Expert answer:Politics & Policy in Health Care Systems and Healt

  

Solved by verified expert:Politics & Policy in Health Care Systems Health Policy Analysis Guidelines 7 page paper on the Topic on Health Care Systems Analysis Paper and Mock Testimony. Topic: United States Mental Health Access Improvement policy (S. 2680/H.R. 2646) due on 5/19/19. The purpose of the assignment is for students to develop knowledge about the analysis of a health policy issue within the context of the policy making process. This assignment can focus on a public health policy issue emanating from the federal, state, or local arena. The student will: Determine a specific topic/area of health policy to be studied obtaining instructor approval in Week One, designated Discussion Board. Research the policy/program using a variety of methods. Prepare a paper that applies components of the policymaking process using a stage-sequential model (Mason Leavitt Chaffee textbook Chapters 7-8) see attachment below. Include the following in the formal paper (each may be used as APA headings): A. Policy Problem(Mental Health Access Improvement Act) PolicyS. 2680/H.R. 2646 a. Background Social Factors Economic Factors Ethical Factors Political Factors Legal Factors B. Policy Goals & Objectives C. Evaluations of Options & Alternatives Cost Quality of Care] Protection of patient & provider autonomy Political Feasibility D. Nursing Implications E. Conclusion An abstract should be provided in your term paper. Abstract according to APA: Single paragraph Block format no indent Less than 120 words All numbers written in Arabic Paraphrase rather than quote Utilize active voice Explain any abbreviations utilized i.e. American Nurses Association (ANA). Paper is to be in APA format (use template) and proper in-text citations and reference list included. Supporting citations are to be within the last 5 years and authoritative sources such as peer-reviewed journals. Be sure to correctly cite the policy according to APA citation. 2-17-2012 LAB, updated 3.25.14 kld
msn_7741_paper_rubric.doc

health_policy_analysis_guidelines.2014_1_.doc

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Expert answer:Politics & Policy in Health Care Systems and Healt
Just from $10/Page
Order Essay

fossil_fuel_policy_paper_10.21.12_rev_1__example_2_.doc

bills_116s286is.pdf

Unformatted Attachment Preview

1
WILMINGTON UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS
TERM PAPER EVALUATION RUBRIC
Student Name: _________________________________
Course: ________________________
Assignment: ____________________________
Directions: CHECK the box in the column that best describes the extent to which the student’s work meets the expected elements
for each evaluation criterion. In the rubric score column, RECORD the numeric rubric value that best fits the student’s work.
NOTE the range for each level of work. For example, you may enter a numeric rubric value from 8.3 – 8. 8 for “acceptable” work.
However, 8.9 will represent “accomplished” work. This rubric directly matches the University’s grading system.
RECORD a rubric score of “0” if elements are not included or submitted in compliance with the assignment guidelines
& cannot be graded on the rubric.
Evaluation Criteria
& Expected Elements
INTRODUCTION
(10 pts)
1. Conveys
understanding of the
paper
INFORMATION
LITERACY
(15 pts)
2. Selects literature
Descriptive Adjectives with Numeric Rubric Values & Corresponding University Numeric Grading Values
Unsatisfactory
7. 6 or less
76 or less
C- or less
□ Inadequately
Unsatisfactory
3. 8 or less
76 or less
C- or less
□ Inadequately
Developing
7.7 – 8.2
77 – 82
C to C+
□ Minimally
Developing
3.85 – 4.10
77 – 82
C to C+
□ Minimally
Acceptable
8.3 – 8.8
83 – 88
B- to B
□ Moderately
Acceptable
4.15 – 4.40
83 – 88
B- to B
□ Moderately
Accomplished
8.9 – 9.4
89 – 94
B+ to A□ Fully
Accomplished
4.45 – 4.70
89 – 94
B+ to A□ Fully
Exemplary
9.5 – 10. 0
95 – 100
A
□ Exquisitely
States clear & appropriate
thesis statement for assignment.
Presents background of paper
with evident literature support.
States purpose of paper.
States contents of paper.
Captures reader’s attention.
Exemplary
4.75 – 5.00
95 – 100
A
□ Exquisitely
Draws content from current &
appropriate body of literature.
Selects majority primary
sources.
Selects appropriate number of
sources.
Rubric
Score
/10
/5
2
3. Evaluates literature
□ Inadequately
□ Minimally
□ Moderately
□ Fully
□ Exquisitely
Demonstrates ability to access,
use, and evaluate reliability and
validity of information.
4. Attributes sources
□ Inadequately
□ Minimally
□ Moderately
□ Fully
□ Exquisitely
Uses information ethically
(paraphrases, cites, quotes
sources properly).
BODY/CONTENTS
Analysis/Support/
Reasoning (20 pts)
5. Develops paper
6. Processes
paper
CONCLUSIONS/
RECOMMENDATIONS
(20 pts)
7. Integrates paper
Unsatisfactory
7. 6 or less
76 or less
C- or less
□ Inadequately
□ Inadequately
Developing
7.7 – 8.2
77 – 82
C to C+
□ Minimally
□ Minimally
Acceptable
8.3 – 8.8
83 – 88
B- to B
□ Moderately
□ Moderately
Accomplished
8.9 – 9.4
89 – 94
B+ to A□ Fully
□ Fully
Exemplary
9.5 – 10. 0
95 – 100
A
□ Exquisitely
Uses data to support in-depth
analysis of all aspects of topic.
Represents other views.
Follows assignment criteria.
Developing
7.7 – 8.2
77 – 82
C to C+
□ Minimally
Acceptable
8.3 – 8.8
83 – 88
B- to B
□ Moderately
Accomplished
8.9 – 9.4
89 – 94
B+ to A□ Fully
/5
Rubric
Score
/10
□ Exquisitely
Evidences critical
thinking/reasoning throughout
analysis process.
Supports rationale and
significance of paper.
Unsatisfactory
7. 6 or less
76 or less
C- or less
□ Inadequately
/5
Exemplary
9.5 – 10. 0
95 – 100
A
□ Exquisitely
Draws logical & original
conclusions from analysis.
Synthesizes information to
evidence critical thinking &
reflection.
Recommends next steps to
pursue/address topic area.
/10
Rubric
Score
/10
3
8. Applies paper
□ Inadequately
□ Minimally
□ Moderately
□ Fully
□ Exquisitely
Presents/addresses implications
for nursing (practice, education,
research).
WRITING
QUALITIES
Organization (10 pts)
9. Organizes paper
Writing (15 pts)
10. Uses writing
mechanics
11. Uses writing
articulation techniques
Unsatisfactory
7. 6 or less
76 or less
C- or less
□ Inadequately
Unsatisfactory
3. 8 or less
76 or less
C- or less
□ Inadequately
□ Inadequately
Developing
7.7 – 8.2
77 – 82
C to C+
□ Minimally
Developing
3.85 – 4.10
77 – 82
C to C+
□ Minimally
□ Minimally
Acceptable
8.3 – 8.8
83 – 88
B- to B
□ Moderately
Acceptable
4.15 – 4.40
83 – 88
B- to B
□ Moderately
□ Moderately
Accomplished
8.9 – 9.4
89 – 94
B+ to A□ Fully
Accomplished
4.45 – 4.70
89 – 94
B+ to A□ Fully
□ Fully
/10
Exemplary
9.5 – 10. 0
95 – 100
A
□ Exquisitely
Uses headings to clearly
organize & delineate areas of
discussion.
Presents information logically.
Sequences ideas to enhance
meaning, overall cohesion, &
readability.
Rubric
Score
Exemplary
4.75 – 5.00
95 – 100
A
□ Exquisitely
Uses correct mechanics
(grammar, spelling, &
punctuation). Uses topical &
complete sentences. Uses
transitions to connect ideas.
Rubric
Score
/10
/5
□ Exquisitely
Illustrates clarity, precision, &
appropriate vocabulary.
Focuses on topic & task. Uses
minimal redundancy/
repetition.
/5
4
12. Uses writing
presentation principles
Formal Writing
Guidelines
APA Format (10 pts)
13. Presents paper
elements
14. Presents citations
and references
□ Inadequately
□ Minimally
□ Moderately
□ Fully
□ Exquisitely
Style: Uses variety sentence &
strong paragraph structure to
convey details, unity, &
completeness
Tone: Uses appropriate,
consistent, objective tone that
shows tact, respect, and
understanding.
Voice: Uses majority active
voice & paces how writing
sounds to reader.
Unsatisfactory
3. 8 or less
76 or less
C- or less
□ Inadequately
□ Inadequately
Developing
3.85 – 4.10
77 – 82
C to C+
□ Minimally
□ Minimally
Acceptable
4.15 – 4.40
83 – 88
B- to B
□ Moderately
□ Moderately
Accomplished
4.45 – 4.70
89 – 94
B+ to A□ Fully
□ Fully
Exemplary
4.75 – 5.00
95 – 100
A
□ Exquisitely
Uses correct APA format for
title page, spacing, margins,
headings, etc.
Graphics/tables, if indicated
/5
Rubric
Score
/5
□ Exquisitely
Uses correct APA format to
document and matches citations
and references.
/5
/100
Total Rubric Score
Faculty: ________________________________________________
Date: ___________
Letter Grade: __________
Comments:
Obtain copy of Undergraduate and Graduate Grading System at Wilmington University, Academics, Academic Policies, Grading, Grading Scale @
http://www.wilmu.edu/academics/grades.aspx
08/08, 10/08, 11/08, 12/08
Politics & Policy in Health Care Systems
Health Policy Analysis Guidelines
First identify your topic for the Health Care Systems Analysis Paper and Mock
Testimony.
Topic: United States Mental Health Access Improvement policy (S. 2680/H.R.
2646) due on 5/19/19.
The purpose of the assignment is for students to develop knowledge about the
analysis of a health policy issue within the context of the policy making process. This
assignment can focus on a public health policy issue emanating from the federal,
state, or local arena. The student will:





Determine a specific topic/area of health policy to be studied obtaining
instructor approval in Week One, designated Discussion Board.
Research the policy/program using a variety of methods.
Prepare a paper that applies components of the policymaking process using a
stage-sequential model (Mason Leavitt Chaffee textbook Chapters 7-8) see
attachment below.
Include the following in the formal paper (each may be used as APA
headings):
o A. Policy Problem (Mental Health Access Improvement Act)
o Policy S. 2680/H.R. 2646
▪ a. Background
• Social Factors
• Economic Factors
• Ethical Factors
• Political Factors
• Legal Factors
o B. Policy Goals & Objectives
o C. Evaluations of Options & Alternatives
▪ Cost
▪ Quality of Care]
▪ Protection of patient & provider autonomy
▪ Political Feasibility
o D. Nursing Implications
o E. Conclusion
An abstract should be provided in your term paper. Abstract according to
APA:
o Single paragraph
o Block format no indent
o Less than 120 words
o All numbers written in Arabic
o Paraphrase rather than quote

o Utilize active voice
o Explain any abbreviations utilized i.e. American Nurses Association
(ANA).
Paper is to be in APA format (use template) and proper in-text citations and
reference list included. Supporting citations are to be within the last 5 years
and authoritative sources such as peer-reviewed journals. Be sure to
correctly cite the policy according to APA citation.
2-17-2012 LAB, updated 3.25.14 kld
Chapter 8
HEALTH POLICY ANALYSIS
1
Public Health Policy Analysis: Impact of Fossil Fuel Energy on Health
Jane Doe
Wilmington University
Running head: HEALTH POLICY ANALYSIS
2
Abstract
The U.S. depends primarily on petroleum, natural gas, and coal for energy, and these
fossil fuels account for over 80% of energy use (U.S. Energy Information Administration,
2011). Fossil fuel energy has been linked to human health problems, and there is growing
concern over risks of hydraulic fracturing or fracking, “a technique used to release
petroleum, natural gas, or other substances for extraction” from rock layers (hydraulic
fracturing, n.d.). To that end, the Pennsylvania State Nurses Association (PSNA)
developed a policy entitled “Nurses’ Role in Recognizing, Educating, and Advocating for
Healthy Energy Choices” concerning the health risks associated with fossil fuel energy
and the role of nurses in educating others and advocating for healthier energy choices.
The PSNA’s policy was subsequently adopted by the American Nurses Association
(ANA) House of Delegates as a Resolution in July 2012.
Running head: HEALTH POLICY ANALYSIS
3
Public Health Policy Analysis: Impact of Fossil Fuels on Health
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the PSNA and the ANA public health
policy regarding the impact of fossil fuel energy on health and the role of nurses in
educating others about the topic and advocating for healthier energy choices. Health
policy is defined as “the decisions made within government structures that direct or
influence the actions, behaviors, and decisions pertaining to health and its determinants,”
and policy analysis is “the process leading to a study of the background, purpose, content,
and effects of various options within a policy and their relevant social, economic, and
political factors” (Berkowitz, 2012, p. 50). To that end, this paper seeks to define this
policy problem, provides background and contextual information in reference to social,
economic, ethical, political, and legal factors surrounding fossil fuels, health, and
renewable energy sources, and describes the stakeholders. Next, policy goals and
objectives are evaluated, and the pros and cons of this policy and two other policy options
are compared in terms of cost, quality of care, protection of patient and provider
autonomy, and political feasibility. Lastly, the most effective policy option is summarized
considering its implications on nursing.
Policy Process
A hybrid of the rational decision making (i.e., emphasis on policy alternatives)
and stage-sequential (i.e., problem definition, policy formation, implementation, and
evaluation) approaches to policy process suggested by Berkowitz (2012) will be used to
organize this paper. The ways in which the PSNA’s policy and ANA’s subsequent
Resolution fit into the policy process are explored below.
Running head: HEALTH POLICY ANALYSIS
4
The third step in the policy process, development of policy options (Berkowitz,
2012) including advantages and disadvantages, is explored later in the paper. The last
three steps of the policy process are to evaluate the impact of the policy; modify, repeal,
or leave the policy alone; and communicate policy options (Berkowitz, 2012). These
measures have yet to be taken as the ANA has not yet released implementation strategies
to their constituents (i.e., nursing associations and individual nurses) so it is premature to
ascertain the full impact of this policy.
Definition of the Problem
The first step in the policy process is to define the problem, i.e., a “situation that
produces needs or dissatisfaction among people for which relief is sought through
governmental action” (Berkowitz, 2012, p. 52). The problem identified in the PSNA
policy proposal–and in the ANA’s subsequently passed Resolution–speaks to the impact
of energy choices (i.e., fossil fuels) on health and how nurses can help minimize the toll
to lives associated with energy choices by supporting policies that put health first and
advocating for polices that focus on healthier, more sustainable energy sources. The
PSNA recognized a need for national nursing leadership to draw attention to the impact
of energy choices on health. This policy, with the backing of the ANA, calls upon nurses
to use evidence-based information to educate other health professionals, the public, and
policymakers about the relationship between health and fossil fuel energy and to pursue
conservation and healthier, more sustainable energy choices such as wind and solar
power.
Research
Running head: HEALTH POLICY ANALYSIS
5
The next step in the policy process is to research the problem (Berkowitz, 2012),
which the PSNA has done in its Action Proposal to the ANA, providing background
information and references from scientific and medical journals and government websites
to support its proposed policy. I present findings from the literature on the impact of
fossil fuel energy on health in the next paragraphs.
Fossil fuel use has been linked to increased rates of asthma attacks, lung cancer,
and cardiovascular disease (PSNA, 2012). O’Connor and Roy (2008) note that half of the
electrical power in the U.S. is generated by coal-fired power plants that serve as a major
source of air pollutants including mercury, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and fine
particular matter. Exposure to these pollutants has been linked to direct effects of
respiratory problems, pregnancy complications, and premature death and indirect effects
on the cardiovascular and neurologic systems (O’Connor & Roy, 2008). Other sources of
air pollutants include–but are not limited to–oil refineries, vehicles, and lawn mowers
(Chalupka, 2005).
Air pollution causes water pollution, which has various routes of exposure
including dermal exposure, ingestion, and inhalation (Chalupka, 2005). For example,
mercury from coal-fired power plants can contaminate the fish supply, causing
neurotoxicity to those who eat it, and eating products from animals who feed on
contaminated plants or fruits and vegetables grown in contaminated soil poses health
risks (Chalupka, 2005). In addition, fracking is in its relative infancy; however,
preliminary data have shown health risks associated with air pollution from ground-level
ozone formation and water contamination related from accidental discharge of hazardous
chemicals used in the fracking process (Kaktins, 2011).
Running head: HEALTH POLICY ANALYSIS
6
Stakeholders
The fourth step in the policy process is to involve interest groups and stakeholders
(Berkowitz, 2012). Stakeholders are those impacted by policy decisions and are usually
heavily engaged in the policy making process (Berkowitz, 2012). The stakeholders of
this policy include the PSNA, specifically members of the Association’s Environmental
Health Committee, and the ANA, which has adopted this policy and is expected to
publish implementation strategies so that nursing organizations and individual nurses can
put this policy into practice. The PSNA and the ANA represent the interest of the general
public and published this policy out of concern over the impact of fossil fuels on human
health. By submitting their proposal to the ANA, the PSNA was successful in engaging
the country’s largest nursing organization in a health policy that is in the interest of the
general public.
Background
This section explores social, economic, ethical, political, and legal factors
surrounding fossil fuel energy, health, and renewable energy sources.
Social Factors
The degree of vulnerability to environmental exposure depends upon the person’s
size and degree of sensitivity, combined with interactions, synergies, and cumulative
effects (Brody, 2012). Elements of one’s environment can have synergistic effects
(Brody, 2012). For example, the developing fetus and child in urban areas and
developing countries are at increased risk for health problems because environmental
exposure can be exacerbated by inadequate nutrition and stress (Perera, 2008). What is
more, past and current exposure to one toxin can increase one’s vulnerability to another
Running head: HEALTH POLICY ANALYSIS
7
environmental hazard (Chalupka, 2005). Research has shown that certain groups are at
increased risk for exposure to environmental hazards including children, older adults, the
poor, and minority communities are particularly vulnerable to the adverse affect of fossil
fuel combustion on health (Chalupka, 2005). Other groups with increased sensitivity to
air pollution include those with pre-existing cardiac, immune, or respiratory system
disease and people who exercise or work outdoors (Chalupka, 2005).
Pregnant women, the fetus, and children are particularly vulnerable to the effects
of fossil fuel burning and its impact on health such as developmental delay, asthma, and
cancer, and environmental exposure in utero or in childhood can predispose an individual
to chronic respiratory illness, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in adulthood (Perera,
2008). Concern has also been expressed over the vulnerability of older adults as
environmental toxins can exacerbate co-morbidities, make people age faster, and affect
susceptible body systems, and interact with a possible lifetime exposure to pollutants
when less stringent laws were in place (Chalupuka, 2005). In addition, if one is poor
and/or a minority, the risks of exposure to environmental hazards and its effects are even
greater than for higher income, non-minorities (Chalupka, 2005), equating to
environmental racism in which environmental risks are borne disproportionately by a
select group (Sen & Chakrabarti, 2010). According to the Environmental Justice
Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University, African Americans are 79-percent more
likely than Whites to live in areas where industrial pollution is thought to be the greatest
health threat, and over two-thirds of Blacks live within 30 miles of a coal-fired power
plant, an area in which the maximum impact of smoke occurs (Chappell, 2010). This has
Running head: HEALTH POLICY ANALYSIS
8
resulted in African Americans having increased rates of asthma, cancer, and lung disease
than any other group (Chappell, 2010).
It is worth noting that the study of environmental exposures and human health
outcomes has limitations due to ill-defined and measured exposure, scarcity of studies on
large populations, lack of understanding between the synergies between different types of
environmental exposure, varying degrees of susceptibility of people who are exposed, a
gap between the exposure and manifestation of a health problem, and a lack of
standardization in national reporting of environmental exposures (Chalupka, 2005). In
acknowledgement of this, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) set up
the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program to track data about
environmental hazards, exposure to environmental hazards, and health effects (CDC,
2012), which will help to more effectively identify cause and effect relationships between
environmental exposure and adverse health effects.
Economic Factors
Fossil fuel energy has economic advantages and disadvantages. Fossil fuels are
cheaper in terms of their direct costs as they are easier to harness and transport than
alternative energy sources such as wind an …
Purchase answer to see full
attachment

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more

Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code ESSAYSHELP