Expert answer:PH1123 Tulsa The Birds and Read Window movies by A

  

Solved by verified expert:write a two-page (600 word+/-) paper on one (or if you want, both) of the Hitchcock movies, showing what you think is the key issue of the movie(s), based on readings, class discussions, or your own intuitions. Try to show how that issue is a dilemma or problem, not easily solved or even solved at all. Use Freud, Sartre, or Kierkegaard to flesh out your thinking, or any other writers we have read whom you think pertinent4th Week: (June 17 and 19)The Birds (1963)Freud, The Uncanny, Eros and ThanatosRead Window (1954)Sartre, The Looki have upload the some of the readings plz look at them thank you
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The “Uncanny”1
(1919)
SIGMUND FREUD
I
It is only rarely that a psychoanalyst feels impelled to investigate the subject of aesthetics even when aesthetics is
understood to mean not merely the theory of beauty, but
the theory of the qualities of feeling. He works in other
planes of mental life and has little to do with those subdued emotional activities which, inhibited in their aims
and dependent upon a multitude of concurrent factors,
usually furnish the material for the study of aesthetics. But
it does occasionally happen that he has to interest himself
in some particular province of that subject; and then it usually proves to be a rather remote region of it and one that
has been neglected in standard works.
The subject of the “uncanny” is a province of this kind.
It undoubtedly belongs to all that is terrible—to all that
arouses dread and creeping horror; it is equally certain,
too, that the word is not always used in a clearly definable
sense, so that it tends to coincide with whatever excites
dread. Yet we may expect that it implies some intrinsic
quality which justifies the use of a special name. One is
curious to know what this peculiar quality is which allows
us to distinguish as “uncanny” certain things within the
boundaries of what is “fearful.”
As good as nothing is to be found upon this subject in
elaborate treatises on aesthetics, which in general prefer to
concern themselves with what is beautiful, attractive and
sublime, that is with feelings of a positive nature, with the
1
First published in Imago, Bd. V., 1919; reprinted in Sammlung, Fünfte
Folge. [Translated by Alix Strachey.]
circumstances and the objects that call them forth, rather
than with the opposite feelings of unpleasantness and repulsion. I know of only one attempt in medicopsychological literature, a fertile but not exhaustive paper
by E. Jentsch.2 But I must confess that I have not made a
very thorough examination of the bibliography, especially
the foreign literature, relating to this present modest contribution of mine, for reasons which must be obvious at
this time;3 so that my paper is presented to the reader without any claim of priority.
In his study of the “uncanny,” Jentsch quite rightly lays
stress on the obstacle presented by the fact that people vary
so very greatly in their sensitivity to this quality of feeling.
The writer of the present contribution, indeed, must himself plead guilty to a special obtuseness in the matter,
where extreme delicacy of perception would be more in
place. It is long since he has experienced or heard of anything which has given him an uncanny impression, and he
will be obliged to translate himself into that state of feeling, and to awaken in himself the possibility of it before he
begins. Still, difficulties of this kind make themselves felt
powerfully in many other branches of aesthetics; we need
not on this account despair of finding instances in which
the quality in question will be recognized without hesitation by most people.
Two courses are open to us at the start. Either we can
find out what meaning has come to be attached to the word
“uncanny” in the course of its history; or we can collect all
those properties of persons, things, sensations, experiences
and situations which arouse in us the feeling of uncanniness, and then infer the unknown nature of the uncanny
from what they all have in common. I will say at once that
both courses lead to the same result: the “uncanny” is that
class of the terrifying which leads back to something long
2
3
“Zur Psychologie des Unheimlichen.”
[An allusion to the European War only just concluded.—Trans.]
1
known to us, once very familiar. How this is possible, in
what circumstances the familiar can become uncanny and
frightening, I shall show in what follows. Let me also add
that my investigation was actually begun by collecting a
number of individual cases, and only later received confirmation after I had examined what language could tell us.
In this discussion, however, I shall follow the opposite
course.
The German word unheimlich4 is obviously the opposite
of heimlich, heimisch, meaning “familiar,” “native,” “belonging to the home”; and we are tempted to conclude that
what is “uncanny” is frightening precisely because it is not
known and familiar. Naturally not everything which is new
and unfamiliar is frightening, however; the relation cannot
be inverted. We can only say that what is novel can easily
become frightening and uncanny; some new things are
frightening but not by any means all. Something has to be
added to what is novel and unfamiliar to make it uncanny.
On the whole, Jentsch did not get beyond this relation of
the uncanny to the novel and unfamiliar. He ascribes the
essential factor in the production of the feeling of uncanniness to intellectual uncertainty; so that the uncanny would
always be that in which one does not know where one is,
as it were. The better orientated in his environment a person is, the less readily will he get the impression of something uncanny in regard to the objects and events in it.
It is not difficult to see that this definition is incomplete,
and we will therefore try to proceed beyond the equation
of unheimlich with unfamiliar. We will first turn to other
languages. But foreign dictionaries tell us nothing new,
perhaps only because we speak a different language. Indeed, we get the impression that many languages are without a word for this particular variety of what is fearful.
4
[Throughout this paper “uncanny” is used as the English translation of
“unheimlich,” literally “unhomely” —Trans.]
I wish to express my indebtedness to Dr. Th. Reik for
the following excerpts:
LATIN: (K. E. Gorges, Deutschlateinisches Wörterbuch,
1898). Ein unheimlicher Ort [an uncanny place]—locus
suspectus; in unheimlicher Nachtzeit [in the dismal night
hours]—intempesta nocte.
GREEK: (Rost’s and Schenki’s Lexikons). Xenos
strange, foreign.
ENGLISH: (from dictionaries by Lucas, Bellow, Flügel,
Muret-Sanders). Uncomfortable, uneasy, gloomy, dismal,
uncanny, ghastly; (of a house) haunted; (of a man) a repulsive fellow.
FRENCH: (Sachs-Villatte). Inquiétant, sinistre, lugubre,
mal à son aise.
SPANISH: (Tollhausen, 1889). Sospechoso, de mal
aguëro, lugubre, siniestro.
The Italian and the Portuguese seem to content themselves with words which we should describe as circumlocutions. In Arabic and Hebrew “uncanny” means the same
as “daemonic,” “gruesome.”
Let us therefore return to the German language. In Daniel Sanders’ Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache (1860),
the following remarksi [abstracted in translation] are found
upon the word heimlich; I have laid stress on certain passages by italicizing them.
Heimlich, adj.: I. Also heimelich, heinielig, belonging to
the house, not strange, familiar, tame, intimate, comfortable, homely, etc.
(a) (Obsolete) belonging to the house or the family, or
regarded as so belonging (cf. Latin familiaris): Die Heimlichen, the members of the household; Der heimliche Rat
[him to whom secrets are revealed] Gen. xli. 45; 2 Sam.
xxiii. 23; now more usually Geheimer Rat [Privy Councillor], cf. Heimlicher.
(b) Of animals: tame, companionable to man. As opposed to wild, e.g. “Wild animals . . . that are trained to be
2
heimlich and accustomed to men.” “If these young creatures are brought up from early days among men they become quite heimlich, friendly,” etc.
(c) Friendly, intimate, homelike; the enjoyment of quiet
content, etc., arousing a sense of peaceful pleasure and security as in one within the four walls of his house. “Is it
still heimlich to you in your country where strangers are
felling your woods?” “She did not feel all too heimlich
with him.” “To destroy the Heimlichkeit of the home.” “I
could not readily find another spot so intimate and heimlich as this.” “In quiet Heinzlichkeit, surrounded by close
walls.” “A careful housewife, who knows how to make a
pleasing Heimlichkeit (Häuslichkeit)5 out of the smallest
means.” “The protestant rulers do not feel . . . heimlich
among their catholic subjects.” “When it grows heimlich
and still, and the evening quiet alone watches over your
cell.” “Quiet, lovely and heimlich, no place more fitted for
her rest.” “The in and out flowing waves of the currents
dreamy and heimlich as a cradle-song.” Cf. in especial
Unheimlich. Among Swabian and Swiss authors in especial, often as trisyllable: “How heimelich it seemed again
of an evening, back at home.” “The warm room and the
heimelig afternoon.” “Little by little they grew at ease and
heimelig among themselves.” “That which comes from
afar . . . assuredly does not live quite heimelig (heimatlich
[at home], freundnachbarlich [in a neighborly way])
among the people.” “The sentinel’s horn sounds so heimelig from the tower, and his voice invites so hospitably.”
This form of the word ought to become general in order to
protect the word from becoming obsolete in its good sense
through an easy confusion with II. [see below]. ‘“The
Zecks [a family name] are all “heimlich.”’ ‘“Heimlich”?
What do you understand by “heimlich”?’ ‘Well, . . . they
are like a buried spring or a dried-up pond. One cannot
5
walk over it without always having the feeling that water
might come up there again.’ ‘Oh, we call it “unheimlich”;
you call it “heimlich.” Well, what makes you think that
there is something secret and untrustworthy about this
family?”’ Gutzkow.
II. Concealed, kept from sight, so that others do not get
to know about it, withheld from others, cf. Geheim [secret]; so also Heimlichkeit for Geheimnis [secret]. To do
something heimlich, i.e. behind someone’s back; to steal
away heimlich; heimlich meetings and appointments; to
look on with heimlich pleasure at someone’s discomfiture;
to sigh or weep heimlich; to behave heimlich, as though
there was something to conceal; heimlich love, love-affair,
sin; heimlich places (which good manners oblige us to
conceal). 1 Sam, v. 6; “The heimlich chamber” [privy]. 2
Kings x. 27 etc.; “To throw into pits or Heimlichkeit.” Led
the steeds heimlich before Laomedon.” “As secretive,
heimlich, deceitful and malicious towards cruel masters . .
. as frank, open, sympathetic and helpful towards a friend
in misfortune.” “The heimlich art” (magic). “Where public
ventilation has to stop, there heimlich machinations begin.” “Freedom is the whispered watchword of heimlich
conspirators and the loud battle-cry of professed revolutionaries.” “A holy, heimlich effect.” “I have roots that are
most heimlich, I am grown in the deep earth.” “My heimlich pranks.” (Cf. Heimtücke [mischief]). To discover, disclose, betray someone’s Heimlichkeiten; “to concoct
Heimlichkeiten behind my back.” Cf. Geheimnis.
Compounds and especially also the opposite follow
meaning I. (above): Unheimlich, uneasy, eerie, bloodcurdling; “Seeming almost unheimlich and ‘ghostly’ to him.”
“I had already long since felt an unheimlich, even gruesome feeling.” “Feels an unheimlich horror.” “Unheimlich
and motionless like a stone-image.” “The unheimlich mist
called hill-fog.” “These pale youths are unheimlich and are
brewing heaven knows what mischief.” “‘Unheimlich’ is
[From Haus = house; Häuslichkeit = domestic life. —Trans.]
3
the name for everything that ought to have remained . . .
hidden and secret and has become visible,” Schelling. “To
veil the divine, to surround it with a certain Unheimlichkeit.”—Unheimlich is not often used as opposite to
meaning II. (above).
What interests us most in this long extract is to find that
among its different shades of meaning the word heimlich
exhibits one which is identical with its opposite, unheimlich. What is heimlich thus comes to be unheimlich. (Cf.
the quotation from Gutzkow: “We call it unheimlich; you
call it heimlich.”) In general we are reminded that the
word heimlich is not unambiguous, but belongs to two sets
of ideas, which without being contradictory are yet very
different: on the one hand, it means that which is familiar
and congenial, and on the other, that which is concealed
and kept out of sight. The word unheimlich is only used
customarily, we are told, as the contrary of the first signification, and not of the second. Sanders tells us nothing
concerning a possible genetic connection between these
two sorts of meanings. On the other hand, we notice that
Schelling says something which throws quite a new light
on the concept of the “uncanny,” one which we had certainly not awaited. According to him everything is uncanny that ought to have remained hidden and secret, and
yet comes to light.
Some of the doubts that have thus arisen are removed if
we consult Grimm’s dictionary.ii
We read:
Heimlich; adj. and adv. vernaculus, occultus; MHG.
heîmelich, heîmlich.
P. 874. In a slightly different sense: “I feel heimlich, well, free
from fear. . . .
(b) Heimlich, also in the sense of a place free from ghostly influences . . . familiar, friendly, intimate.
4. From the idea of “homelike,” “belonging to the house,” the
further idea is developed of something withdrawn from the eyes
of others, something concealed, secret, and this idea is expanded
in many ways. . . .
P. 876. “On the left bank of the lake there lies a meadow heimlich in the wood.” Schiller, Tell. . . . Poetic licence, rarely so
used in modern speech . . . In conjunction with a verb expressing
the act of concealing: “In the secret of his tabernacle he shall
hide me (heimlich).” Ps. xxvii. 5 . . . Heimlich places in the human body, pudenda. . . “the men that died not were smitten” (on
their heimlich parts). 1 Samuel v. 12.
(c) Officials who give important advice which has to be kept
secret in matters of state are called heimlich councillors; the adjective, according to modern usage, having been replaced by geheim [secret] . . . ‘Pharaoh called Joseph’s name “him to whom
secrets are revealed”’ (heimlich councillor). Gen. xli. 45.
P. 878. 6. Heimlich, as used of knowledge, mystic, allegorical:
a heimlich meaning, mysticus, divinus, occultus, figuratus.
P. 878. Heimlich in a different sense, as withdrawn from
knowledge, unconscious: . . . Heimlich also has the meaning of
that which is obscure, inaccessible to knowledge. . . . “Do you
not see? They do not trust me; they fear the heimlich face of the
Duke of Friedland.” Wallensteins Lager, Act. 2.
9. The notion of something hidden and dangerous, which is
expressed in the last paragraph, is still further developed, so
that “heimlich” comes to have the meaning usually ascribed to
“unheimlich.” Thus: “At times I feel like a man who walks in
the night and believes in ghosts; every corner is heimlich and full
of terrors for him.” Klinger.
Thus heimlich is a word the meaning of which develops
towards an ambivalence, until it finally coincides with its
opposite, unheimlich. Unheimlich is in some way or other
a sub-species of heimlich. Let us retain this discovery,
which we do not yet properly understand, alongside of
Schelling’s definition of the “uncanny.” Then if we examine individual instances of uncanniness, these indications
will become comprehensible to us.
4
II
In proceeding to review those things, persons, impressions, events and situations which are able to arouse in us a
feeling of the uncanny in a very forcible and definite form,
the first requirement is obviously to select a suitable example to start upon. Jentsch has taken as a very good instance “doubts whether an apparently animate being is
really alive; or conversely, whether a lifeless object might
not be in fact animate”; and he refers in this connection to
the impression made by wax-work figures, artificial dolls
and automatons. He adds to this class the uncanny effect of
epileptic seizures and the manifestations of insanity, because these excite in the spectator the feeling that automatic, mechanical processes are at work, concealed beneath the ordinary appearance of animation. Without entirely accepting the author’s view, we will take it as a starting-point for our investigation because it leads us on to
consider a writer who has succeeded better than anyone
else in producing uncanny effects.
Jentsch says: “In telling a story, one of the most successful devices for easily creating uncanny effects is to leave
the reader in uncertainty whether a particular figure in the
story is a human being or an automaton; and to do it in
such a way that his attention is not directly focused upon
his uncertainty, so that he may not be urged to go into the
matter and clear it up immediately, since that, as we have
said, would quickly dissipate the peculiar emotional effect
of the thing. Hoffmann has repeatedly employed this psychological artifice with success in his fantastic narratives.”
This observation, undoubtedly a correct one, refers primarily to the story of “The Sand-Man” in Hoffmann’s
Nachtstücken,6 which contains the original of Olympia, the
doll in the first act of Offenbach’s opera, Tales of
6
Hoffmann. But I cannot think—and I hope that most readers of the story will agree with me—that the theme of the
doll, Olympia, who is to all appearances a living being, is
by any means the only element to be held responsible for
the quite unparalleled atmosphere of uncanniness which
the story evokes; or, indeed, that it is the most important
among them. Nor is this effect of the story heightened by
the fact that the author himself treats the episode of Olympia with a faint touch of satire and uses it to make fun of
the young man’s idealization of his mistress. The main
theme of the story is, on the contrary, something different,
something which gives its name to the story, and which is
always re-introduced at the critical moment: it is the theme
of the “Sand-Man” who tears out children’s eyes.
This fantastic tale begins with the childhoodrecollections of the student Nathaniel: in spite of his present happiness, he cannot banish the memories associated
with the mysterious and terrifying death of the father he
loved. On certain evenings his mother used to send the
children to bed early, warning them that “the Sand-Man
was coming”; and sure enough Nathaniel would not fail to
hear the heavy tread of a visitor with whom his father
would then be occupied that evening. When questioned
about the Sand-Man, his mother, it is true, denied that such
a person existed except as a form of speech; but his nurse
could give him more definite information: “He is a wicked
man who comes when children won’t go to bed, and
throws handfuls of sand in their eyes so that they jump out
of their heads all bleeding. Then he puts the eyes in a sack
and carries them off to the moon to feed his children. They
sit up there in their nest, and their beaks are hooked like
owls’ beaks, and they use them to peck up naughty boys’
and girls’ eyes with.”
Although little Nathaniel was sensible and old enough
not to believe in such gruesome attributes to the figure of
the Sand-Man, yet the dread of him became fixed in his
[From Haus = house; Häuslichkeit = domestic life. —Trans.]
5
breast. He determined to find out what the Sand-Man
looked like; and one evening, when the Sand-Man was
again expected, he hid himself in his father’s study. He
recognized the visitor as the lawyer Coppelius, a repulsive
person of whom the children were frightened when he occasionally came to a meal; and he now identified this Coppelius with the dreaded Sand-Man. Concerning the rest of
the scene, Hoffmann already leaves us in doubt whether
we are witnessing the first delirium of the panic-stricken
boy, or a succession of events which are to be regarded in
the story as being real. …
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