Expert answer:This is a kind of discussion, complete six journal


Solved by verified expert:Except for journal 6,
you do not have to write about art discussed in class. Just respond to the questions honestly and in
depth. I do not grade your journal entries. I only check them to make sure they are the required length
and to make sure that you have remained on task by addressing the prompts in detail. Each extra credit journal entry must be from 350 to 500 words in length. When all six journals are
complete, you will have written from 2,100 to 3,000 words. Upload all six entries as a single doc or pdf.
Provide a word count for each of your entries.Journal1: What do you consider to be your work in the world? Journal2: What landscape do you most associate with home?Journal3: If you were to make a self-portrait, which materials and tools would you use?Journal4: What does it feel like to be stereotyped?Journal5: Why is history important?Journal6: Which works of art discussed in class this quarter are you most likely to remember, and why?

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Extra credit (optional)
Six journal-writing assignments
To receive a higher letter grade in ARTS 1A, complete six journal entries based on the prompts listed
below. Each of the six entries must be a minimum of 350 words for you to receive extra credit.
If you complete this optional extra credit assignment successfully, I will raise your letter grade by onethird at the end of the quarter. For example, if you earned a B- in our class, I will raise your grade to a B.
If you earned a C, your grade would be raised to a C+. The only letter grade I cannot change at the end
of the quarter is an A. (I can change an A- to an A but I cannot change an A to an A+.)
The extra credit journal-writing entries correspond to themes explored in our class. Except for journal 6,
you do not have to write about art discussed in class. Just respond to the questions honestly and in
depth. I do not grade your journal entries. I only check them to make sure they are the required length
and to make sure that you have remained on task by addressing the prompts in detail.
Each extra credit journal entry must be from 350 to 500 words in length. When all six journals are
complete, you will have written from 2,100 to 3,000 words. Upload all six entries as a single doc or pdf.
Provide a word count for each of your entries.
Journal 1 (350 to 500 words)
What do you consider to be your work in the world?
The work of a poet? The work of a mother? The work of a bartender? The work of a social worker? The
work of a brother? Define “work” in relation to that which you consider to be your work in the world.
Journal 2 (350 to 500 words)
What landscape do you most associate with home?
Is it the place you now live? Is it a place you visit in your dreams? Is it your car? Consider the concept of
landscape in relation to your concept of home.
Journal 3 (350 to 500 words)
If you were to make a self-portrait, which materials and tools would you use?
Regardless of your skill level or engagement in art making, consider the various technical processes we
have explored in class as you explore the idea of making a portrait of yourself.
Journal 4 (350 to 500 words)
What does it feel like to be stereotyped?
Each of us has experienced people making assumptions about us based on our age, our appearance, our
perceived abilities, our sex, or other facets of our selves. How does it feel when it happens to you?
Journal 5 (350 to 500 words)
Why is history important?
While we have discussed the work of many artists who are working today, we have discussed even more
artists who produced work in history. Why is it important to keep an eye on the past?
Journal 6 (350 to 500 words)
Which works of art discussed in class this quarter are you most likely to remember, and why?
* * *
Chapter 3
Chapter 3
First, watch the following short video,
“Zanele Muholi: Vukani/Rise”:

Pair 1: Zanele Muholi and Frida Kahlo
Zanele Muholi
I. For her series “Faces and Phases,” artist Zanele Muholi uses
portraiture to document the presence of LGBT people in South
Africa, the first nation to acknowledge and include protection for
this community in its constitution. Portraiture is a subject type in
which the identity of the subject is the most important aspect of
the work of art. Zanele Muholi not only identifies her subjects by
producing a recognizable image of them, she also titles each work
with the subject’s first and last name and the location where she
photographed them. Each portrait is meant to be a document of
the existence of the subject of the portrait. In spite of the
constitutionally protected status of the LGBT community,
widespread homophobia has led to acts of violence upon many
black lesbians and others in South Africa.
Zanele Muholi
Xana Nyilenda, Newtown, Johannesburg
From the “Faces and Phases” series
Gelatin silver print
II. Zanele Muholi’s answer to the different forms of violence
enacted upon herself and members of her community is to
increase the visibility of those who identify as LGBT in South
Africa. In the portrait Xana Nyilenda, Newtown, Johannesburg, the
artist manipulates her photographic equipment to create a sharp,
highly detailed portrait. The implied texture, that is, the illusion of
variation on the surface of the image, especially the details of the
subject’s t-shirt and leather jacket, aids viewers in seeing Xana
Nyilenda having a strong material reality and presence.
Frida Kahlo
I. Unlike Zanele Muholi, who uses portraiture to document the
lives of people, Mexican artist Frida Kahlo painted people and
objects “just as I saw them with my own eyes and nothing more”.
Even so, in her Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair the artist offered
direct access to her identity. For this self-portrait, which refers to a
portrait of an artist created by the artist herself, Frida Kahlo
represented herself seated, looking directly at the viewer. The
details of surfaces are less important than the artist’s need for the
viewer to notice and consider the range of objects included in the
picture plane: a pair of scissors, hair strewn on the floor, a bright
yellow chair, an oversized man’s suit, and musical notes and lyrics
hovering above the artist.
Frida Kahlo
Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair
Oil on canvas
II. Largely self-taught, Frida Kahlo is often labeled a Surrealist.
Surrealism refers to a historical period in the 1920s and 1930s
during which artists produced imagery stemming from their
subconscious or unconscious selves, including imagery from
dreams. Whether or not Frida Kahlo applied this label to her work,
she exhibited her work with Surrealists. Viewers were not meant to
see Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair as a document of a specific
event. Rather, the artist communicated her state of mind while
making this self-portrait. The song at the top of the picture plane
offers a clue as to the tone this work was meant to achieve: “Look,
if I loved you it was because of your hair. Now that you are
without hair, I don’t love you anymore.”
Pair 2: Unidentified artists from Fayum and Ravenna
Unidentified artist from Fayum
I. Nearly for as long as people have been making art, people
have been making portraits. The ancient Egyptians found it
necessary to attach a portrait of a deceased person to her or his
mummy: the preserved body which was wrapped in cloths,
because they believed that an individual’s life force would go on
living after death, and regularly needed to reunite with the body.
Hundreds of portraits still attached to mummies have been found
buried at the Egyptian oasis of Fayum.
Unidentified artist from Fayum
Encaustic on wood
II. The portrait of a woman named Isidora made by an
unidentified painter at Fayum was produced by means of a
painting technique called encaustic, in which soft wax is mixed
with pigment (ground minerals or plant matter) then brushed
onto a wooden support. Such a technique was difficult to master
but permanent, since the sticky wax adhered well to wood. A
skilled artist using the encaustic technique could produce portrait
likenesses in great detail. Isidora’s golden headpiece, as well as
her earrings, indicate that she was an elite, like the others at
Fayum who were sufficiently wealthy to be mummified and have
their portraits attached to their mummy.
Unidentified artist from Ravenna
I. A mosaic is made by embedding small pieces of stone or
glass in cement, on surfaces such as walls or floors, and was a
widely used technical process throughout the period of the
Roman Empire. Later, during the sixth century, when the Emperor
Justinian and the Empress Theodora ruled over Byzantium, a
territory roughly equivalent with that which had been ruled by the
ancient Romans, an unidentified artist designed a representation
of the empress to be constructed on the wall of San Vitale, a
church in Ravenna, Italy. In this mosaic, Theodora is depicted as
participating in the Christian ceremony of the Eucharist (also
called “communion” or “mass”) which celebrates the death and
resurrection of Jesus. Robed in purple at the center of the
composition, she holds a ceremonial cup of wine.
Unidentified artist from Ravenna
Empress Theodora Participating in a Ceremony
San Vitale, Ravenna
c. 526-547
II. More than most technical processes of art making, a
mosaic has actual texture: physical surface variation. If a
mosaic is constructed on the floor, the variation in the surface
diminishes over time, since it is walked on, and eventually
becomes worn smooth. But the mosaic depicting the Empress
Theodora participating in a church ceremony was constructed on
a wall at San Vitale, and as such it has retained its textured
surface. If someone holding a candle were to stand near the
mosaic, the tiny pieces of colored stone or glass used to
construct it would reflect the candlelight unevenly, since the
surface of this work of art is highly textured.
Pair 3: Joshua Reynolds and Leonardo da Vinci
Joshua Reynolds
I. Completed soon after becoming the first president of Britain’s
Royal Academy of Arts in London, Joshua Reynolds painted The
Archers not to sell but to exhibit at the annual exhibition of the
academy. Exhibitions, that is, public displays of works of art, were
the primary ways that academic artists like Reynolds attracted
public attention to their work. A portrait of two friends, the
painting remained in Reynolds’s studio until the death of Colonel
Acland, pictured on right. In 1779, the colonel’s widow, Lady
Harriet Acland, purchased the painting from Reynolds.
Joshua Reynolds
Colonel Acland and Lord Sydney:
The Archers
Oil on canvas
II. In The Archers, Reynolds represents two friends, Lord
Sydney and Colonel Acland, as hunters within an extensive
landscape. To achieve this, he relies on a strong sense of
foreground/background. In the foreground, the part of the
landscape closest to the viewer, he places the friends in a thick
grove of trees, along with the animals they have killed during the
hunt. Reynolds achieves an illusion of depth receding into the
landscape by opening up the trees to offer a glimpse of the land in
the background, the part of the landscape farthest from the
Angelica Kauffman arranged Cornelia, Mother of the Gracci
(recall chapter 2) with similar attention to foreground and
background. Recall that it was Joshua Reynolds who invited
Angelica Kauffman to become a founding member of the British
Royal Academy of Arts in London.
Leonardo da Vinci
I. The most famous portrait is Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa.
The artist’s biographer, Giorgio Vasari, described Leonardo’s
innovation as a painter with the word sfumato: the artist had
“added a kind of shadowing to the method of coloring with oils”
to produce a smoky, or hazy, effect. Sfumato is the Italian word
for smoke. In an attempt to give forms an ideal sense of softness,
artists who use this approach avoid constructing outlines around
objects in their paintings.
Leonardo da Vinci
Mona Lisa
c. 1503-1506
Oil on wood
II. Another innovation associated with the Mona Lisa is
Leonardo’s use of the three-quarter view: a portrait view in
which the figure is represented between a profile and a frontal
view, for the purpose offering the greatest amount of physical
information about the sitter. Leonardo did not invent the threequarter view, but his use of it here indicates that he was
committed to offering a thoroughly comprehensive portrait of a
specific person: Lisa Gherardini, the wife of Francesco del
Giocondo, a merchant. Leonardo did not finish this work until
several years after he began it, and he died in France before
delivering it to the Giocondo family. The painting remains in
France today.
Pair 4: Lina Bo Bardi and Thomas Jefferson
Lina Bo Bardi
I. Italian architect Lina Bo Bardi completed her university
training as an architect in 1939, opened a professional studio in
1942, and oversaw the realization of one of her designs for the
first time in 1950: The Glass House, built in the rain forest outside
of São Paulo, Brazil. A proponent of rationalist architecture, that
is, an approach to architectural design and construction which
values efficiency, visual simplicity, and practical function, Lina
Bo Bardi also worked as an illustrator, journalist, and
administrator for prominent magazines such as Domus and
Habitat. Prior to moving to South America, she traveled
throughout war-torn Italy, advocating for reconstruction.
Lina Bo Bardi
The Glass House
Morumbi, São Paulo, Brazil
Concrete and glass
II. Lina Bo Bardi’s efforts at raising public awareness for
postwar reconstruction in Italy eventually served as the basis for a
prominent architectural career in Brazil, where she oversaw the
transformation of several existing buildings into museums, a
theatre, and a community center. For herself and her husband she
designed The Glass House, a structure composed of concrete
slabs and glass walls set on a hillside. The architect raised the
house on pilotis: piers that elevate a building above the ground
or water. The use of pilotis allowed the couple to live up amongst
the trees. An intensely personal project, Lina Bo Bardi described
the house as “an attempt to arrive at a communion between
nature and the natural order of things; I look to respect this natural
order, with clarity, and never liked the closed house that turns
away from the thunderstorm and the rain, fearful of all men.” She
lived in the house for four decades.
Thomas Jefferson
I. Lina Bo Bardi’s Glass House and the Virginia home that
Thomas Jefferson designed for himself and his family, Monticello,
may be linked to the practice of self-portraiture, since both
projects emphasized the values of the architect residents.
Jefferson’s Monticello was informed by his engagement in the Age
of Enlightenment: a seventeenth and eighteenth century cultural
movement which prioritized pursuits of reason, science, and
individual liberty. Jefferson had begun construction on his home
prior to relocating to France in the 1780s, where he served as U.S.
ambassador. Upon being exposed to Neoclassicism (recall
chapter 2), wherein architectural design was inspired by ancient
Greek and Roman forms, Jefferson redesigned Monticello to
reflect the ideals of his Enlightenment education.
Thomas Jefferson
Charlottesville, Virginia
begun 1792; redesigned 1796-1809
II. In the truest sense of the word, Thomas Jefferson was an
amateur architect. The word amateur has its roots in the Latin verb
amare: to love. An amateur is one who engages in an activity not
as a result of financial necessity but because she or he is
passionate about that activity. Often called “the architect of the
Declaration of Independence,” Jefferson approached the practice
of architecture with a degree of seriousness similar to his devotion
to political ideas. In addition to designing Monticello, he also
designed the campus of the University of Virginia, the Virginia
State Capitol, and his vacation home, Poplar Forest—structures
which are nationally protected and widely considered to be
among the most accomplished examples of architectural design in
the United States in the nineteenth century.
Few people have the resources to practice architecture as an
amateur, but Jefferson inherited the land on which he built
Monticello as well as most of the slaves who provided the labor to
build it.
Chapter 4
First, watch the following short video,
“Frank Wong: Chinese Historical Society of America”: 5

Pair 1: Frank Wong and Mona Hatoum
Frank Wong
I. San Francisco artist Frank Wong has succeeded in
transforming his memories of Chinatown into physical form.
He makes miniature scenes of places he recalls from his
childhood, each in the form of a diorama: a model of a scene
with three-dimensional figures. For Dining Room, this former
Hollywood prop master constructed tiny chairs, lamps, plates,
and other objects associated with daily life to reconstruct a
highly detailed setting that corresponds with his memory of
this room.
Frank Wong
Dining Room
From the “Chinatown” series
Before 2004
ge Wong’s “Chinatown” series
II. Each of the dioramas in Frank
is meant to evoke a scene of daily life rather than a specific
historical event. As such, they should not be categorized as
history subjects. While it might be tempting to categorize them
as landscapes (after all, they conveya strong sense of place),
the the environment is not the most important aspect of these
works. Rather, Frank Wong’s goal is to recall the day-to-day
experience of living in Chinatown when he was young. As
such, these should be categorized as genre subjects: scenes of
everyday activity. While the concept of what is “everyday” is
different from artist to artist, the genre subject category
includes representation of those types of activities considered
ordinary and normal for many: bathing, shopping, working,
sitting down for a meal, going to school, resting.
Mona Hatoum
I. In 2000, Palestinian-born artist Mona Hatoum assembled
a bed, chairs, desk, toys, kitchen utensils and other objects
often found in homes, to make an installation: an artist’s
construction of an environment for the purpose of immersing
observers in an experience. But viewers of this installation,
Homebound, may not enter the gallery space in which it is
located, since Mona Hatoum has directed that live electrical
wires connect the objects, rendering the installation
dangerous. Steel cables are stretched across the entrance to the
installation to prevent observers from touching the objects and
being electrocuted.
Mona Hatoum
II. When compared with Frank Wong’s Dining Room, Mona
Hatoum’s Homebound offers an alternative approach to what
constitutes “everyday living” for some people. Whereas Frank
Wong desires viewers to enjoy the nostalgia and comfort he
feels when he thinks about Chinatown’s past, Mona Hatoum
offers the opposite: a setting where objects associated with
daily living are fraught with conflict and violence.
Light is one of the elements of art, and both Frank Wong
and Mona Hatoum have brought artificial light into the
construction of these works of art. In Dining Room, three
miniature lamps emit artificial light: incandescent,
fluorescent, or neon light; in Mona Hatoum’s Homebound,
large box lamps at the center glow and then diminish as the
sound of the electrical current sweeps through the installation.
Pair 2: Carrie Mae Weems and Johannes Vermeer
Carrie Mae Weems
I. Carrie Mae Weems’s series, “The Kitchen Table,”
addresses domesticity, a theme sometimes explored by artists
who utilize the genre subject category. Whereas genre subjects
can include any aspect of everyday living, domesticity
specifically refers to the concept of home life or family life. In
the untitled photograph by Carrie Mae Weems included in this
chapter, a woman and a man embrace near a table, upon
which is placed a newspaper and what appears to be a glass of
water. The setting is pared down. Only a few objects and
pieces of furniture are included in the picture plane, requiring
observers to focus on the couple.
Carrie Mae Weems
From “The Kitchen Table” series
Gelatin silver print
II. One of the ways Carrie Mae Weems makes this
photograph visually powerful is through her understanding and
application of light value: the variation of light and dark in a
work of art. The artist offers a range of light values, from very
dark (the man’s shirt) to very light (note the artificial light
above the heads of the couple), to variations of gray between
the black and white, including a shadow on the rear wall
which graduates from light at the bottom of the picture plane
to dark at the top. By keeping the most extreme light values at
the ce …
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