Expert answer:NSG456 Phoenix Differences of Qualitative & Quanti

  

Solved by verified expert:Assignment Content #1 NSG/456 Top of Form This assignment is designed to help you understand the differences between qualitative and quantitative research designs, as well as select the appropriate method for the research question you have been working on throughout the course. Step 1: Restate your Week 1 research question and select the type of research (quantitative or qualitative) that is most appropriate for it. Step 2: Summarize the major steps in that type of research. Step 3: Determine the specific type or approach (i.e., quasi-experimental, phenomenological, etc.) you would employ and explain why that is the best selection. Step 4: Explain potential data. Step 5: Explain how analyzing and interpreting that data can inform your research question. Format your assignment as one of the following: 18- to 20-slide presentation Cite at least one peer-reviewed resource in APA format. #2. On a separate page. Respond to the following in a minimum of 175 words: How do you think the nurse-patient relationship and the researcher-participant relationship are alike? How are they different? (For #2 if you could please add 1 citation within the paper and cite using APA format please)
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Running head: RESEARCH
1
Research
NSG/456
RESEARCH
2
Research Topic
One of the emerging issues in pediatric care is that of obesity and weight management
among patients. If a child is obese then he or she is at risk of developing serious chronic
problems.
Research Problem.
Recently, the burden of childhood obesity and weight management problems has been on
the increase. That is despite different strides that have been made in tackling the issue, for
example, in healthy eating and medication that help in losing weight. If looked from a statistical
point of view, then it is estimated that one in five children in the US is affected by obesity (Nass,
Levit, & Gostin, 2009). That number will go up in the minority communities where access to
healthcare and healthy food is limited. Additionally, even with the different advancements in
medicine, the problem has been increasing over time. For example, between the year 1980 and
2006, the issue of childhood obesity increased by more than double from 6.5 percent to a high of
17 percent in 2006 (Nass, Levit, & Gostin, 2009). Notably, the problem of childhood obesity can
have serious effects on the child, for instance, cardiovascular complications and instances of type
2 diabetes mellitus. Given the human cost of obesity among children, this research is significant
since it will help to identify gaps that exist in the prevention and treatment of obesity in many of
the pediatric hospitals. As well, the study will put a focus on measures that can be implemented
in the minority communities who are disproportionately affected by this problem.
Research Question.
What interventions can be pursued to tackle the problem of obesity among children and
especially in the minority communities?
RESEARCH
3
References
Nass, S. J., Levit, L. A., & Gostin, L. O. (2009). Beyond the HIPAA Privacy Rule: Enhancing
Privacy, Improving Health Through Research. Washington, DC: National Academies
Press.
Chapter 2 Introduction to Quantitative Research
Learning Outcomes
After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
1.Define terms relevant to the quantitative research process—basic research, applied
research, rigor, and control.
• 2.Compare and contrast the problem-solving process, nursing process, and research
process.
• 3.Identify the steps of the quantitative research process in descriptive, correlational, quasiexperimental, and experimental published studies.
• 4.Read quantitative research reports.
• 5.Conduct initial critical appraisals of quantitative research reports.

Key Terms
Abstract, p. 51
Analyzing a research report, p. 55
Applied research, p. 35
Assumptions, p. 42
Basic research, p. 35
Bias, p. 37
Comprehending a research report, p. 55
Conceptual definition, p. 44
Control, p. 36
Correlational research, p. 33
Data analysis, p. 47
Data collection, p. 47
Descriptive research, p. 33
Design, p. 36
Experiment, p. 32
Experimental research, p. 34
Extraneous variables, p. 37
Framework, p. 42
Generalization, p. 48
Interpretation of research outcomes, p. 48
Limitations, p. 48
Measurement, p. 46
Nursing process, p. 38
Operational definition, p. 44
Pilot study, p. 45
Population, p. 46
Precision, p. 36
Problem-solving process, p. 38
Process, p. 38
Quantitative research, p. 32
Quantitative research process, p. 40
Quasi-experimental research, p. 34
Reading a research report, p. 54
Research problem, p. 41
Research process, p. 39
Research purpose, p. 41
Research report, p. 49
Review of relevant literature, p. 41
Rigor, p. 36
Sample, p. 46
Sampling, p. 37
Setting, p. 38
Skimming a research report, p. 54
Theory, p. 42
Variables, p. 44
What do you think of when you hear the word research? Frequently, the idea of
experimentation or study comes to mind. Typical features of an experiment include
randomizing subjects into groups, collecting data, and conducting statistical analyses. You
may think of researchers conducting a study to determine the effectiveness of an
intervention, such as determining the effectiveness of a walking exercise program on body
mass index (BMI) of patients with type 2 diabetes. These ideas are associated with
quantitative research. Quantitative research includes specific steps that are detailed in
research reports. Reading and critically appraising quantitative studies require learning new
terms, understanding the steps of the quantitative research process, and applying a variety
of analytical skills.
This chapter provides an introduction to quantitative research to help develop expertise in
reading and understanding quantitative research reports. Relevant terms are defined, and
the problem-solving and nursing processes are presented to provide a background for
understanding the quantitative research process. The steps of the quantitative research
process are introduced, and a descriptive correlational study is presented as an example to
promote understanding of the process. Also included are a discussion of the critical thinking
skills needed for reading research reports and guidelines for conducting an initial critical
appraisal of these quantitative research reports. The chapter concludes with the
identification of the steps of the research process from published quasi-experimental and
experimental studies, with an initial critical appraisal of these studies.
What is Quantitative Research?
Quantitative research is a formal, objective, rigorous, systematic process for generating
numerical information about the world. Quantitative research is conducted to describe new
situations, events, or concepts; examine relationships among variables; and determine the
effectiveness of treatments or interventions on selected health outcomes in the world. Some
examples include:
• 1.Describing the spread of flu cases each season and their potential influence on local and
global health (descriptive study)


2.Examining the relationships among the variables—for example, minutes watching
television per week, minutes playing video games per week, and body mass index (BMI) of a
school-age child (correlational study)
3.Determining the effectiveness of calcium with vitamin D3 supplements on the bone density
of adults (quasi-experimental study).
The classic experimental designs to test the effectiveness of treatments were originated by Sir
Ronald Fisher (1935). He is noted for adding structure to the steps of the quantitative research
process with ideas such as the hypothesis, research design, and statistical analysis. Fisher’s
studies provided the groundwork for what is now known as experimental research.
Throughout the years, a number of other quantitative approaches have been
developed. Campbell and Stanley (1963) developed quasi-experimental approaches to study the
effects of treatments under less controlled conditions. Karl Pearson (Porter, 2004) developed
statistical approaches for examining relationships between variables, which were used in
analyzing data when correlational research was conducted. The fields of sociology, education,
and psychology are noted for their development and expansion of strategies for conducting
descriptive research. A broad range of quantitative research approaches is needed to develop the
empirical knowledge for building evidence-based practice (EBP) in nursing (Brown,
2014, Craig & Smyth, 2012). EBP is introduced in Chapter 1 and detailed in Chapter 13. EBP
is essential for promoting quality, safe outcomes for patients and families, nursing education and
practice, and the healthcare system (Doran, 2011, Quality and Safety Education for Nurses
[QSEN], 2013, Sherwood & Barnsteiner, 2012). Understanding the quantitative research
process is essential for meeting the QSEN (2013) competencies for undergraduate nursing
students, which are focused on patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, EBP, quality
improvement (QI), safety, and informatics. This section introduces you to the different types of
quantitative research and provides definitions of terms relevant to the quantitative research
process.
Types of Quantitative Research
Four common types of quantitative research are included in this text:
•Descriptive
•Correlational
•Quasi-experimental
•Experimental




The type of quantitative research conducted is influenced by the current knowledge of a research
problem. When little knowledge is available, descriptive studies often are conducted. As the
knowledge level increases, correlational, quasi-experimental, and experimental studies are
conducted.
Descriptive Research
Descriptive research is the exploration and description of phenomena in real-life situations. It
provides an accurate account of characteristics of particular individuals, situations, or groups
(Brown, 2014, Fawcett & Garity, 2009, Kerlinger & Lee, 2000). Descriptive studies are
usually conducted with large numbers of subjects or study participants, in natural settings, with
no manipulation of the situation. Through descriptive studies, researchers discover new meaning,
describe what exists, determine the frequency with which something occurs, and categorize
information in real-world settings. The outcomes of descriptive research include the
identification and description of concepts, identification of possible relationships among
concepts, and development of hypotheses that provide a basis for future quantitative research.
Correlational Research
Correlational research involves the systematic investigation of relationships between or among
variables. When conducting this type of study, researchers measure selected variables in a
sample and then use correlational statistics to determine the relationships among the study
variables. Using correlational analysis, the researcher is able to determine the degree or strength
and type (positive or negative) of a relationship between two variables. The strength of a
relationship varies, ranging from −1 (perfect negative correlation) to +1 (perfect positive
correlation), with 0 indicating no relationship (Grove, 2007).
A positive relationship indicates that the variables vary together; that is, both variables increase
or decrease together. For example, research has shown that the more people smoke, the more
lung damage they experience. A negative relationship indicates that the variables vary in
opposite directions; thus as one variable increases, the other will decrease (Grove, Burns, &
Gray, 2013). For example, research has shown as the number of smoking pack-years (number of
years smoked times the number of packs smoked per day) increases, people’s life spans usually
decrease, demonstrating a negative relationship. The primary intent of correlational studies is
to explain the nature of relationships in the real world, not to determine cause and effect.
The focus of correlational research is on describing relationships, not testing the effectiveness of
interventions. However, the relationships identified with correlational studies are the means for
generating hypotheses to guide quasi-experimental and experimental studies that do focus on
examining cause and effect relationships.
Quasi-Experimental Research
The purpose of quasi-experimental research is to examine causal relationships or determine the
effect of one variable on another. Thus these studies involve implementing a treatment or
intervention and examining the effects of this intervention using selected methods of
measurement (Shadish, Cook, & Campbell, 2002). In nursing research, a treatment is an
intervention implemented by researchers to improve the outcomes of clinical practice. For
example, a treatment of a swimming exercise program might be implemented to improve the
balance and muscle strength of older women with osteoarthritis. Quasi-experimental studies
differ from experimental studies by the level of control achieved by the researcher. These studies
usually lack a certain amount of control over the manipulation of the treatment, management of
the setting, and/or selection of the subjects. When studying human behavior, especially in
clinical settings, researchers frequently are unable to select the subjects randomly or manipulate
or control certain variables related to the treatment, subjects, or the setting. As a result, nurse
researchers conduct more quasi-experimental studies than experimental studies. Control is
discussed in more detail later in this chapter.
Experimental Research
Experimental research is an objective, systematic, highly controlled investigation conducted
for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena in nursing practice. In an experimental
study, causality between the independent (treatment) and dependent (outcome) variables is
examined under highly controlled conditions (Shadish et al., 2002). Experimental research is the
most powerful quantitative method because of the rigorous control of variables. The three main
characteristics of experimental studies are the following: (1) controlled manipulation of at least
one treatment variable (independent variable); (2) exposure of some of the subjects to the
treatment (experimental group) and no exposure of the remaining subjects (control group); and
(3) random assignment of subjects to the control or experimental group. Random selection of
subjects and the conduct of the study in a laboratory or research facility strengthen control in an
experimental study. The degree of control achieved in experimental studies varies according to
the population studied, variables examined, and environment of the study.
Defining Terms Relevant to Quantitative Research
Understanding quantitative research requires comprehension of the following important
terms— basic research, applied research, rigor, and control. These terms are defined in the
following sections, with examples provided from published studies.
Basic Research
Basic research is sometime referred to as pure research. It includes scientific investigations
conducted for the pursuit of knowledge for knowledge’s sake or for the pleasure of learning and
finding truth (Miller & Salkind, 2002). Basic scientific investigations seek new knowledge
about health phenomena, with the hope of establishing general scientific principles. The purpose
of basic research is to generate and refine theory; thus the findings frequently are not directly
useful in practice (Wysocki, 1983). Basic nursing research might include laboratory
investigations with animals or humans to promote further understanding of physiological
functioning, genetic and inheritable disorders, and pathological processes. These studies might
focus on increasing our understanding of oxygenation, perfusion disorders, fluid and electrolyte
imbalances, acid-base status, immune system disorders, eating and exercise patterns, sleeping
disorders, and pain and comfort status.
You might conduct an initial critical appraisal of quantitative studies and identify whether basic
or applied research was conducted. Sharma, Ryals, Gajewski, and Wright (2010) conducted a
basic study to determine the effect of aerobic exercise on analgesia and neurotropin-3 synthesis
on chronic pain using female mice. The researchers noted that the literature and nurses in clinical
practice supported using aerobic exercise to reduce pain and improve functioning in those with
chronic pain, but the molecular basis for the positive actions of exercise was not clearly
understood. Sharma et al. (2010) conducted a basic experimental study; the steps of this study
are provided as an example at the end of this chapter.
Sharma and colleagues’ (2010) study demonstrates the importance of laboratory research to
increase our understanding of the effects of treatments on cellular pathological processes. Basic
research using animals is often conducted to provide an increased understanding of the genetics
of health problems and establish a basis for further human research in this area. A major force in
genetic research is the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI, 2013), which plans
and conducts a broad program of laboratory research to increase our understanding of human
genetic makeup, genetics of diseases, and potential gene therapy. This basic research provides a
basis for conducting applied “clinical research to translate genomic and genetic research into a
greater understanding of human genetic disease, and to develop better methods for the detection,
prevention, and treatment of heritable and genetic disorders” (NHGRI, 2013).
Applied Research
Applied research is also called practical research, which includes scientific investigations
conducted to generate knowledge that will directly influence or improve clinical practice. The
purpose of applied research is to solve problems, make decisions, and/or predict or control
outcomes in real-life practice situations. The findings from applied studies can also be invaluable
to policy makers as a basis for making changes to address health and social problems. Many of
the studies conducted in nursing are applied studies because researchers have chosen to focus on
clinical problems and the testing of nursing interventions to improve patient outcomes. Applied
research also is used to test theory and validate its usefulness in clinical practice (Fawcett &
Garity, 2009). Researchers often examine the new knowledge discovered through basic research
for its usefulness in practice by applied research, making these approaches complementary.
Pinto, Hickman, Clochesy, and Buchner (2013) conducted an applied study to determine the
effectiveness of an avatar-based, depression, self-management technology intervention in
treating depressive symptoms in young adults. This intervention is called “Electronic SelfManagement Resource Training for Mental Health” (eSMART-MH). “eSMART-MH is a novel
avatar-based depression self-management intervention in which young adults interact with
virtual healthcare providers and a virtual health coach in a virtual primary care environment to
practice effective communication about depression symptoms and receive tailored behavioral
feedback” (Pinto et al., 2013, p. 46). The researchers found that the eSMART-MH intervention
demonstrated initial efficacy and was developmentally appropriate for depression selfmanagement in young adults. These applied study findings, combined with the findings of
additional studies in this area, have the potential to generate important knowledge for the
delivery of evidence-based care to young adults experiencing depression. The greater the rigor
and control implemented in these types of applied studies, the higher the quality of the research
evidence developed for practice.
Rigor in Quantitative Research
Rigor is the striving for excellence in research; it requires discipline, adherence to detail, strict
accuracy, and precision. A rigorously conducted quantitative study has precise measuring tools, a
representative sample, and a tightly controlled study design. Critically appraising the rigor of a
study involves examining the reasoning and precision used in conducting the study. Logical
reasoning, including deductive and inductive reasoning (see Chapter 1), is essential to the
development of quantitative studies (Chinn & Kramer, 2011). The research process, discussed
later in this chapter, includes specific steps that are rigorously developed with meticulous detail
and are logically linked in descriptive, correlational, quasi-experimental, and experimental
studies.
Another aspect of rigor is precision, which encompasses accuracy, detail, and order. Precision is
evident in the concise statement of the research purpose and detailed development of the study
design. However, the most explicit example of precision is the measurement or quantification of
the study variables. For example, a researcher might use a cardiac monitor to measure and record
the heart rate of subjects into a database during an exercise program, rather than palpating a
radial pulse for 30 seconds …
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