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Results, Discussion and Conclusion

This week, you should be working on your Discussion and Conclusion
section of your research proposal. In a proposal such as this, what you
will also need to include are your expected results. The expected
results are based on several factors including what you learned from
your literature review on similar research as well as what you learned
from your course readings thus far.

The difference between a great research paper and a marginal one is the
depth and originality of the discussion and conclusions section. The
discussion/conclusion section is where you bring together what you
learned from the literature review (as well as through the course) in
your concluding remarks regarding your topic.

Provide an overview of the expected results
Develop a conclusion of your research proposal
Include information on the ramifications of the study, its limitations, and the potential for future research studiesI am attaching all other parts to this assignment that has already been completed




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Factors Associated With Depression Among People Living With HIV
Factors Associated With Depression Among People Living With HIV
Despite the plenty of efforts that have been put in place to curb the stigma associated with
HIV virus, the upsurge of this humiliating subject has continued to psychologically oppress
many victims of the infection. Stigma is still a major challenge even to those who have ever
publicly declared their statuses. One vital and most common negative effect of stigma is the
feeling of depression (Chukhraev et al., 2017). There are many factors associated with
depression especially in people living with the HIV virus. They may range from the constant
medications to emotional and physical factors. If the factors are studied and understood, the end
results would be helpful to many people who have been outwitted by depression.
Depression is a psychological disorder in which a given person loses interest in various
activities, ways of thinking and all other normal activities of the given moment. The person often
feels low and is always sad. At times such people contemplate committing suicide. There are
three important types of depression which include mild depression, moderate depression and
severe depression. Mild depression is the least complex of the types of depression. Most of the
time the remedy often involves nothing since the condition often just disappears without any
form of complex management. Moderate depression is one that often requires more of
psychological counseling and then it heals by itself without any medication. Severe depression
on the other hand is one that is so much and the affected party is often disturbed and without the
peace of mind (Segal et al., 2018). This type of depression is always intervened against by
ensuring the affected party takes the best medication (anti-depressants) and is left to relax. All
these types of depressions affect those who feel overburdened the fact that they live with the HIV
virus and can do nothing about it. This paper is focused in finding out the factors that contribute
to such a poor condition.
Chukhraev, N., Vladimirov, A., Zukow, W., Chukhraiyeva, O., & Levkovskaya, V. (2017).
Combined physiotherapy of anxiety and depression disorders in dorsopathy patients.
Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17(1), 414.
Segal, Z. V., Williams, M., & Teasdale, J. (2018). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for
depression. Guilford Publications.
Factors Associated with Depression among People Living With HIV
April 18th 2019
Factors Associated with Depression among People Living With HIV
Bhatia et al. (2014). Article
In the article, Bhatia and Munjal (2014) sought to assess the association between
depression and HIV/AIDS in an Indian hospital setting. The article interviewed 160 participants
(both male and female patients) using a questionnaire comprising factors, which affect
depression. The authors found that the depression prevalence increased with the severity of
divorced/singlehood, living in joint families, low income, immigration status, marital problems,
lack of social support and involvement with commercial sex workers are associated with higher
depression prevalence. Regardless of age or gender, these factors have an equal impact on
patients. This article relates to my course in that it highlights the risk factors of depression.
Liu et al. (2018). Article
Liu et al. (2018) sought to find out the depression prevalence and its related factors
among HIV-positive male patients in China. They used a cross-sectional questionnaire survey
(the SPIEGEL questionnaire, the Berger HIV Stigma, and the Burns Depression Checklist) to
gather info from 200 participants in Harbin, China. The authors also examined demographics,
hostility, the antiretroviral therapy side effects, and family support of HIV/AIDS-positive male
patients. They found that sleep quality to be strongly linked to depression among HIV-positive
male patients. Demographic variables (age, genders, and ethnicity), illness duration, CD4+ cell
count, and HIV infection route were not significantly associated with depression. This article
relates to my readings and course since it highlights the negative impact of sleep disorders on
patients long-term illnesses.
Akena et al. (2010). Article
In this article, the author made a comparison of the clinical manifestations of major
depression between HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients with regards to interventions. They
conducted a comparative, descriptive, cross-sectional research on 66 HIV-negative and 64 HIVpositive patients with depression in a hospital setting. The finding was that HIV-positive patients
with depression had irregular sleep patterns, experienced fatigue, cognitive impairments, and
frequent appetite changes. They also found that low CD4 count was not significantly linked to
depression. The findings of this article are coherent with what i have studied in my course.
Kinyanda et al. (2011). Article
The authors sought to examine the risk factors and prevalence of MDD in HIV-positive
patients in Uganda’s semi-urban area. They undertook the cross-sectional researcher on 618
participants visiting two HIV/AIDS hospitals. At univariate analysis, family history of mental
disorder, female gender, alcohol dependency disorder, negative coping style, stress, and food
insecurity were the only factors linked to major depressive disorder. Neurocognitive impairment,
social support, BMI, and CD4 counts. This article relates to my course as it goes into exploring a
different type of depression, the MDD.
Bhatia, M. S., & Munjal, S. (2014). Prevalence of depression in people living with HIV/AIDS
undergoing ART and factors associated with it. Journal of clinical and diagnostic
research: JCDR, 8(10), WC01
Liu, H., Zhao, M., Ren, J., Qi, X., Sun, H., Qu, L., … & Cui, Y. (2018). Identifying factors
associated with depression among men living with HIV/AIDS and undergoing
antiretroviral therapy: a cross-sectional study in Heilongjiang, China. Health and quality
of life outcomes, 16(1), 190.
Kinyanda, E., Hoskins, S., Nakku, J., Nawaz, S., & Patel, V. (2011). Prevalence and risk factors
of major depressive disorder in HIV/AIDS as seen in semi-urban Entebbe district,
Uganda. BMC Psychiatry, 11(1), 205.
Akena, D. H., Musisi, S., & Kinyanda, E. (2010). A comparison of the clinical features of
depression in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in Uganda. African Journal of
Psychiatry, 13(1).
Running head: PSYCHOLOGY
Literature Review
Literature Review
According to Hammond et al. (2016), people with HIV and substance use disorders
experience major depression as a primary co-morbidity, which represents a multifactor
relationship. While depression increases the patients’ risk of getting HIV and substance use
disorders, both depression and substance abuse trigger mortality in HIV patients (Hammond et
al. 2016). Depressed people have higher chances of contracting HIV due to indulgence in risky
behaviors. Consequently, the likelihood of non-adherence to medications increases in such
populations. Persons living with comorbid HIV and depression conditions may alter their
biological pathways due to use of stimulants like cocaine, which leads to increased susceptibility
of T-cells to HIV, as well as high rates of viral integration into the host cells. Studies have also
established a positive association of altered cytokine IL-4 and IL-10 with cocaine use. Therefore,
the use of cocaine, frequency, and duration results in increased odds for depression.
On the other hand, Do et al. (2014) revealed that with the emergence of effective
treatment that has led to increased life expectancy, HIV has become a chronic condition whose
complications may arise due to comorbid depression. As such, serious concerns have emerged
regarding the adverse effects of depression on the affected people’s quality of life (Do et al.,
2014). Therefore, most depressed individuals may become non-adherent to treatment, leading to
higher levels of infectiousness and viral load, as well as poor clinical outcomes.
Hammond et al.’s article aimed at analyzing the relationship between HIV infection and
depression. As such, the authors conducted a study involving 447 participants with a mean age of
46 years. The prevalence of cocaine use in depressed individuals was 81.4 percent compared to
the 69.3 percent who were not depressed. The study established that depressed people had more
extended periods of HIV infections and high chances of being on protease inhibitor biased ART
regimens (Hammond et al., 2014). The relationship of this analysis to the text readings is that
using the research method approaches described in the text made it easier to analyze the provided
information and gain in-depth knowledge regarding the data and statistics. It also helped in
comprehending how to identify and involve the most appropriate population in primary research.
Do et al. (2014) aimed at establishing the prevalence of depression among HIV-infected
persons receiving care, and evaluating their depression burden with relation to that of the general
population. The authors applied data from the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) and the
Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS) (Do et al., 2014). They observed that
depression remains a comorbidity among the HIV-infected individuals, and an overall excess
burden of those receiving care is thrice that of the general population. Since the challenges
emanate from the variations in household incomes per annum between the two groups, it is vital
to implement strategies that will help in its reduction. The relationship of this article with the
course readings is that it made it easier to conceptualize the ideas and establish the best ways of
researching while being ethical in analyzing data and reporting results. It also helped in
comprehending methods of identifying, using and interpreting secondary data in research.
Gender/Cultural Diversity Issues
In Hammond et al.’s article, the research focused on African-American cocaine users
living with HIV/Aids. As such, the observation that racial disparity of HIV infections remains
prevalent could be unreliable because the information about white individuals was from other
studies and not actual participants. On the other hand, Do et al. incorporated nationwide
information; thus they ensured incorporation of data from a significant gender and culture
Do, A. N., Rosenberg, E. S., Sullivan, P. S., Beer, L., Strine, T. W., Schulden, J. D., Skarbinski,
J. (2014). Excess Burden of Depression among HIV-Infected Persons Receiving Medical
Care in the United States: Data from the Medical Monitoring Project and the Behavioral
Risk Factor Surveillance System. PLoS ONE, 9(3), 1–10.
Hammond, E. R., Lai, S., Wright, C. M., & Treisman, G. J. (2016). Cocaine use may be
associated with increased depression in persons infected with HIV. AIDS and
behavior, 20(2), 345-352.
Leary, M. R. (2016). Introduction to Behavioral Research Methods, 7th edition . Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN: 9780134414409
Factors Associated with Depression among People Living with HIV
Factors Associated with Depression among People Living with HIV
The research will recruit 200 HIV patients, including 100 males and 100 females. The
inclusion criteria demand that the participants must not be experiencing any form of physical
injury and mental illnesses at the time of the research. Also, they must be people who must
have contracted the infection for more than two years, that is, before 2017. The study will
involve victims who demonstrate that they are genuinely infected through various test
evidence like certificates. However, the research will exclude HIV patients who suffer from
physical injuries and mental illnesses that can aggravate their depression levels. Besides, it
will not engage people who contracted the virus between January 2018 and the time of the
research. To eliminate the confounding factors like age, only individuals between 18 and 30
years who form the majority of the youth population will participate in the experiment.
The study proposes a qualitative research approach where random participants will
respond to questionnaires, surveys, and interviews, among other techniques concerning the
topic of study. The process will involve presenting various causes of depression among
people who have HIV on a piece of paper and requesting them to mark in order of severity. A
Likert scale of 1 to 5 will gauge such to determine which of the factors cause a lot of
depression to the victims of HIV infection. In the Likert scale, 1 will represent ‘not severe’, 2
= ‘somehow severe’, 3 = ‘moderately severe’, 4 = ‘severe’ and 5 = ‘Most Severe.’ Factors
causing depression, which the study will survey include but not limited to, stigma,
unemployment, lack of education, relationships, marital problems, and lack of social and
family support.
Data Collection Methods
The study will use surveys to collect data from a predefined group of participants to
gather information and insights about the significant factors that cause depression among
HIV patients. The technique will enable respondents to answer questions at level playing
field thereby eliminating biases that can influence outcomes of the research. It will involve
seeking information through questionnaires in the form of physical papers and private emails.
The process will ask to know about the rampant causes of depression among people who
have HIV. The essential advantage of such survey method is that it maintains the privacy of
the participants hence encouraging them to give more accurate and sincere answers. Besides,
surveys that researchers administer through emails are faster as they can cover a large
population within a short period. However, surveys can be costly in cases of telephone calls.
The research will use interviews to obtain high personal data or information from the
participants because they allow researchers to probe the interviewees to get the underlying
factors. For instance, the participants will respond to the level in which stigma, lack of
employment, lack of education, relationships, and marital problems impact on their
depression levels. Interviews help in giving information which the interviewee considers
private. They also provide extra information from which interviewers can draw meaningful
conclusions. On the contrary, they can be expensive, especially if the interviewers have to
travel long distances to collect data. Also, there can be a backlash if the participants feel
coerced in giving out information.
Data Analysis
The study will use simple statistical measures like mean and standard deviations to
determine which of the stress causing factors gets the highest mention from the participants.
It will calculate the number of mentions from the surveys through the Likert scale and the
If stigma has the highest mean from the surveys in the Likert scale, then it will be the
primary cause of depression among the HIV patients. Similarly, many patients mention
stigma as the chief cause of their distress, then it will be regarded as the critical cause of
depression to HIV patients.

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