Expert answer:University of Nairobi Safety Management and Hazard


Solved by verified expert:Q1) Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a step-by-step approach for identifying all possible failures in a design, a manufacturing or assembly process, or a product or service. This technique considers all possible outcomes from all failure modes or deviation. This mode of analysis is widely applied at different levels of complexity and is best suitable to analyze complex mechanical and electrical systems. Briefly discuss about FMEA roadmap used to complete failure mode analysis of a particular component. Perform an FME analysis on Subsea Blow out Preventer (BOP) used in offshore drilling process. (Minimum1500 words ) Q2) Hazard Identification and analysis is the process of identifying the hazards involved in a process Industry and subsequent study for implementing mitigating measures. This study involves the integrated analysis of the potential risks involved in the operation of the process plant and focus on the problems associated with difference between the actual and proposed design. It also involves the problems associated with the operation of the plant. Major Causes of hazards in process industry includes deviation from the actual design and changes in operating conditions of the process variables. Citing suitable examples from process industry briefly explain about the following hazard analysis techniques:(1500 words) I. Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) II. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) III. What if/Checklist Hybrid Analysis Note: Q1) minimum 1500 words Q2) minimum 1500 words – Paraphrase – include relevant calculation, and justification wherever necessary. Include relevant pictures, diagrams, charts, graphs, tables etc. Give proper in-text-citations and reference (APA/Harvard style) – include conclusion for etch quotation


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Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
What do you understand by FMEA? FMEA is abbreviated as failure mode and effect
analysis; this is an alternative method of hazard identification. This considers all possible
outcomes from all failure modes or deviations. This is suitable to complex
mechanical and electrical systems. This can be applied at different levels of complexity.
If we look at FMEA, this systematically identifies consequences of component level
failure. This determines significance of each failure with regard to the system’s overall
performance. This method is primarily used to study material and equipment failure.
As the name suggests FMEA, each failure mode within the system is traced. For
example, you have a mechanical or a electrical system, you tried identify each failure
mode within the system. The effect on the overall performance of the system is studied
for example, you have a system, you are able to identify one such failure mode within
that system. Now, you are interested to know, what is the effect of that failure mode on
the overall performance of the complete system – that is why this is called failure mode
and effect analysis.
So, you identify a failure mode for a given system usually it is mechanical or electrical
system, for the identified failure mode what is its effect on the overall performance of the
system – that is what we analyze. The effect of each failure mode is then carried forward
in a sequence to estimate the overall effect. For example, you have identified an
mechanical or electrical system in that system you have identified many failure modes
not only a single one, there are let us say for example, many failure modes, for each
failure mode you find its effect on the overall performance. If there are more than one
failure mode, you then you try to identify the sequence of this failure. So that what is the
effect of these failure modes, in its sequence to the overall effect of the systems?
The steps to do FMEA or the methodology is, explained very simple below. First define
the system to be evaluated. Identify the functional relationship of the components of the
system and their performance requirements. Remember for a given system we are
interested in identifying the components and their performance requirements. Then
establish the level of analysis what you want. You may wonder, how many levels of
analysis exists in FMEA, I will answer this question subsequently in this presentation.
So, let us say, I will try to establish the level of analysis required for the identified
system. Then for the given system, now identify failure modes – there can be only one
failure mode or there can be many failure modes. You may fundamentally ask a question
in mind, if I am saying identify a failure mode for a given system, how do I identify a
failure mode, because the given system is a new system? How do we really know in a
given new system, which mode will fail or how the system will fail? That is where an
engineering knowledge is being employed in doing FMEA. I will come to that in detail
by giving you at least three examples to make an FMEA for different systems which I
will solve today.
So, for a defined system let us say, I am able to identify all least one failure mode then
for the identified failure mode, I am able to locate the cause why this failure mode is
happening. The effect if the failure mode occurs what will be the effect in the overall
performance of the system and then their relative importance in the overall system – that
is what we say consequence. Then identify failure detection, can you detect this failure in
advance by means of employing sensors, by means of some mechanical instrumentation,
can I detect this failure in advance?
So, identify any such existing failure detection mechanisms and also possibly any
rectification mechanism which is advancely available in the system. Then identify a
design and operating provisions against such failures. For example, the identified system
has got many failure modes; all failure modes necessarily may not hamper the operation.
So, identify the design and operating provisions, even if such failure occurs. Once you
have done this summarize your action report. So, this is actually the sequence of steps
involved in doing an FMEA.
Now, let us define a system, which I am going to consider for FMEA analysis today.
What do you understand by definition of the system? You in general as you know, since
the process may be a complex task, FMEA is generally performed in small steps – that is
a micro level study. So, you establish the extent of the system to be studied. So, the
whole system is a very large system and it is very complex. You do not have wished to
do an FMEA initially for the complete system. You pick up a segment of the system and
try to establish the limitations of this system which you are studying under FMEA.
Then also study the interaction of components before hand; on the other hand, for a
system identified by you try to understand the complete working principle of the system
in total. So, try to identify different interaction of various components before you start
doing an FMEA for an identified system. For example, ladies and gentlemen, if you do
not know, how the mechanical working principle of the system is I am sure you will not
be able to actually identify the interaction between the components present in that
system. So, you have definition means you have got to understand the working
philosophy of this system in total.
Let us talk about the level of analysis I mentioned in the previous slide. FMEA is
generally performed on the functional structure of the system. It is not done on the
physical components of the system; please remember this sentence very carefully. I am
repeating this sentence again. I have identified a system, the system is a mechanical or a
electrical system; you have got many physical components, many physical parts present
in the system; FMEA does not analyze the physical components of the system, then what
FMEA does? FMEA does the functional study of the components of the system.
Remember that it is a functional level analysis; it is not a physical level analysis.
So, in a functional structure, failure modes are expressed. For example, you have a
physical component; you know the functional feature of that component. If that feature
does not work properly then I can call that as a failure mode. So, failure modes are
expressed as failure to perform a particular function.
Now you can easily compare this scenario with what we discussed in hazop. In hazop
study just for recapitulating; try to understand and recollect that it is got two backbones one is what we called as a design intent, other is what we called as a deviation. Now
can we relate what is a failure mode with respect to is it a design intent or it is a
question. For example, the failure mode of FMEA is similar to dash, fill in the blanks of
that often hazop study.
Now, identify the failure mode that may be in a primary function. Now what is a primary
function? Primary functions are those for which subsystem is provided. Then what is the
secondary function? Secondary function as those is one of the consequences of the sub
system presence. So, these two are inter related.
Once you do that all possible failure modes should be considered in your analysis. You
may ask me a question, so what are the different possible failure modes which I must
considered in my FMEA. I have giving a list of examples here. Premature operation, for
example, you want a valve to be open when the temperature reaches t degree Celsius, but
is a possibility there the valve may open before temperature is t degrees premature
operation failure to operate when required. For example, you have a pressure relief valve
which will open and release the pressure, when the pressure inside a vessel reaches let us
say ten bar for example.
Now, if the pressure relief valve does not operate despite the pressure reaches ten bar
then I can say failure to operate when required. Now intermittent operation, for example,
you do not want a specific component to operate at specific temperature and pressure,
but still the components start operating physically; intermittent operation or there may be
some usual intervention in the whole process, what will be the consequences analysis of
failure of that kind of intermittent operation. Now failure to cease operation when
required, now when the temperature drops down to a specific value then the temperature
sensor should not work, for example, you should not operate failure, but the question is
that sensor is still under operation, so failure to cease operation when required.
Now you have got a sensor, the sensor is supposed to give me an output, but the output is
not coming from the sensor loss of output during operation or you may get an output, but
it is not desired to the specific quality. So, degraded output all these are different views
of failure modes what we put them as different possible failure modes which must be
considered in your FMEA.
After identifying the various failure modes, the likely cause and their effects are then
studied. The cause and effects are studied on the both the components concerned and on
the overall performance of this system remember that. I wanted to know what is the
cause and effect of failure mode of the component, and what is the sequential effect of
that failure of a component on the overall performance of the system that is what FMEA
is? So, it starts analyzing the system from a micro level to the macro level. Remember
that you shall always have a sequence of failure in your operation. In such cases,
consideration is generally given to the relative importance of the effects and the sequence
they occur. If you identify in a safeguards in a system, please note that any such system
shall then be examined separately.
How do you report once you identify all these things? Now amongst the given identified
failure modes, now select the most significant failure. You may ask mean the significant
respect to what in terms of their effects on the overall system, that is why we said
sequential analysis. For example, you have got different failure modes amongst the
failure mode one of them is having a very significant effect on the overall performance
of the system then identify them in terms of its rank.
Also identify whether existing safeguards and detection devices are adequate to trace
such failure in advance. After you do this in a given system identify what we call as a
weak link. What do you meant by a weak link? Weak link will be one that has the
highest rank of failure, for that weak link do detailed analysis. One may also do the redesign to reduce the probability of failure of the components in the weak link. So, in
FMEA, ladies and gentlemen, we have one of the meritorious advantage of the system
analysis is that in a given system after identify different failure modes one can really
narrow down to what we call as a weak link in the given system.
So, if you are able to identify the weak link, then try to do a detail analysis only on the
weak link components or try to re-design those components. So that the performance
level of the overall system can be increased.
Now you may wonder, what is a format by which I can report FMEA. It is a simple
tabular column format; you must identify the component, you must specify the failure
modes or mode of that component, what will be the effect of that failure mode on the
overall performance? Therefore, you start commenting it. I have got an example where I
will fill up this column slightly in a more descriptive manner.
We will now discuss one example of preparing FMEA for a passenger car. This is
basically a design FMEA where I have got a model of a passenger automobile, where I
want to see how can we apply the failure mode effect analyze study for this problem;
So, what we understand from this is I had a car the car was going at a specific velocity,
because of the road surface had some skid problem the brake was suddenly applied to
the braking system device had been applied to the vehicle. Now, what will be the effect
of this kind of design in FMEA we will talk about that now with an illustrated example.
We will explain now the anti-skid braking system which we just now show a video. Now
the figure below which was showing you is actually is a layout of passenger car of an
anti-skid braking system. The objective of this study is to prevent the locking of front
wheels during heavy breaking under bad road conditions. Now, there are two sensors
speed sensors S 1 and S 2 which is present and measure the speed in the front wheel.
The FMEA now considers six components into account sensors S 1, S 2, S 3 and valves
V 1, V 2 under micro computer. Now these failure modes and effects are analyzed now
using a design FMEA problem. Let us now look at what are the possible failure modes
that can occur in this problem the sensors can fail to give an output for example, S 1, S 2,
and S 3 are the sensors located in the front wheel and the driving shaft respectively. This
has to supply a signal system to my micro computer, but there is no output coming from
the sensors, that can be one possible failure mode.
The second can be the valves fail to open on demand the valves V 1 and V 2 should
open, so that the driving shaft is controlled obviously, but sometimes there may be an
erroneous or the spurious system of working of this valve, the valves do not open on
demand. On the other hand, there can be a possibility that the opened valves do not also
close when they are required to be closed, because the speed is got to be anyway
maintained in the car.
So, the valves do not close is also an option of a failure mode, and ultimately the signals
comes from the sensors in the valve mechanism is operating successfully, but still the
micro-computer and associated electronics may fail to give the required output, so that
the valves are not controlled properly and effectively by the micro computer. So, you
have got different failure modes analyzed from the passenger car system, which is for an
anti skid braking system as demonstrated in the video.
When you looked at the FMEA anti skid braking system of the car, you have got this
table being filled up very comfortably.
Let us say talking about the rear wheel; I avoid this sensor S 3. The sensor S 3 of this
rare wheel does not generate an output. So, in that case, micro controller will have no
reference speed from the rare wheel at all. So, it has no idea what is a speed of the
driving shaft and the rear wheel therefore, it will not attempt to close the valve V 1 and V
2 because it is having no signal from S 3 at all. So, both front wheels could lock on
heavy breaking, it will jammed the vehicle.
So, in that situation when any sensor is not working, I must have an alarm system. Talk
about the micro controller or micro computer, no output signal is generated either from
the front wheel valves or from the sensors. In that case, both front wheels may be
jammed or may be locked because of heavy breaking. You need an alarm system to
control that kind of situation. No output signal is coming from one of the front wheel
valve, let say one wheel will get blocked you have an uneven breaking therefore, alarm
system is required.
Spurious output to both front wheel valves for example, the front wheel valves do not
open or should not open at a specific demand time, but they open, so spurious output. So,
total loss of front wheel braking will occur alarm system is required basically switch of
the computer. Spurious output of one front wheel valve in that case partial loss of front
wheel braking will occur. So, alarm system is required to switch of the computer. So,
remember when you identify the components look at the possible failure mode of each of
the component and try to see what is the effect of failure mode of each of the component
of the overall performance of the vehicle then try to give your comment.
So, therefore, FMEA – failure mode effect analysis is a systematic tool for identifying the
effects or consequences of a potential failure; methods to eliminate or reduce chance of
failure is through FMEA. FMEA generates what we call as a living document that can be
used to anticipate failure and prevent failure from occurring.
Now, a very interesting question is asked, when to use FMEA? When should I employ
FMEA in my study? When used before the design generally it is very useful it should be
used before a final design at least is released the objective of FMEA is on failure
prevention and not on failure detection remember that as such FMEA is actually a
standard practice used in development of new products. So, whenever you launch a new
product either at the design stage or at least at the release of the final design FMEA is
generally done to check the possible failure preventions in the system rather than
detecting the possible failure.
There are two types of FMEA one can perform, one is what we call as a design FMEA this examines the functions of a component, the sub system or a main system
subsequently identifies the potential failures based on the improper material choice
inappropriate specification etcetera. The other type of FMEA could be the process
FMEA; it examines the process used to make a component, it identifies potential failures.
For example, the operator assembling parts incorrectly can be a part of observation from
a FMEA study.
Again FMEA like HAZOP has keywords. Basic and secondary functions what is a basic
functions basic function is about what the product does, secondary function is about what
the process does. So, one is a design intend, other is a deviation. So, that is what
comparable with HAZOP study as well.
What is a failure mode? Failure mode is the physical description of a failure. You have
got a physically described how a component will fail to perform its intended function.
Then what is a failure effect failure effect is nothing but the consequence of that failure
on human safety may be on people may be an equipments etcetera. Then what do you
understand by a failure cause, this refers to what is the reason this failure had occurred
cause of the failure.
When you look at the FMEA roadmap, let say I want to look at how I can prepare an
FMEA for a given component or a given product as a design level or process level, what
are all the steps I must follow to get into the FMEA analysis in complete.
First of all define the system or which we are going to perform the analysis, then identify
the different failure modes in that system. Then identify the effects of the failure modes
in that system. Once you identify the effects then you will know what will be the severity
and what is the occurrence of the system. Remember risk is something you do with this
two. Identify the cause for failure modes once you identify the cause also determine the
occurrences of that failure modes, then evaluate the control measures what you currently
have or verify the design process to introduce any such control measures in advance.
Then determine what you called detectability.
What do you understand by detectability? You already have identified some failure
modes now here try to see whether you can detect this failure modes some of them in
advance once you do that try to identify and find out what is the risk priority number. As
I told you the failures can be consequential the effect of any specific failure or any
specific failure mode on the system may not be same may not be equal for all failure
modes, one failure mode be severe consequence in the system other may not have.
So, try to prioritize the risk by giving what we call as a risk priority number. So,
remember that the qualitative features of failure mode are now slowly getting converted
into quantitative numbers by means of what we call as risk …
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