Expert answer:Spokane Community College Locke on Natural Law Que

  

Solved by verified expert:you just need to read the file and answer the first part question. the seconf part is to expain. Discussion QuestionsWhat are the two ‘natural states’ of people? (1a)What is Locke’s reason for believing that people are equal? (1a-b)Which of the four conceptions of morality (approval, power, justice, prudence) is most relevant here? Why?Why is one of those states of nature a boundary on the other one? (1a)What is the natural, moral law? (1b)What is the problem with breaking (he calls it ‘transgressing’) this moral law? (2a)Locke on Natural LawThe only significant moral distinction that exists is between Creator and created.God is the Creator, and all humans are created.Therefore while all humans are subordinate to God, all humans are equal to each other.Therefore the state of nature is a state of equality.Any act of violence or harm or theft is a declaration that “I am superior to you.”The declaration, “I am superior to you” is false, since we have been created as moral equalsTherefore the Law of Nature: “No one ought to harm another….in his life, health, liberty or possessions”The state of nature is also a state of freedom to order our actions and dispose of our possessions and persons as we see fit.But freedom must always be “bounded by” the Law of Nature.Therefore the state of nature is a state of perfect freedom limited by the Law of Nature.other information to answer the question:On the previous page, I mentioned my belief that the most fundamental moral question is, “What is the goal of moral judgments?”, since this is the best way to classify moral theories. There are four distinct answers to that question, and each answer will identify a family of moral theories. The various members of the family will disagree, but they will have the same general answer to the question, “What is the goal of moral judgments?” Remember, there are 10 moral theories we will discuss in this course.1) Morality and ApprovalA very popular idea is that morality is simply a matter of what is approved of or forbidden by some person or group. Thus, the goal of moral judgments is simply to express moral approval (or disapproval), and so in a word, morality is about approval.Who gives this approval? Some people say it is their culture, in which case, you are a cultural relativist. You also might think it is God, in which case you believe in divine command theory. For these two theories, ethical reasoning (i.e., attempting to justify a moral judgment) is unnecessary, because moral judgments simply come from an authoritative source and are blindly obeyed.Some people don’t like putting authority into morality, but they do like the idea that moral judgments are matters of approval. And so another theory is that the approval comes from myself; when I make moral judgments, I am simply trying to state my own personal ideas of right and wrong based on my own personal tastes. The best word for this theory is ‘subjectivism,’ or technically, since there are several uses of that word, ‘ethical subjectivism.’ The subjectivist believes that ethical reasoning is merely a kind of introspection or reflection on your own personal view of the world; therefore, ethical reasoning is not very interesting. Moral judgments are basically like any statements of preference or taste, such as “Pizza is delicious,” or “Sunsets are lovely.” In that case moral judgments, like judgments of taste, cannot be objectively true or false – at best, they could be subjectively true or false. So the first three theories that believe that morality is about approval are:(1) Divine Command Theory(2) Cultural Relativism(3) (Ethical) Subjectivism2) Morality and PowerSome believe, instead, that the goal of moral judgments is an attempt to get or preserve control over other people. This is an extremely cynical view of morality. On this interpretation, morality still originates from some authority as it does in cultural relativism or divine command theory, but in those two systems, the authority is a benevolent one, specifying right and wrong actions in order to improve the lives of those who obey. But in the present theory, the authority is intentionally using morality as a way to manipulate others. So we might say that on this belief, morality is about power. Therefore, ethical reasoning is a mistake – it is only for weak-minded people who do not understand that moral judgments were invented as a way to control and manipulate others. These two moral theories don’t have specific names, so here are generic titles:(4) Morality is an invention by the strong(5) Morality is an invention by the weak3) Morality and PrudenceSome believe that the goal of moral judgments is to promote or maintain my own well-being. On this interpretation, morality is about prudence. Therefore, ethical reasoning will focus on how the action benefits me. There are distinct versions that disagree about whether to focus on external well-being (i.e., security) or internal well-being (i.e., character), so there are two moral theories in this family:(6) Contractarianism(7) Virtue Ethics4) Morality and JusticeSome believe that the goal of moral judgments is to promote or maintain the well-being of others. On this interpretation, morality is about justice. Therefore, ethical reasoning will focus on what other people deserve based on what constitutes their well-being. Western philosophy has come up with three different ideas about what gives other people moral value, and therefore there are three moral theories:(8) Divine Creation Theory(9) Utilitarianism(10) Deontology
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Excerpts from: The Second Treatise of Civil Government (1689), John Locke
…6. But though this be a state of liberty, yet it is not a state of
license: though man in that state have an uncontrollable liberty
to dispose of his person or possessions, yet he has not liberty to
destroy himself, or so much as any creature in his possession,
but where some nobler use than its bare preservation calls for it.
The state of nature has a law of nature to govern it, which obliges
every one: and reason, which is that law, teaches all mankind,
who will but consult it, that being all equal and independent, no
one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or
possessions: for men being all the workmanship of one
omnipotent, and infinitely wise maker; all the servants of one
sovereign master, sent into the world by his order, and about his
business; they are his property, whose workmanship they are,
made to last during his, not one another’s pleasure: and being
furnished with like faculties, sharing all in one community of
nature, there cannot be supposed any such subordination among
us, that may authorize us to destroy one another, as if we were
made for one another’s uses, as the inferior ranks of creatures are
for ours. Every one, as he is bound to preserve himself, and not
to quit his station wilfully, so by the like reason, when his own
preservation comes not in competition, ought he, as much as he
can, to preserve the rest of mankind, and may not, unless it be to
do justice on an offender, take away, or impair the life, or what
tends to the preservation of the life, the liberty, health, limb, or
goods of another.
Chapter II: Of the State of Nature
4. To understand political power right, and derive it from its
original, we must consider, what state all men are naturally in,
and that is, a state of perfect freedom to order their actions, and
dispose of their possessions and persons, as they think fit, within
the bounds of the law of nature, without asking leave, or
depending upon the will of any other man.
A state also of equality, wherein all the power and jurisdiction
is reciprocal, no one having more than another; there being
nothing more evident, than that creatures of the same species and
rank, promiscuously born to all the same advantages of nature,
and the use of the same faculties, should also be equal one
amongst another without subordination or subjection, unless the
lord and master of them all should, by any manifest declaration
of his will, set one above another, and confer on him, by an
evident and clear appointment, an undoubted right to dominion
and sovereignty.
5. This equality of men by nature, the judicious Hooker looks
upon as so evident in itself, and beyond all question, that he
makes it the foundation of that obligation to mutual love
amongst men, on which he builds the duties they owe one
another, and from whence he derives the great maxims of justice
and charity…
7. And that all men may be restrained from invading others
rights, and from doing hurt to one another, and the law of nature
1
Excerpts from: The Second Treatise of Civil Government (1689), John Locke
be observed, which wills the peace and preservation of all
mankind, the execution of the law of nature is, in that state, put
into every man’s hands, whereby every one has a right to punish
the transgressors of that law to such a degree, as may hinder its
violation: for the law of nature would, as all other laws that
concern men in this world ‘be in vain, if there were no body that
in the state of nature had a power to execute that law, and thereby
preserve the innocent and restrain offenders. And if anyone in
the state of nature may punish another for any evil he has done,
every one may do so: for in that state of perfect equality, where
naturally there is no superiority or jurisdiction of one over
another, what any may do in prosecution of that law, everyone
must needs have a right to do.
Which being a trespass against the whole species, and the peace
and safety of it, provided for by the law of nature, every man
upon this score, by the right he hath to preserve mankind in
general, may restrain, or where it is necessary, destroy things
noxious to them, and so may bring such evil on any one, who
hath transgressed that law, as may make him repent the doing of
it, and thereby deter him, and by his example others, from doing
the like mischief. And in the case, and upon this ground, every
man has a right to punish the offender, and be executioner of the
law of nature.
8. And thus, in the state of nature, one man comes by a power
over another; but yet no absolute or arbitrary power, to use a
criminal, when he has got him in his hands, according to the
passionate heats, or boundless extravagancy of his own will; but
only to retribute to him, so far as calm reason and conscience
dictate, what is proportionate to his transgression, which is so
much as may serve for reparation and restraint: for these two are
the only reasons, why one man may lawfully do harm to another,
which is that we call punishment. In transgressing the law of
nature, the offender declares himself to live by another rule than
that of reason and common equity, which is that measure God
has set to the actions of men, for their mutual security; and so he
becomes dangerous to mankind, the tie, which is to secure them
from injury and violence, being slighted and broken by him.
2

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