Expert answer:Racism and Nativism in Immigration Policy Presenta

  

Solved by verified expert:1.Watch link and Thinking of what you learned in this week’s readings about the history of immigration to the US, as well as current views about immigrants, are you surprised at all by this clip? What about the psychologist’s idea of categories? State your reactions here. 2. Review powerpoint attached and post things you learned, things you found particularly interesting, questions about things you didn’t understand and any other reaction you have to the material. At least 8-10 sentences for each response.
race_and_racisms_brief_chapter_03_slides.pptx

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IMMIGRATION AND RACISM
Immigration laws can impact racial groups even
when the law does not mention race. This can
happen through immigration and the process of
becoming a citizen.
Early laws did mention race. The Naturalization
Law of 1790 indicated that: “Only free white
persons who had lived in the United States for at
least two years were eligible for citizenship.” (p.
62)
CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT OF 1882
This piece of legislation in place until 1943
prevented Chinese laborers from entering the
United States using both race and class as
categories of exclusion.
CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT OF 1882
The 1893 case Fong Yue Ting v. United States
indicated that deportation was not a
punishment, but an administrative act where
certain constitutional provisions did not apply
such as a right to trial by jury.
MORE RACIAL EXCLUSIONS
-Immigration Act of 1924—created exclusions for
Southern and Eastern Europeans.
-1924 Oriental Exclusion Act—created exclusions
for people coming from most of Asia.
-The Border Patrol was created.
FROM 1924 TO 1964 FEW IMMIGRANTS PERMITTED
ENTRY
Nativism (the tendency to favor those born within
a country over those who come from other
countries) was practiced when deportations of
Mexicans occurred in 1925, 1929, and in the
1930s
FROM 1924 TO 1964 FEW IMMIGRANTS PERMITTED
ENTRY
From 1942 to 1964, the Bracero Program—a
guest worker program for Mexican men—was
in place
Mexican workers in a
flax field, 1946.
(P20: 1208, Extension
Bulletin Illustrations
Photograph Collection,
courtesy OSU Archives)
FROM 1924 TO 1964 FEW IMMIGRANTS PERMITTED
ENTRY
Operation Wetback—many raids in the 1950s to
arrest workers suspected of being undocumented.
These workers had lives and families in the United
States.
McCarran Internal Security Act—this act legalized the
deportation of immigrants who were suspected of
associating with the Communist Party.
1965 IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT
This act overturned the exclusionary policies and set a
universal quota of 20,000 people. People could now
enter based on family relationship, skills, or education.
The results were that immigration increased from Asia,
Latin America, and the Caribbean and undocumented
immigration from Mexico increased.
ASIAN IMMIGRATION
Sending countries for Asian immigrants
include China, Philippines, India, Korea,
and Vietnam
ASIAN IMMIGRATION
Chinese immigrants were an early group to
immigrate to the United States and came in
at a steady pace until the Exclusion Acts
ASIAN IMMIGRATION
Philippines was a U.S. colony from 1898 until
1946 from which they could freely enter
the United States until 1934, when
immigration was restricted, then opened up
again with the 1965 act.
ASIAN IMMIGRATION
Koreans arrived as laborers, then faced
restrictions until many women arrived after the
Korean war as wives of service men. High
levels of immigration between 1975 and
1990.
Source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics (2010).
ASIAN IMMIGRATION
Vietnamese entered the country as refugees
between 1971 and 1980.
LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN IMMIGRATION
 Latin American migration numbers were high in the
1990s, but not before that with the exception of
Mexico. Mexicans stayed temporarily up until the
1970s.
LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN IMMIGRATION
 Central American immigration increased in the
1960s, and especially in the 1980s due to civil wars
and violence.
LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN IMMIGRATION
 Caribbean persons have always been immigrating,
and increased since 1965, with Dominican Republic,
Cuba, and Jamaica.
Source: Migration Policy Institute (2012).
Source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics (2010).
UNDOCUMENTED IMMIGRATION
Undocumented immigrants come from various
places.
UNDOCUMENTED IMMIGRATION
Prior to 1965, there were no numerical limits on
the number of immigrants to be admitted from
Mexico.
After 1965, with a 20,000 quota, undocumented
immigration escalated in numbers because of
employment opportunities. In the 1970s, the
public began to see this as a problem.
Source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics (2010).
Source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics (2010).
IMMIGRATION REFORM AND CONTROL ACT OF 1986
Two provisions:
(1) Included a path to become documented
for those who met certain qualifications
IMMIGRATION REFORM AND CONTROL ACT OF 1986
Two provisions:
(1) Included a path to become documented
for those who met certain qualifications
(2) Employers would be sanctioned for hiring
undocumented workers
IMMIGRATION REFORM AND CONTROL ACT OF 1986
Many Mexicans decided to stay in the United
States, which was something new for both
immigrants and local-born whites.
Fear of the racial other of immigrants and
their “drain on society” circulated around the
discussion of this law.
STATE PROPOSITIONS
One California proposition denied undocumented
immigrants public education and public aid; this
passed but was found unconstitutional.
Just like in earlier U.S. history, the immigrants were
being used as scapegoats by politicians for poor
economic times.
MORE IMMIGRANT LAWS FOCUSING ON
DEPORTATION AND DETENTION PASSED IN 1996
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity
Reconciliation Act of1996:
This law also prevented documented immigrants
from accessing public aid benefits for five
years.
MORE IMMIGRANT LAWS FOCUSING ON
DEPORTATION AND DETENTION PASSED IN 1996
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant
Responsibility Act of 1996:
This law created a stipulation for mandatory
deportation for certain crimes and could be
retroactive.
MORE IMMIGRANT LAWS FOCUSING ON
DEPORTATION AND DETENTION PASSED IN 1996
Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act:
Mandated automatic detention in many cases
and halted the ability to get judicial review of
deportation.
MORE IMMIGRANT LAWS FOCUSING ON
DEPORTATION AND DETENTION PASSED IN 1996
Together the laws weakened the protections for
immigrants.
1996 LAWS
• Judicial review not provided for deportation
cases
• Detention required for immigrants under
investigation for violations of immigration law
• Allowed the use of secret evidence
• Allowed legal permanent residents to be
deported for crimes committed outside the
time period of the 1996 laws
TOP FIVE COUNTRIES FOR DEPORTEES
Mexico
Honduras
Guatemala
El Salvador
Dominican Republic
Black and brown persons from Latin America and the Caribbean
are more likely to be deported than whites or Asians.
Source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics (2009).
DISPARITIES IN DEPORTATIONS
• Men and boys are more likely to be deported
than women and girls.
• Deportation impacts not only the individual
but also their families.
• The climate of enforcement has increased
racial profiling of Latinos.
DREAM ACT
Attempted legislation to allow adults and
children who were brought to the United States
as children to gain documented status, so they
can attend school and find employment.
Immigration legislation still has a
disproportionate impact on people of color.
NATIVISM IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY
According to Sanchez (1997), three
characteristics of contemporary nativism:
(1) preference for English
(2) fear that immigrants are taking affirmative
action slots of the U.S. born
(3) fear that immigrants draw from public
resources like hospitals, schools, and public
aide
NATIVISM IN STATE LAWS
Arizona in 2010, Georgia in 2011, and Alabama
in 2011 all passed laws that targeted
undocumented immigrants.
CONCLUSION
Nativism and racism influenced immigration
policy and impacted the lives of many people.
This nativism and racism permeated the laws
passed by the U.S. government.
Struggles continue today for individuals and
family members who do not have a path to
becoming documented immigrants.

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