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Solved by verified expert:post a meaningful comment or questionwrite about 150 words to each discussionDiscussion 1Organizational ethics are the policies, methodology and culture of doing the correct things even with troublesome and frequently questionable issues. Ethics that challenge associations incorporate however aren’t restricted to segregation, social duty and trustee issues. Ethical issues and how any firm follows ethics could easily compare to ever in light of the fact that internet based life promptly uncovered issues that may have been cleared aside in past ages. The Concept of ethics relativism which holds that moral conduct ought to be characterized by different periods in time ever, a general public’s conventions, the exceptional conditions existing apart from everything else. The working environment Personal faith in a preeminent being, religious association, intensity of nature or some other life-managing power. Organizations have reacted to the expanded thoughtfulness regarding otherworldliness and religion at work by endeavoring to oblige their representatives. Adversaries of otherworldliness at work point to the bunch of execution issues as justification for keeping otherworldliness out of the working environment. Issues incorporate which religion ought to be advanced and requirement for perceiving decent variety of religious convictions. Examining Ethical Dilemmas in Business with Business chiefs and representatives need a lot of choice rules that will shape their reasoning when hands on ethical issues happen. Applying Ethical Reasoning to Business Activities Can utilize the goodness, utility, rights, and equity system as an apparatus to dissect genuine business ethics dilemmas.
Law and ethics likewise assume a huge job in administering how associations may treat their clients. Ethics and law have a huge influence in the manner firms may treat the individuals who work for them. Both ethics and legitimate concerns manage when workforce can be employed and terminated, how the executives may treat them and pay them and what sort of workplace they can anticipate. The region of business morals and laws and the jobs they play in associations is enormous. Ethics are the Safeguard to the Company. To improve the nature of an organization’s ethics execution we should change the way of life so ethics is a piece of ordinary basic leadership. The Ethics Policies or Codes Provides direction to directors and workers on what to do when looked with a ethics problem In U.S. arrangements will in general be instrumental, giving guidelines and methodology and in Japan strategies will in general be blend of lawful consistence and friends esteems. Simply having a code or arrangement is inadequate, must be generally conveyed and have related preparing. Lawbreaking in business is regularly a consequence of acts done by its own employees. U.S Justice Department cracking down about corporate illicit movement. Numerous associations actualize consistence and ethics projects to help manage the basic leadership and conduct of employees. Consistence with administrative prerequisites and the organization’s very own arrangements are a basic part of viable hazard the employees. Checking and keeping up consistency isn’t simply to keep the regulators upbeat it is a standout amongst the most significant ways for an association to keep up its ethical wellbeing, bolster its long haul thriving, and save and advance its qualities.

1.Initially, one should pay attention to the fact that, the Chiquita’s mission is respecting ethics and ethical business. In its attempts to protect its stakeholders and employees, when the paramilitary group insisted that, in the case the company could not pay, its employees would be at risk. Taking such decision seriously, its management stated that its attempts to find out fund would be as the cost paid for Colombia against doing business there. While paying to the paramilitary group, the company attempted to hid the payment through some of questionable accounting actions.Settling upon that, I agree with the 11th US Court of Appeals ruling that cleared Chiquita of any liability for the victims killed by the paramilitary group that Chiquita funded

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2.Four major types of the ethical reasoning: virtue ethics, utilitarian reasoning, rights reasoning, and justice reasoning. Considering that, I think that, it was ethical for Chiquita to do payment of the declared organization as terrorist at their threats to hurt its employees if no payment has been done. The company was obligated to find out a way to protect its employees. According to the ethical reasoning’s four types, as to virtues, there are limitations, such as incomplete or subjective of the good virtue. As to the utilitarian, there is a comparing benefits, protecting its employees, at the costs of being accused by the court. Rights type is corresponding to the basic human rights, protecting employees. Finally, justice has benefits and costs that have been distributed.

3.One can admit the necessity of US ban against supporting the terrorists groups, basically which has been imposed after September 11th, 2001. Though, concerning the situation of Chiquita, while admitting its ethical principles and obligation of code of ethics, the company attempted all possible ways to react to the threats of such terrorist group, basically in order to prevent harms and risks occurred to its employees. The company, however was in miserable choice, either to support the terrorist group or follow ethical codes, which has links to the lives of its employees. Therefore, its decision was protecting the lives of its employees.

4.Chiquita has not a real choice. It was obligated to breach ethical code against protecting its employees. The company did not find at all any other choice to protect its employees without paying the terrorists, in order to stop their threats.
Being involved with ethical code and business ethics, sometimes the individual is obligated to breach the code, against preventing injuries, harms or risks that may occur and threat his life and the lives of others. The case of Chiquita is an ideal example of this matter.Discussion 2This chapter talks about the various ethical issues encountered by a business and how a mangers needs to understand the root cause of it and find a solution to it. Ethics is a notion of what is right or wrong. A person learns about ethics, morality, and acceptable behaviour from various sources like religion, family institution, school and teachers and neighbours, friends, role-models. These pre-convinced notions or basic rules are important for preservation of organized life. Businesses need to cultivate ethics due to many reason like- Enhance business performance; To comply with legal requirements; To prevent or minimize harm; To meet demands of business stakeholders; To promote personal morality. Although companies have several reasons to be practice ethic laws they still find themselves in ethical problems every now and then due to- Personal gain and selfish interest/greed; Competitive pressure or profits; Conflicts of interest; Cross cultural contradiction. The analysis and resolution of ethical dilemmas in a workplace depends on ethical character and moral development of mangers and other employees. The main two component that make up good ethical character in workplace are ‘Manager’s value’ as partake in major business decision and ‘Spirituality’ in the workplace as according to research found that businesses that value spirituality amongst its employees, also have high morals in ethics. Mangers also needs to understand everybody’s ethics are different and they are different stages i.e. childhood (avoiding punishment); adolescence (reward seeking); early adulthood (learns from social group); adulthood (seeks to follow laws, customs and tradition); mature adulthood (apply their moral belief beyond specific social customs) and mature adulthood (based on principle and relationship). Mangers and employee needs set of rules to guide them how to deal when the job ethics issue occur. This helps them to identify and nature the problem and decide on the actions they likely would take. There four methods that can use i.e. virtue ethics, utilitarian reasoning, human rights and justice reasoning.Chapter 6: Organizational ethics This chapter talks about some steps to improve ethical performance for a business. Corporate culture is a blend of ideas, customs, traditional practices, company values, and shared meanings that help define normal/acceptable behaviour for everyone who works in a company. it is basically is “the way we do things around here”. Ethical climate represents an unspoken understanding among employees of what is and is not acceptable behaviour based on the expected standards or norms used for ethical decision making. There are three types of ethical climate depending on the situation i.e. Egoism, focused on self-interest, company interest, or economic efficiency; Benevolence, focus on friendship, team interest, and social responsibility; Principle which focus on personal morality, company rules and procedures, and laws and professional codes. Business ethics can be different across different organizational function as they have different specialized operations and have particular ethical dilemma. Some can be accounting ethics, financial ethics, and marketing ethics. Marketing ethics can be complicated because it is usually the first point of contact between the business and stakeholder. Any business can improve the quality of ethical performance, which requires a company to build ethical safeguard into their day to day routines (institutionalizing ethics). Some step could be: Building ethics safe guard into company; Ethics policies or code; Ethics and compliance officers; Ethics reporting mechanism; Ethics training programCase Study: Responsibility or Illegal ActionsOverall the case is about Chiquita Banana brand that has been accused of supporting violent attacks against the people of Colombia, but they were found not guilty of any crimes. I don’t agree with 11th U.S. Court of Appeals ruling that cleared Chiquita as the company thought they were being ethical by trying to protect their employees, but it the long-run they were acting in an illegal manner by paying the terrorist groups. This just proves the struggle between ethical behaviour, and the difference between it and legal behaviour.
By using the four methods of ethical reasoning it is evident that it was unethical for Chiquita to pay the terrorist organization when payments were demanded in the early 2000s. As there was lack of honesty, courage, and justice/fairness. This choice was not an honest one because the company knew who they were dealing with. These groups are not new, and their behavioural history is well documented. The employees in the company were under constant threat of attack by volatile militant groups. Chiquita could have made the right and ethical decision of choosing to open a plantation in a different area where this type of behaviour can be avoided.

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