isotope.
G. The nuclide symbol: atomic symbol, mass number and atomic
Ex. Calcium-40. The atomic symbol is Ca. The mass number is forty.
The atomic number is twenty (which is read from the periodic table or
is figured out by knowing that calcium is element number twenty).
H. Mass number is superscripted to the left of the atomic symbol = the
number of protons plus the number of neutrons
I. The atomic number is subscripted to the left of the atomic symbol =
the number of protons
J. A negative charge superscript to the right of the atomic symbol
means a gain of electrons. The number associated with the sign is
added to the atomic number for anions.
K. A positive charge superscript to the right of the atomic symbol
means a loss of electrons. The number associated with the sign is
subtracted from the atomic number for cations.
4. Periodic table and predictions
A. The periodic table has four major blocks. The main group elements
are in blocks s and p. The transition elements are in block d. The
inner-transition elements are in block f.
B. The s-block is made up by combining columns one and two.
C. The p-block is made up by combining columns 13-18.
D. Many of the common atomic ions can be made from the neutral
atoms by gaining or losing electrons until the number of electrons
equal the number of protons for the nearest or next nearest noble gas.
Noble gases are found in column 18.
E. The columns are called groups or families, and the rows are called
F. Families of elements usually have similarities in chemical
G. Each period is associated with an energy level from block to block.

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