Solved by verified expert:for this assignment please follow instructions : I attached the reading Question 1Report on set task. Write between half a page and one page or 500 words.Question 2List primarily physical play activities which are appropriate to incorporate into play programs for each of the following groups:a) Pre-school childrenb) Boys 5-7 years oldc) Girls 8-10 years oldd) Teenagers 13-16 years oldQuestion 3Plan an exercise program for children of a specific age group (you choose the type of exercise and the age group you wish to work with).Write two pages 1,000 words detailing how the program would be conducted, and what it would comprise.
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Determine options for physical play activities, including games and sports, in a supervised play program.
Physical play can be formal (e.g. sporting activities) or informal (e.g. free play in a supervised adventure
MANIPULATING AND CHANGING THE ENVIRONMENT
There are three ways we can provide play environments:
1. Peoplecreated, people-conceived environments
The majority of play environments are ones which are consciously designed and built by people. These
playgrounds can be designed to appear as though they are natural, although usually they are distinctly artificial
environments. (NB: this is not to say that an artificial environment is a poor playground.)
2. Conserved environments
Here nothing new is created. An environment is recognized as having play value and on this basis it is retained
as a play facility. This environment might be natural or artificial (or perhaps a combination of both.
3. Encouraging the development of natural environments
It is often argued that enormous losses have been suffered in terms of play environments through the socalled
development of natural areas. “The creek where I played as a child has been concreted in. The adjoining tract of
bush has been cleared for housing and the swamp drained.” This method of providing play environments could
involve such things as:
a) Removing all rubbish from an old building site, temporarily fencing the site and planting trees and shrubs.
After a few years when the plants are established, remove the fences and allow access to the site.
b) Removing concrete from a concreted creek or stream and allowing it to revert to its natural state. Note: This
could be a very complicated project and may involve as much expertise and effort to do properly as was
involved originally in destroying the natural stream.
c) Lay a thick mulch of woods-shavings and newspaper over a grass/lawn area. Place newspaper 2040 sheets
thick first, then 6 inches or more of wood-shavings on top. This should then be well watered and left for a few
months to allow the mulch to begin rotting. (NB: wet the paper until it saturated right through. This will take
several hours of watering.) At the end of 3 or 4 months, scatter seeds of trees and shrubs, etc. over the area.
Varieties of seeds selected should be:
Compatible with each other.
Varieties which will germinate and establish relatively easily in this type of situation.
If needed, seed might have to have some treatment prior to sowing to enable it to germinate.
(Some seeds need burning, stratification or treatment with boiling water etc.
Though there are these three broad ways of providing play environments, we almost exclusively concentrate on
the first method.
Perhaps more could be achieved by conserving existing environments and turning developed areas back into
natural areas, than is accomplished in creating the artificial playgrounds that we are building in profusion.
PLANT ASSOCIATIONS FOR REVEGETATING DEVELOPED AREAS
Areas of land which were cleared of vegetation can be turned back to nature. In nature, though, there is a
delicate balance between the living organisms which inhabit an area. Some plants will survive in association
with certain species but not with others.
Some species grow in shade but not sun, others in sun but not shade. In order to re-vegetate successfully an
area, it is sometimes necessary to plant taller plants several years before the small shrubs and climbers.
Allowing the trees to establish first will provide the shaded and protected environment into which smaller
shade loving plants can later be planted.
Following are two examples of natural areas suited to recreation:
Pine trees contain a toxin in their needles which tends to discourage the growth of most other plants around
them. While young, an area planted to pines might have other plants growing in it; but after 5 to 10 years,
virtually all other plants will be killed off, leaving a forest of pine trees with a soft carpet of needles underneath.
This type of area is more open than other forests while at the same time still providing both protection and an
element of mystery or interest for children who play there.
Natural forests contain an upper storey, middle level plants and smaller plants and ground hugging plants.
You should aim to choose trees, shrubs, grasses, bulbs and wildflowers that are locally indigenous; lists are
available from your local council.
Upper storey (e.g. E. torquata, E. forrestiana, E. globulus or E. citriodora).
Shrubs (up to 3m) for example: Grevillea rosmarinifolia, Leptospermum lanigerum, or
Ground covers for example; (Kennedya rubicundra (Red Coral Pea) and local native grasses and
Planted in a temperate climate (or even subtropical) and given three years to establish, this type or planting
should form a bush area which should withstand the wear and tear of continual use by children. This type of
bush would be far denser than the Pinus Monoculture. An area of this type not only holds greater mystery for a
child, but also seems larger than an open space of a similar size.
Ideal trees for an upper storey are ash or oak trees. These have strong wood, capable of supporting the weight
of children climbing on them; they are long lived and they are not susceptible to any serious pest or disease
Local plants should be planted underneath. There is not need to wait for the trees to establish before planting
shrubs and ground cover, although this type of forest is probably best left to grow for at least five years before
opening access to it.
The trees should be planted between 5 and 20 metres from each other in a haphazard pattern. The selection
and density at which shrubs and ground cover are planted will depend on the affect you wish to achieve.
This type of forest will differ from the Eucalypt forest in that it will open up in the winter when the leaves fall
from the trees. The whole atmosphere of the environment in this way is more of a changing one, thus perhaps
offering greater variety of play possibilities.
NB: laws and local government restrictions apply to publicly owned land – proposals would need to be
submitted for approval before any type of work is commenced.
PLAYING WITH THE ENVIRONMENT
Not only can the environment influence play, but play can also influence the environment.
Play should consider the environment in planning for its future. Over use of an area can lead to its
deterioration, thus depriving future generations of play opportunities. Conservation, pollution and such issued
should be of interest to anyone concerned with play.
A very valuable form of play involves changing the environment. Building cubbies, digging holes, damming
streams and so on are all very positive and worthwhile forms of play; but at the same time, they are activities
which are best tempered with commonsense if permanent damage to the environment is to be avoided. Never
discourage children from playing with their environment, but always educate them to understand the
implications of what they do. There are four different things to be found in environments:
1. Animals everything from microscopic protozoa, through snails and spiders to the more complex
vertebrates such as birds, lizards, dogs and cats.
2. Plants again from the simplest microscopic bacteria through the mosses, fungi and ferns, shrubs and
trees. Play can be centred to living plants (e.g. growing a garden) or parts of plants (e.g. arranging
flowers or making a whistle from a piece of bamboo).
3. Earth stones, rocks and soil, etc. are all commonly used in play.
4. Manufactured things toys and playground equipment would fall into this category obviously; but
maybe not as obvious are the cities, buildings, wall, pavements, fences, etc. which exist all around us.
All of these things have great play potential. Too often, however, instead of exploiting the play
potential of these things, we discourage or even ban play around them.
Children will play in buildings, streets and alley ways whether they are allowed by adults or not. Perhaps with
some changes in design or management of cities, homes, schools, parks, etc. things which are not primarily
intended for play can contribute in a real way to improved play possibilities.
Brick walls can become rebound walls.
Introducing traffic controls onto streets can make them safer for play
Fences and walls can be used for murals or graffiti.
Car parks when not in use can be used for basketball or skateboarding.
Trails (Fitness, Nature, Environmental, etc.) can be developed along footpaths or road reserves.
Disused vehicles (trains, tractors, trams, boats, etc.) can be located in a park as a shelter or a
Through playing with the environment children AND adults will:
LEARN TO PROTECT the environment, to appreciate its value and to respect the delicate balance which
needs to be maintained to retain order.
LEARN TO PRODUCE. Everything we have and depend on for life comes from the environment.
Environmental play can teach people where food comes from and how to produce it. It can provide insights
into the way clothing, tools, shelter and other day to day necessities are obtained.
There are many different ways people can play with the environment:
A trail is simply a path or track that people can follow. Trails simply take people along a specific route exposing
them to specific environmental situations as they progress. Trails can be made anywhere, they can be short or
long, they can expose people to all different types of experiences; physical activity, historical features, sensory
experiences or nature – to mention a few. A trail which leads along a street can be used to highlight the
features of that street. A trail around a series of play structures can be used for development of motor
(physical) skills. A trail through a bush area can lead to a greater understanding of the natural history of that
A sensory trail is one that stimulates a person’s senses (usually smell and touch). A sensory trail may be
designed to be travelled without the use of the eyes (egg: strings or hand rails from point to point can be held
by a blindfolded person (or other users who are looking for a new experience), guiding them as they walk the
length of the trail. Tape recorded messages can be played over a portable recorder, giving comment as they
walk). A sensory trail might also be included in a night walk, encouraging the visitor to listen to night sounds and
experience aromas of plants that release their perfumes at night.
Features along sensory trails might fragrant plants that are walked on (such as low-growing chamomile),
brushed against, or that spread their aroma in the air. Tactile features can include clumps of plants or tree
trunks with different textured foliage, rocks, rope features, water, ground surfaces, sculptures that can
withstand frequent touching and so on.
Cryptic puzzle trail
This trail uses cryptic clues to direct visitors from point to point, each point looking at some interesting object or
feature (e.g. plants, buildings, geological formations etc). The cryptic clues not only guide the user along the
trail, but can also teach them something about the environment. They work especially well with small groups to
allow discussion about the possible meanings of the clues, and are therefore good for developing teamwork. For
this reason, and for the stimulation they present on different levels, cryptic trails are particularly appropriate for
Examples of cryptic clues:
Move to the place where water birds seek fish among the lily pads (which teaches the user
something about water-birds).
Seek the Melaleuca – that shed their skins each year (which might teach them something about
Look amongst the sleeping crocodiles (to direct them to identify a particular species of bird).
Pass through the arch to yesteryear and stop. Listen, what do you hear? (This can direct the
user through an archway to find an old building then to hear the squeaking of a windmill found
next to that building. This way, the user is encouraged to look for these features and appreciate
This can involve anything from growing vegetables or planting trees to making a hanging basket or bottle
garden. Children that grow their own vegetables also tend to develop a healthy attitude towards the food they
eat. They are much more likely to eat a vegetable they have grown and cooked themselves.
Animals can be magical in children’s play whether milking a cow, riding horses, collecting eggs or simply keeping
caterpillars in a cage until they spit a cocoon and eventually emerge as a butterfly; furthermore children who
interact with animals also develop respect for them.
An old but very basic form of play is collecting. Both children and adults like to collect things, and people make
collections of everything and anything imaginable; rocks, leaves, shells, bottles, stamps, coins, etc.
Many common crafts are based on the idea of environmental play: dried flower arranging, shell craft, bark
painting, making all types for things from bamboo, driftwood craft, making herb products such as potpourri, etc.
Many types of sports are based on the idea challenging the environment. Canoeists attempt to challenge the
roaring rapids of a river. Mountaineering attempts to conquer difficult steep slopes of a mountain.
Orienteering challenges navigational skills.
There are all types of activities which school teachers, play teachers, play leaders or parents can use to involve
children in environmental play. Here are a few:
Observe what is around in the backyard, school ground or playground. A competition can be made to see who
can find the greatest number of different smells, noises or textures, etc. Alternatively everyone can contribute
to a list of things: things one can see, feel, smell or hear.
Things to look at: shapes and patterns of leaves, colours of wood, shapes of stones, flowers, fruit and nuts,
insects, weeds, grass, puddles, walls, pavement, etc.
Things to listen to: traffic, a bee, leaves rustling on the ground or in the trees, the wind, birds singing, a fire
Things to feel: grass, gravel, wood, bark, bricks, metal, concrete, asphalt, leaves, etc.
Things to smell: flowers, grass, a fire, soil, fruit, water, cars, etc.
People like to collect all sorts of things; stamps, coins, silver spoons, swap cards, etc. but what better things to
collect than environmental things? When we collect something from the environment, we are forced to take
notice of the environment. Caution, though: Do not take things which are going to cause destruction to the
environment. Think about what you are collecting before you take it.
If you see a lot (ten or more) of some animal or plant in an area, then it should be safe to take a specimen
without upsetting the environment.
To preserve plants they should be pressed. This involves laying them out between two sheets of paper, then
placing a heavy weight (such as some heavy books) on top of them. Once they are completely dry (2 weeks to 2
months they can be removed and stuck to a sheet of cardboard or paper where, if they were pressed correctly,
they should keep indefinitely.
Insects can be killed by placing them in a jar of methylated spirits; then they are removed and kept on a pin
stuck into some cork or a sheet of polystyrene foam.
Shells are best kept in boxes packed with cotton wool. Rocks and stones are best kept the same way.
Making an aquarium
Some types of fish are difficult to keep. They require that the water be kept at just the right temperature and
be continually aerated by bubbling oxygen through the bowl or tank. Some fish, however, are ‘cold water’ types
and will survive with far less effort in a tank without the necessity of a pump or heater. Perhaps the most
important thing to remember is not to put too many fish in a tank.
A container should first of all be thoroughly clean, free of any detergent or other chemicals. A layer of coarse,
washed, granite sand (one inch or so) should be placed in the bottom of the tank first. The water used should
also be clean.
As a guide you can use one 2cm long fish for every 2.5 litres of water. Fish suited to cold water tanks include:
most goldfish, the three-spined stickleback, the American Catfish, the minnow, Prussian Carp, and the Rudd.
In addition to the fish, you need to plant at least a few water plants. The fish should be fed daily with food
purchased from a pet shop or aquarium supply.
NOTE: Fish should not be released into streams or rivers later on, as they may become a pest.
Making an antarium
Materials required are: a glass jar, piece of cardboard, soil, stones, ants and bread.
The card is cut to be about the same height as the jar, then curled to form a cylinder slightly smaller than the
jar. The card is put inside the jar. The outside (between the card and the glass) is filled with soil while the inside
is filled with stones. Ants are put into the jar and breadcrumbs area sprinkled on the top of the soil. After a few
days the ants’ tunnels can be seen through the jar.
The national parks game
The purpose of this game is to consider the national park concept. Form into a circle then take three children
out of the circle. One will be a hunter, one a ranger and the other a bird. The ring of other children represents
the park boundary. Place the hunter outside the ring and the ranger and bird inside. On a given signal, the
hunter tries to sneak through the boundary and catch the bird. The hunter can illegally enter into the park
boundary and catch the bird. The hunter can illegally enter into the park boundary and the bird can fly outside;
but the ranger must stay inside. Try to give each child a chance to play each part.
Everyone is instructed to find an ant and follow its movements for five minutes. At the end of the time, sit in a
circle and discuss how ants live.
An asphalt activity
a) Look closely at an asphalt area and describe what you see.
b) Put a piece of paper on the asphalt and rub the back of it with a crayon to get a picture of the asphalt.
c) Make a list of the things you can find on the asphalt. Use a magnifying glass if you wish.
d) Look for cracks and see if you can find any plants or small animals there.
e) Look next to the asphalt. What grows there?
NB: It is a good research project to try to find out how asphalt is made in conjunction with this activity. (Try
approaching you local government engineer.)
Leaf or bark collage
Collect as great a variety of bark or leaves as possible. Glue these materials onto a sheet of paper to make a
pattern or picture.
Alphabetical nature hunt
Divide the group into four teams. You are going to call out letters from the alphabet and the teams have to tell
you the name of an animal (native to your country) whose name begins with the letter just called out. The first
team to do so wins a point. Try to explain a little about each animal as its name comes up.
ORGANISED EXERCISE CLASSES FOR CHILDREN
Fitness classes for children are extremely important for the following reasons.
There may be low levels of physical education training and sport education in schools.
Increased concern for overweight and obese children and adolescents.
Poor diet and exercise regimes.
One of the problems is the lack of health and fitness centres offering programs for these customers. Weight
training for children and younger teenagers is not recommended therefore fitn …
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