Expert answer:Theories of Leadership and Application Essay

  

Solved by verified expert:IntroductionBeing prepared for the real world and your role as a leader takes introspection and careful thought. If you have taken advantage of some of the self-assessments in the textbook, you may have found a personal baseline and have identified some of your natural strengths and also areas that you would like to develop. The first commandment of leadership is “Know Thyself” so the first step is to understand your leadership potential. During the course have you thought about how you have used leadership skills in your professional and home life. You may have naturally applied negotiating skills with family members or in asking for a pay raise. Identifying personal strengths can be an important way to give yourself a pat on the back for your leadership skills. You have been using leadership skills during your life that you may not have identified as such.During this course you may have identified with some of the theories and techniques; and others you may want to learn more about. If you are in a leadership position you may have learned some techniques that will make you a better leader. Developing your philosophy of leadership is a good start to becoming a leader or a better leader. As you progress in your career and apply leadership theories and techniques, your philosophy can mature. The real-life case studies and the stories presented in the textbook and the movie about a leader that your analyzed can be a powerful way to understand leadership and make a lasting impact on your and those who are affected by your actions.Activity InstructionsNow that you have completed this course on different theories of leadership and the application of those theories, you are ready to write a philosophy statement about your own personal understanding of leadership, informed by the theories and cases discussed this semester, and how it applies to you. Developing a philosophy of leadership is a dynamic process, as it grows and matures as the leader grows and matures. However, articulating a philosophy statement at any stage in a leadership program is essential as it makes a leader’s development planning much more effective.In your philosophy statement, you must reflect on the following, applying concepts discussed in class:Describe what leadership means to you.Describe how your view and understanding of leadership has evolved throughout this semester.Describe the theories and skills discussed in this course that are most helpful to you and that you already practice/possess (in other words, what you bring to the table).Identify those skills that you do not possess or that you would like to focus on developing in the future.Describe what you plan to do in the future with the knowledge and skills you have acquired this semester.Writing Requirements (APA format)8 pages (approx. 300 words per page), not including cover page or references page1-inch marginsDouble spaced12-point Times New Roman fontCover page with name of paper, name of student, course name and number, name of professor, and date submittedReferences page (minimum of 2 resources)Grading and AssessmentThis activity will be graded based on academic content, integration of resources, and college-level writing and grammar. Course Learning Outcome(s): 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 61. Develop a working definition of leadership.2. Explain the salient theories of leadership.3. Interpret the characteristics of leadership.4. Recognize the contributions of scholarly research in the evolution of leadership theory.5. Generalize the responsibilities of successful leadership experiences.6. Construct a personal plan for leadership.
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APPLICATIONS
SKILL DEVELOPMENT
APPLYING THE CONCEPT
SKILL-DEVELOPMENT EXERCISES
MODELS
(total of 39; average of 3 boxes, 18
applications per chapter; partial
listing below)
1.1 Leadership Managerial Roles
2.3 Achievement Motivation
Theory
3.2 The Leadership Grid
4.2 Using Power
5.3 Path-Goal Leadership
6.3 Selecting Conflict
Management Styles
7.1 In-Groups versus Out-Groups
8.4 Group Problem People
9.4 Transformational or
Transactional Leadership
10.1 Low- or High-Performance
Culture
11.2 Strategic Thinking
12.2 Traditional or Learning
Organization
(total of 30; average of 2 per
chapter)
1.1 Getting to Know You by
Name
1.2 Identifying Leadership
Traits and Behaviors
2.1 Improving Attitudes and
Personality Traits
2.2 Personality Perceptions
2.3 Ethics and Whistleblowing
3.1 Writing Objectives
3.2 Giving Praise
4.1 Influencing Tactics
4.2 Influencing, Power, and
Politics
4.3 Networking Skills
4.4 Car Dealer Negotiation
5.1 Identifying Normative
Leadership Styles
5.2 Using the Normative
Leadership Models
6.1 Giving Instructions
6.2 Situational Communications
6.3 Coaching
6.4 Initiating Conflict Resolution
7.1 Improving Dyadic
Relationships—Followership
7.2 Delegating
8.1 Deciding Which Leadership
Decision-Making Style to Use
8.2 Individual Versus Group
Decision Making
9.1 Is the President of the United
States a Charismatic Leader?
10.1 Identifying and Improving
Organizational Culture
10.2 Diversity Training
10.3 Developing an Effective
Multicultural Team
11.1 Strategic Planning
11.2 Planning a Change Using
the Force-Field Model
11.3 Managing Change at Your
College
12.1 Handling a Crisis
12.2 The Learning Organization
3.1 Writing Effective Objectives
Model
3.2 Giving Praise
4.1 The Negotiation Process
6.1 The Oral Message-Sending
Process
6.2 Job Instructional Training Steps
6.3 The Performance Formula
6.4 Coaching Model
6.5 The Collaborating Conflict
Style
6.6 Situational Communication
7.1 Steps in the Delegation Model
8.1 Leadership Decision Making
WORK APPLICATION
(total of 107; average of 9 per
chapter; sample below)
1.4 Are the managers where you
work(ed) effective at
influencing their employees
to bring about change?
Explain.
CASES: CHAPTER OPENING
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
General Electric (GE)
Lorraine Monroe
Market America
Mark Cuban
Indra Nooyi (PepsiCo)
The Ranch Golf Club
Joel Osteen
John Chambers (Cisco)
Oprah Winfrey
Andrea Jung (Avon)
Google
Rick Wagoner (GM)
COMMUNICATION SKILLS
(total of 84; average of 7 per
chapter; sample below)
3.5 Which of the three process
motivation theories do you
prefer? Why?
SELF-ASSESSMENT EXERCISES
(total of 37; average of 3 per
chapter)
1.1 Leadership Potential
1.2 Names
2.1 Personality Profile
2.2 Motive Profile
2.3 Motive Profile with Socialized
Power
2.4 Leadership Interest
2.5 Theory X and Theory Y
Attitudes
2.6 How Ethical Is Your Behavior?
3.1 Your Leadership Style
3.2 Your Personality Traits and
Leadership Styles
3.3 Job Motivators and
Maintenance Factors
4.1 Influencing Tactics, Power, and
Personality Traits
4.2 Use of Political Behavior
4.3 Networking
4.4 Negotiating
5.1 Leadership Style
5.2 Your Personality and
Contingency Leadership
Theories
5.3 Determining Your Preferred
Normative Leadership Style
5.4 Your Leadership Continuum
and Path-Goal Leadership
Styles
Continued on
inside back cover
LEADERSHIP
Theory, Application, & Skill Development 4e
Robert N. Lussier, Ph.D.
Springfield College
Christopher F. Achua, D.B.A.
University of Virginia’s College at Wise
Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States
Leadership, Fourth Edition
© 2010, 2007 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
Robert N. Lussier, Christopher F. Achua
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ISBN-13: 978-0-324-59655-7
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Printed in the United States of America
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 11 10 09
To my wife Marie and our six children:
Jesse, Justin, Danielle, Nicole, Brian, and Renee
Robert N. Lussier
To all the Achua brothers and sisters, my mother Theresia
Sirri, and last but not least, my wife Pauline and our children:
Justin, Brooke, Jordan, Cullen, Gregory, and Zora
Christopher F. Achua
B R I E F
C O N T E N T S
Preface
part one
Acknowledgments
xxiii
About the Authors
xxvi
Individuals as Leaders
1
2
3
4
5
part two
xiii
1
Who Is a Leader? 2
Leadership Traits and Ethics 30
Leadership Behavior and Motivation 68
Influencing: Power, Politics, Networking, and Negotiation 108
Contingency Leadership Theories 150
Team Leadership
187
6 Communication, Coaching, and Conflict Skills 188
7 Leader–Follower Relations 238
8 Team Leadership and Self-Managed Teams 278
part three
Organizational Leadership
9
10
11
12
327
Charismatic and Transformational Leadership 328
Leadership of Culture, Ethics, and Diversity 368
Strategic Leadership and Change Management 416
Crisis Leadership and the Learning Organization 450
Appendix: Leadership and Spirituality in the Workplace
Glossary
Endnotes
Index
iv
487
492
515
481
C O N T E N T S
Preface
xiii
Acknowledgments
About the Authors
part one
1
xxiii
xxvi
Individuals as Leaders
WHO IS A LEADER? 2
Leadership Is Everyone’s Business
1
3
Why Leadership Is Important 4 / Defining Leadership 5 / Self-Assessment 1:
Leadership Potential 5 / Are Leaders Born or Made? 9
Leadership Managerial Roles
9
Interpersonal Roles 10 / Informational Roles 11 / Decisional Roles 11
Levels of Analysis of Leadership Theory
13
Individual Level of Analysis 13 / Group Level of Analysis 14 / Organizational Level
of Analysis 14 / Interrelationships among the Levels of Analysis 15
Leadership Theory Paradigms
15
The Trait Theory Paradigm 16 / The Behavioral Leadership Theory
Paradigm 16 / The Contingency Leadership Theory Paradigm 17 / The Integrative
Leadership Theory Paradigm 17 / From the Management to the Leadership Theory
Paradigm 17
Objectives of the Book
18
Leadership Theory 18 / Application of Leadership Theory 20 / Leadership Skill
Development 20 / Flexibility 21
Organization of the Book
21
Chapter Summary 22
Key Terms 23
Review Questions 23
Communication Skills 24
Case: Steve Jobs—–Apple 24
Video Case: Leadership at P.F. Chang’s 26
Skill-Development Exercise 1: Getting to Know You by Name 26
Self-Assessment 2: Names 27
Skill-Development Exercise 2: Identifying Leadership Traits and Behaviors
2
28
LEADERSHIP TRAITS AND ETHICS 30
Personality Traits and Leadership 32
Self-Assessment 1: Personality Profile 32 / Personality and Traits 33 / The Big Five
Model of Personality 33 / Personality Profiles 35
Traits of Effective Leaders
37
Dominance 37 / High Energy 38 / Self-Confidence 38 / Locus of Control 38 /
Stability 38 / Integrity 39 / Intelligence 39 / Flexibility 40 / Sensitivity to Others 41
v
vi
Contents
The Personality Profile of Effective Leaders
42
Achievement Motivation Theory 42 / Self-Assessment 2: Motive Profile 44 / Leader
Motive Profile Theory 44 / Self-Assessment 3: Motive Profile with Socialized
Power 45 / Self-Assessment 4: Leadership Interest 46
Leadership Attitudes
47
Theory X and Theory Y 48 / Self-Assessment 5: Theory X and Theory Y
Attitudes 48 / The Pygmalion Effect 49 / Self-Concept 50 / How Attitudes
Develop Leadership Styles 52
Ethical Leadership
52
Self-Assessment 6: How Ethical Is Your Behavior? 52 / Does Ethical Behavior Pay? 54 /
How Personality Traits and Attitudes, Moral Development, and the Situation Affect Ethical
Behavior 54 / How People Justify Unethical Behavior 56 / Simple Guides to Ethical
Behavior 58 / Stakeholder Approach to Ethics 58 / Being an Ethical Leader 59
Chapter Summary 60
Key Terms 61
Review Questions 62
Communication Skills 62
Case: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation 62
Video Case: “P.F.” Chang’s Serves Its Workers Well 64
Skill-Development Exercise 1: Improving Attitudes and Personality Traits
Skill-Development Exercise 2: Personality Perceptions 66
Skill-Development Exercise 3: Ethics and Whistleblowing 67
3
LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR AND MOTIVATION
Leadership Behavior and Styles 70
64
68
Leadership Behavior 70 / Leadership Styles and the University of Iowa Research 70
University of Michigan and Ohio State University Studies
71
Self-Assessment 1: Your Leadership Style 71 / University of Michigan: Job-Centered
and Employee-Centered Behavior 72 / Ohio State University: Initiating Structure and
Consideration Behavior 73 / Differences Between Leadership Models—–and Their
Contributions 75
The Leadership Grid
75
Leadership Grid Theory 75 / Leadership Grid and High-High Leader Research and
Contributions 77 / Self-Assessment 2: Your Personality Traits and Leadership Styles 78
Leadership and Major Motivation Theories
79
Motivation and Leadership 79 / The Motivation Process 79 / An Overview of Three
Major Classifications of Motivation Theories 80
Content Motivation Theories
80
Hierarchy of Needs Theory 81 / Two-Factor Theory 82 / Self-Assessment 3: Job
Motivators and Maintenance Factors 83 / Acquired Needs Theory 85 / The Need to
Balance Professional and Personal Needs 87
Process Motivation Theories
87
Equity Theory 87 / Expectancy Theory 88 / Goal-Setting Theory 90
Reinforcement Theory
92
Types of Reinforcement 93 / Schedules of Reinforcement 94 / You Get What You
Reinforce 95 / Motivating with Reinforcement 96 / Giving Praise 97
Contents
Putting the Motivation Theories Together Within the Motivation Process
vii
99
Chapter Summary 100
Key Terms 102
Review Questions 102
Communication Skills 102
Case: Art Friedman—–Friedmans Appliance 102
Video Case: Motivation at Washburn Guitars 104
Skill-Development Exercise 1: Writing Objectives 104
Behavior Model Skills Training 1: Session 1 105
Behavior Model Video 1: Giving Praise 105
Skill-Development Exercise 2: Giving Praise 105
4
INFLUENCING: POWER, POLITICS, NETWORKING,
AND NEGOTIATION 108
Power 110
Sources of Power 110 / Types of Power and Influencing Tactics, and Ways to Increase
Your Power 111 / Self-Assessment 1: Influencing Tactics, Power, and Personality
Traits 119 / Acquiring and Losing Power 119
Organizational Politics
120
Self-Assessment 2: Use of Political Behavior 120 / The Nature of Organizational
Politics 121 / Political Behavior 122 / Guidelines for Developing Political Skills 124
Networking
127
Self-Assessment 3: Networking 127 / Perform a Self-Assessment and
Set Goals 128 / Create Your One-Minute Self-Sell 129 / Develop Your
Network 130 / Conduct Networking Interviews 131 / Maintain Your Network 132
Negotiation
133
Self-Assessment 4: Negotiating 133 / Negotiating 134 / The Negotiation
Process 135
Ethics and Influencing
140
Chapter Summary 141
Key Terms 142
Review Questions 142
Communication Skills 142
Case: Ron Johnson—–Department of Accounting 143
Video Case: Employee Networks at Whirlpool Corporation 145
Skill-Development Exercise 1: Influencing Tactics 145
Skill-Development Exercise 2: Influencing, Power, and Politics 146
Skill-Development Exercise 3: Networking Skills 147
Skill-Development Exercise 4: Car Dealer Negotiation 148
5
CONTINGENCY LEADERSHIP THEORIES 150
Contingency Leadership Theories and Models 152
Leadership Theories versus Leadership Models 152 / Contingency Theory and
Model Variables 152 / Global Contingency Leadership 153
Contingency Leadership Theory and Model
154
Leadership Style and the LPC 155 / Self-Assessment 1: Leadership Style Your
Fiedler LPC 155 / Situational Favorableness 156 / Determining the Appropriate
Leadership Style 156 / Research 158
viii
Contents
Leadership Continuum Theory and Model 159
Path-Goal Leadership Theory and Model 161
Situational Factors 162 / Leadership Styles 163 / Research 164
Normative Leadership Theory and Models
165
Leadership Participation Styles 166 / Model Questions to Determine the
Appropriate Leadership Style 167 / Selecting the Time-Driven or DevelopmentDriven Model for the Situation 169 / Determining the Appropriate Leadership
Style 170 / Research 170
Putting the Behavioral and Contingency Leadership Theories Together
171
Prescriptive and Descriptive Models 173
Leadership Substitutes Theory
173
Substitutes and Neutralizers 173 / Leadership Style 174 / Changing the
Situation 174 / Research 174 / Self-Assessment 2: Your Personality and
Contingency Leadership Theories 175
Chapter Summary 175
Key Terms 177
Review Questions 177
Communication Skills 177
Case: Rick Parr—–Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) Company 178
Video Case: Leadership at McDonald’s 179
Self-Assessment 3: Determining Your Preferred Normative Leadership Style 180
Skill-Development Exercise 1: Identifying Normative Leadership Styles 183
Skill-Development Exercise 2: Using the Normative Leadership Models 183
Self-Assessment 4: Your Leadership Continuum and Path-Goal Leadership Styles 185
part two
6
Team Leadership
187
COMMUNICATION, COACHING, AND CONFLICT SKILLS
Communication 189
188
Communication and Leadership 190 / Sending Messages and Giving Instructions 190 /
Receiving Messages 193 / Self-Assessment 1: Listening Skills 193
Feedback
197
The Importance of Feedback 197 / Common Approaches to Getting Feedback
on Messages—–and Why They Don’t Work 198 / How to Get Feedback on
Messages 199 / 360-Degree Multirater Feedback 200
Coaching
201
Coaching and Leadership 201 / How to Give Coaching Feedback 201 / What Is
Criticism and Why Doesn’t It Work? 205 / The Coaching Model for Employees Who
Are Performing Below Standard 207 / Mentoring 209
Managing Conflict
210
The Psychological Contract 210 / Conflict and Leadership 210 / Conflict
Management Styles 210
Collaborating Conflict Management Style Models
215
Initiating Conflict Resolution 215 / Responding to Conflict
Resolution 217 / Mediating Conflict Resolution 217 / Self-Assessment 2: Your
Personality Traits and Communication, Feedback, Coaching, and Conflict Management
Style 218
Contents
ix
Chapter Summary 220
Key Terms 221
Review Questions 221
Communication Skills 221
Case: Lawrence Weinbach—–from Unisys Corporation to Yankee Hill Capital
Management 222
Video Case: Communication at Navistar International 224
Skill-Development Exercise 1: Giving Instructions 224
Behavior Model Skills Training 1 226
Self-Assessment 3: Determining Your Preferred Communication Style 226
The Situational Communications Model 229
Behavior Model Video 6.1: Situational Communications 232
Skill-Development Exercise 2: Situational Communications 232
Behavior Model Skills Training 2 233
The Coaching Model 233
Behavior Model Video 6.2: Coaching 232
Skill-Development Exercise 3: Coaching 233
Behavior Model Skills Training 3 235
The Initiating Conflict Resolution Model 235
Behavior Model Video 6.3: Initiating Conflict Resolution 235
Skill-Development Exercise 4: Initiating Conflict Resolution 235
Behavior Model Video 6.4: Mediating Conflict Resolution 237
7
LEADER–FOLLOWER RELATIONS 238
Evolution of the Dyadic Theory 240
Vertical Dyadic Linkage (VDL) Theory 241 / Self-Assessment 1: Dyadic Relationship
with Your Manager 241 / Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory 243 / Team
Building 244 / Systems and Networks 245
Leader–Member Exchange Theory
247
The Influence of LMX on Follower Behavior 247 / Self-Assessment 2:
In-Group and Out-Group 249 / The Three-Stage Process for Developing Positive
LMX Relations 249 / Factors that Determine LMX Quality 250 / Effective
Leader–Follower Feedback 251 / Limitations of LMX Theory Application 252 /
Self-Assessment 3: Your LMX Relationship with Your Manager 253 / Bias in LMX:
Employee Career Implications 254
Followership
254
The Effective Follower, and Follower Types 255 / Self-Assessment 4:
Effective Followership 257 / Guidelines to Becoming an Effective
Follower 258 / Determinants of Follower Influence 261 / Dual Role of Being a
Leader and a Follower 263
Delegation
264
Delegating 264 / Delegation Decisions 265 / Self-Assessment 5: Followership
and Personality 266 / Delegating with the Use of a Model 267
Chapter Summary 269
Key Terms 270
Review Questions 271
Communication Skills 271
Case: W. L. Gore & Associates 271
Video Case: Delegation at Boyne USA Resorts 274
Skill-Development Exercise 1: Improving Dyadic Relationships—–Followership
Behavior Model Skills Training 275
274
x
Contents
The Delegation Model 275
Behavior Model Video 7.1: Delegating 275
Skill-Development Exercise 2: Delegating 275
8
TEAM LEADERSHIP AND SELF-MANAGED TEAMS
The Use of Teams in Organizations 280
278
Groups Versus Teams: What Is the Difference? 281 / Advantages and
Disadvantages of Teamwork 282 / Self-Assessment 1: Assessing Teamwork in
Your Group 284 / Characteristics of Effective Teams 285 / Self-Assessment 2:
Assessing the Climate for Creativity 292
Types of Teams
293
Functional Team 293 / Cross-Functional Team 294 / Virtual Team 296 /
Self-Managed Team (SMT) 296
Decision Making in Teams
297
Leader-Centered Decision-Making Model 297 / Team-Centered Decision-Making
Model 298 / Self-Assessment 3: Personality Traits and Teams 299 / Normative
Leadership Model 300
Leadership Skills for Effective Team Meetings
300
Planning Meetings 300 / Conducting Meetings 302 / Handling Problem
Members 303
Self-Managed Teams
305
The Nature of Self-Managed Teams 306 / The Benefits of Self-Managed
Teams 308 / Guidelines for Improving Self-Managed Team Effectiveness 309 /
The Changing Role of Leadership in Self-Managed Teams 312 / The Challenges
of Implementing Self-Managed Teams 313
Chapter Summary 314
Key Terms 317
Review Questions 317
Communication Skills 317
Case: Frederick W. Smith—–FedEx 318
Video Case: The NEADS Team: People and Dogs 320
Behavior Model Skills Training …
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