Expert answer:Respond to Classmates discussions


Solved by verified expert:I need to respond to 2 classmates discussions in 2 different classes. (A total of 4 responses)Respond to at least two classmates by discussing how their chosen examples of research compare to your own and whether they also affect your life. How is research all around us?


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Discussion 4
Validity and Reliability
Every project must ensure the data and conclusions are both valid and reliable.
Validity refers to the accuracy of the measurement in a test; reliability refers to
the stability or consistency of scores. In other words, a test must measure what it
says it does (validity), and it must be consistent in its reports (reliability).
For this week’s initial thread, share an example of a test or experiment and
discuss the validity and reliability of that test. Your example can come from your
daily life, from reading the textbook or looking for online examples, or even from
a hypothetical situation.
My Answer:
Reliability and Validity in Research
For assessments to be sound in any research, the researcher has to ensure that they are
free from bias and distortion. Reliability and validity are two essential components to define and
measure bias and distortion in research. Validity is the extent to which a concept the researcher is
measuring is accurate and consistent in a study whereas reliability is the extent with which a
researcher’s choice of instrument is consistent in producing similar results when used on repeated
occasions. Despite their consistent use in research, a reliable test might not necessarily be valid.
However, a valid test is usually reliable.
An example is a study by Meda et al. (2017) on the longitudinal influence of alcohol and
marijuana use on academic performance in college students. In their study, the researchers
derived their data from the longitudinal 2-year brain and alcohol research in college students.
The results of their study showed that students who use moderate to high levels of alcohol and
low marijuana have lower GPAs. Students who use both substances from moderate to high levels
show significantly lower GPAs (Meda et al., 2017). There is also their follow up studies that
showed that students who stopped using the substance started posting higher academic GPA,
unlike those who continued with the substance.
The test is reliable, considering that it consistently shows similar results among students
who use the substances. The test results are also valid since they agree with the predictive
validity and the external criterion that states that substance use in school negatively influences
student performance. It is not a secret that students with substance abuse habits tend to perform
lowly in their studies unlike students who do not use substances.
Meda, S. A., Gueorguieva, R. V., Pittman, B., Rosen, R. R., Aslanzadeh, F., Tennen, H., &
Austad, C. S. (2017). Longitudinal influence of alcohol and marijuana use on academic
performance in college students. PLoS One, 12(3).
Another Response: (Robert Brooks)
Anyone who looks at a police officer must often wonder how they manage to go a whole shift
(8,10,12 hours) with a gun belt on. Well, having done 12 hours for 3 years with a gun belt is
no easy work! As a matter of fact, it’s the first thing I remove from my body after getting
home! Sometimes I don’t even wait to get home, I take it off as soon as I sign off with
My department has been keeping tabs on the latest trends and research when it comes to
gun belts and hip and back pains. In order to test the studies themselves, we were approved
to wear suspenders under our Outer Carrier Vests only for a short period of time. The
reason being is that with our OCVs, it’s essentially a vest that looks like a uniform top.
Unless you come up close and personal with a police officer, you’d hardly tell the difference.
The idea with the suspenders is that rather then utilizing normal belt keepers to hold the
gun belt over a regular belt, you use the suspenders instead. With belt clips, there is no
support and essentially your back and hips are balancing the weight of a gun belt the whole
time. With the suspenders, your shoulders are taking the burden of the weight, thus taking
it off the hips and back.
Now, I’m not going to lie. Wearing suspenders was somewhat awkward. Walking around the
P.D. with just an polo shirt with the suspenders exposed seemed kind of goofy. And it took
some time getting used to with the having weight on my shoulders rather then my hips.
However, the more I wore it and got used to it, the less pain I would be in at the end of my
shift. As a matter of fact, wearing the suspenders, I noticed right away the lack of pain in my
hips and back, and this allowed me to be more comfortable. And, as it turns out, while in a
foot pursuit with a suspect, my gun belt isn’t easily as prone to falling down to my legs
(which happened several times… don’t ask…) due to the rugged movement and the belt
keepers sometimes unclipping during extreme movements.
At the end of the trial, we were authorized to wear suspenders without any restrictions as
many of my fellow officers went from complaining to praising how they feel in uniform
simply because of the suspenders. Now when not wearing an OCV, the suspenders are not
authorized for wear so unfortunately if you decide to go with the other uniform option, as
my department as two, you have to wear the belt keepers.
Another Response: (Stanley Pierre Louis)
In the early 1960s, Stanley Milgram developed a landmark experience in the history of
psychology. Ordinary individuals are recruited through the press to participate in what they
believe to be a simple research on memory. They find themselves in a situation to teach a list
of words to another person, ordinary appearance also, and they do not know strapped on a
chair and covered with electrodes.For each error committed, the one who plays the role The
teacher must send an electric shock to his student. The discharge increases over the errors
to reach 450 volts in the end. Everything is done to arouse a terrifying anxiety, palpable in
the recordings of that time: the victim utters cries of pain, and the experimenter remains
behind the teacher, figure of authority, inviting him to continue until that the student knows
the list perfectly.
For S. Milgram, the capacity to obey the modern human being would result from the fact
that the context would place him in a situation of “agen” state: the person who embodies the
torturer would no longer perceive himself as acting autonomously, but as a mere agent of
authority, by which he would agree to be controlled. Indeed, with the help of experimental
variants of a simple but implacable ingenuity, S. Milgram proves that such obedience
behavior comes from the context in which the individual finds himself placed. On the other
hand, when the legitimacy of the authority is strong, when the victim is weakly identifiable
or when the subject finds himself performing in a docile group, this rate of obedience
This experience, now fifty years old, retains all its theoretical value. The ability of obedience
to authority in modern man has, it seems, lost nothing of its relevance. the results of S.
Milgram will give validity to this theory insofar as the contextual variables which had the
greatest impact on this behavior of obedience, were those manipulating the legitimacy of the
authority, and the degree of physical proximity Jerry M. Burger, of Santa Clara University,
California, achieved the same results by replicating the experience in December 2006: two
out of three people were able to produce such a serious behavior, for such a futile
justification. Ordinary subjects can therefore behave as executioners, as long as they are
subject to an authority.
Nicolas Guéguen, The Circle Psy-Editions Human Sciences-The great history of psychology:
Stanley Milgram (1933-1984). Submission to authority (September-October 2008).
Another Response: (Jason Bormann)
If you have ever served this country, you know what the Armed Service Vocational Aptitude
and Battery (ASVAB) test is. When it comes to reliability, which implies consistency, if you
take the ASVAB 10 times, you would get roughly the same score every time. We use this test
to determine entry eligibility into each Armed Service as well as an indicator for which
Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) or job would be your strongest match based on your
high school knowledge of math, arithmetic reasoning, paragraph comprehension, and word
The ASVAB is a valid test because it is measuring what each person learned in high school.
The ASVAB is actually an 8 part test but to ensure its validity, the test grades only the 4
common core areas that each person would have learned in high school to form the QT
score or the qualifying score to gain entry into one of the services. The other 4 parts are only
used to give indicators of what profession or job skill would best suite the applicant.
Another Response: (Joshua Jones)
While in the Army we are subject to plenty of test and experiments. One specific experiment
is one that is ongoing today and that is, can females make it through he tough schools such
ranger, special forces or even infantry AIT. When we all first heard of this we were all
groaning and moaning because the infantry has had a long standing of never having to serve
with females and for the most part we were sure they couldn’t hang in with the men and
their standards, because standards for men and women have always been different. What
was the argument, well it was that men and women are built different and can’t survive in a
field training environment like men because of the special needs women have other than
men. The ranger school experiment was the first to kick off this test and a few hand selected
women would be the first candidates to go through this training. The results where that
these women lasted longer than some of their male counterparts and made it through. These
women are serving in positions of higher rank today and this experiment has opened the
door for more candidates to go through not only the ranger course but more jobs that are on
the front line.
Another Response: (James Friedman)
In the religious organization I belonged to over 30 years ago in order to become an ordained
minister or senior pastor you had to take and pass a written test and a verbal test by a board of
Elders. There was both validity and reliability in the written test since the questions were strictly
bible based with questions such as “How many books in the bible?” “Who wrote Book of
Romans?” “Names of all the Disciples?” It was easy to confirm the accuracy of the test questions
and answers. The measurement of the scoring process was also reliable since everyone had the
same test questions and the answers were not open for interpretation.
The verbal testing by the Board of Elders was not as far as its validity or reliability. The first
challenge was that since the questioning was selective based on who was asking the approval or
disapproval of the answers was based on individual perception. The questions were random and,
in some cases, bias. One of the questions I remember was, “How do you feel about women in
ministry and leadership positions.” My answer was, “I believe in women in ministry/leadership
and totally support them.” There was some of the Board of Elders that did not like that answer
and others that did, therefore, there was no reliability (in my humble opinion) of the process even
though I passed.
Another Response: (Christopher Hoagland)
At my current place of employment we are responsible for screening,
training and verifying record data for a large number of employees transferring
from one location to another. All of them come from various companies
throughout the Nation and are supposed to arrive with complete records and
updated data before they consolidate and proceed to their final location. They
are supposed to arrive at our location fully prepared and administratively
screened by their originating location so we can focus on some of the more
unique requirements they will need later on.
However, what we found was that most of them were not arriving prepared
according to the guidance they had been given. By the time they arrived at their
final location we discovered that our customer was basically getting an
incomplete product shipped to them. So, we designed a system of checks and
balances that would allow us to capture various data elements on each and every
member and report that information back to their original locations so they can
make the required updates as needed. It also allows the highest echelon, kind of
the corporate office for lack of better term to see what their various location are
or are not doing as they were instructed. This report is now generated and
distributed within 48 hours of arriving to our location. Typically, they are with us
for less than a month at which time we pull the same report again to check for
updates and any remaining discrepancies.
The intent of implementing this process (validity) was to prove that:
They were not arriving as prepared as they should have.
We could identify the discrepancies.
The issues could be corrected before it was too late.
The end user (customer) would receive a better product.
The results of this process being used repeatedly (reliability) has proven that:
They are arriving more prepared than previous.
We are identifying less discrepancies.
Any issues that do exist upon arrival are being corrected.
The end user is receiving a better product and can complete its mission in less
Another Response: (Kenneth Odom)
The test experiment that I found to be interesting was the validity and reliability of animal test
for years to prove that it can help or avoid testing on humans. Looking through the testing it has
been found that it has wasted lives on both animals and humans. An article published in the
esteemed Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine has even evaluated this very claim and
concluded that it was not supported by any evidence. Most experiments on animals are not
relevant to human health, they do not contribute meaningfully to medical advances, and
many are undertaken simply out of curiosity and do not even pretend to hold promise for
curing illnesses. The only reason people are under the misconception that these
experiments help humans is because the media, experimenters, universities, and lobbying
groups exaggerate the potential they have to lead to new cures and the role they’ve played
in past medical advances.
Surname 1
Discussion 4
Working in Teams
While we are not working in teams for our portfolio projects, we are working in
teams throughout our weekly discussions. Think about the Tuckman’s four
stages as explained in chapter three: forming, storming, norming, and
performing. Looking back at the discussions in this class or in your previous
classes, identify the ways you have seen the class working one or more of these
stages. If you have not seen this playing out in your course discussions, describe
a time when you have seen these stages playing out in your professional or
personal experiences.
How might your awareness of these stages help you in future collaborative
projects? Give examples and justify your response.
View your discussion rubric.
My Answer:
Tuckman’s Stages of Collaborative Groups
Tuckman’s stages of development present an interesting take on the process of team work
and predict accurately the stages which the team must undergo for it to be a success. According
to Rickards and Moger, the steps define the necessary steps to making a teamwork and also
provide a chance for creative leadership in a team (par. 2). From this observation, it is correct to
say that a team leader must be aware of the steps and set expectations for the team at this level.
Although I have seen this work with group discussions, a better example I have observed is in
my workplace. I was involved in a team that brought together members from different
departments to complete a project. At the forming stage, the team was very ineffective and I felt
there were tensions and general lack of direction. When we attempted to go ahead with the
project, I believe the storming stage arrived. In this stage, there were many obstacles and a sense
Surname 2
of competition among members from different departments. There were frequent outbursts and
buried differences. However, after we overcame this stage, most of the work was performed
perfectly with everyone understanding their role in the team and performing it with little
supervision. My knowledge of these steps allows me to understand and regulate what to expect
from a team. For instance, as a team leader, I will find conflict resolution methods for the
storming stage because differences are expected and I will need to guide group members past
them if they are to work together. Knowledge of the steps is crucial for creative leadership in
Surname 3
Another Answer: (Frank Chavez)
Hello fellow class mates,
The Bruce Tuckman’s four step model for team building goes as follows:
Forming- This stage is everyone is getting to know each other. People keep their own
agendas to themselves. Everyone is very polite.
Storming- This stage people start testing the limits. Arguments about different ideas and
leadership qualities are talked about at this stage.
Norming- This stage the group is settling on a leader and are agreed to how to solve a
problem or get things accomplished productively.
Performing- This is the last stage and the team starts to work together and accomplish
the task. Team work is built.
Being in the military I see this develop often. Whenever a mission/task is issued
the team goes through these phases. I never knew until I read about
Brue Tuckman that there was a Theory about team building. I have been part of
both cohesive and non-cohesive teams during missions. Of course, it is better to
be part of a cohesive team because it is a lot more pleasant to work with a team
that gets along. The non-cohesive team I have been part of usually had the
problem of who was in charge and who knew how to accomplish the mission
were two different people.
I have learned in my 17years in the military that even if I am in charge of a
mission there is or maybe someone who has completed this task before
successfully. This is where peoples pride has to be let go and take advise from a
subordinate or even from someone who you may not be the friendliest person. I
have also been part of a team that was working and functioning just fine with
daily operations then a new chain of command come in and decides to change
things. This happens a lot in the military new leadership comes in with what we
call the god idea fairy and disrupts the operation.
Another Response: (Michael Callaway)
I have done a lot of forming at my work. From what I understand from our ebook, forming
is a list of what needs to be accomplished what needs to be turned in and at what time line.
During projects that I have, I compile a list of what is being accomplished and things we can
and can’t do. For example, we have to increase our radar capabilities by a 500 mile radius.
That is what needs to be accomplished but we can’t use any hardware outside of what we
have already, but we can improve that hardware. We also, need to collect data points for
each improvement weekly. Each team member has a different job, one will compile all the
data points, one will analyze it, another will find what we need to do to get the desired
results by making changes to the hardware or software.
Surname 4
Reference: Technical Communication Today; Chapter 3; pg 48 – 56
Another Response: (Blaze Guiterez)
I did notice in our first week when we all announced our business ideas that everyone was
eager and supportive to help each other form ideas to help their business. Outside of the
discussions, I’ …
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