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Solved by verified expert:Free Speech at Risk Discussion ForumPlease respond to one of the following questions and the scenario prompt.Questions1) Do public safety surveillance benefits outweigh personal privacy loss consequences?2) Should the United States Constitution be amended to regulate hate speech? Why, or why not?ScenarioRead the following article about a local high school then explain whether you agree or disagree with the court’s ruling. If you were acting as a school official in this situation what would you have done?http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/03/30/us-usa-court-censorship-idUSKBN0MQ1JD20150330I need a discussion post almost 1 page long. Attached below is the chapter that we are studying right now.
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An 9
19 niv 0th
23 ersa
-2 ry
0
CQ
Researcher
13
Published by CQ Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc.
www.cqresearcher.com
Free Speech at Risk
Will it survive government repression?
G
overnments around the globe have been weakening free-speech protections because of concerns
about security or offending religious believers.
After a phone-hacking scandal erupted in the
British press and Muslims worldwide violently protested images in
the Western media of the Prophet Muhammad, European nations
enacted new restrictions on hate speech, and Britain is considering
limiting press freedom. Autocratic regimes increasingly are jailing
journalists and political dissidents or simply buying media companies to use them for propaganda and to negate criticism. Muslim
countries are adopting and rigidly enforcing blasphemy laws,
Russian police arrest a supporter of the punk rock
band Pussy Riot near a court building in Moscow on
Aug. 17, 2012. Three members of the all-female group
were convicted of hooliganism and sentenced to
prison after a performance in Moscow’s main cathedral
in which they ridiculed President Vladimir Putin.
some of which carry the death penalty. Meanwhile, some governments are blocking or monitoring social media and cybertraffic,
I
increasing the risk of arrest for those who freely express their
N
thoughts online and dashing hopes that new technologies would
S
allow unlimited distribution of information and opinion.
I
D
E
CQ Researcher • April 26, 2013 • www.cqresearcher.com
Volume 23, Number 16 • Pages 377-400
THIS REPORT
THE ISSUES ………………..379
BACKGROUND …………….386
CHRONOLOGY …………….387
CURRENT SITUATION ……..392
AT ISSUE……………………393
OUTLOOK ………………….395
RECIPIENT OF SOCIETY OF PROFESSIONAL JOURNALISTS AWARD FOR
EXCELLENCE ◆ AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION SILVER GAVEL AWARD
BIBLIOGRAPHY …………….398
THE NEXT STEP …………..399
FREE SPEECH AT RISK
379
386
388
390
THE ISSUES
OUTLOOK
• Has technology made
speech freer?
• Should religious sensibilities be allowed to limit
free expression?
• Should the U.S. promote free speech abroad?
395
Shame, Not Laws?
“Every new technology, by
its nature, is open to both
use and abuse.”
BACKGROUND
380
Refusal to “Revoco”
The struggle for free speech
has been a long story
about testing limits.
Democracies Enjoy the
Most Press Freedom
Totalitarian regimes have
the least.
381
Number of Journalists
Killed on the Rise
Seventy journalists were
killed in 2012.
Controlling the Press
It remained heavily regulated
in the United Kingdom
and its American colonies.
Expanding Rights
After World War II, the
sense that free speech was
an inalienable right took
deep hold in the country.
CURRENT SITUATION
392
392
Government Secrets
The case of Army Pfc.
Bradley Manning, who
leaked sensitive government
documents to WikiLeaks,
has made him a cause
célèbre in some circles.
Information Explosion
Online databases have
complicated free-speech
legal issues.
394
Regulating the Press?
A phone-hacking scandal in
Britain has led to concerns
about press freedom there.
394
Reporters Under Attack
More than 230 journalists
were imprisoned last year.
Cover: AFP/Getty Images/Andrei Smirnov
378
CQ Researcher
CQ Researcher
SIDEBARS AND GRAPHICS
384
Blasphemy Laws Proliferate
Videos and cartoons mocking the Muslim prophet
Muhammad have led many
countries to enact anti-blasphemy laws.
April 26, 2013
Volume 23, Number 16
MANAGING EDITOR: Thomas J. Billitteri
tjb@cqpress.com
ASSISTANT MANAGING EDITOR: Kathy Koch
kkoch@cqpress.com
SENIOR CONTRIBUTING EDITOR:
Thomas J. Colin
tcolin@cqpress.com
ASSOCIATE EDITOR: Kenneth Jost
STAFF WRITER: Marcia Clemmitt
CONTRIBUTING WRITERS: Sarah Glazer,
Peter Katel, Reed Karaim, Robert Kiener,
Barbara Mantel, Tom Price, Jennifer Weeks
SENIOR PROJECT EDITOR: Olu B. Davis
ASSISTANT EDITOR: Darrell Dela Rosa
FACT CHECKER: Michelle Harris
EDITORIAL INTERN: Ethan McLeod
An Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc.
387
Chronology
Key events since 1946.
VICE PRESIDENT AND EDITORIAL DIRECTOR,
HIGHER EDUCATION GROUP:
388
Free Speech Can Be
Deadly in Russia
“Many journalists end up
dead, assaulted or threatened.”
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, ONLINE LIBRARY AND
REFERENCE PUBLISHING:
390
China Opens Up — But
Just a Crack
It still monitors journalists
and dissenters’ activities.
393
At Issue:
Should journalists be regulated?
FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
397
For More Information
Organizations to contact.
398
Bibliography
Selected sources used.
399
The Next Step
Additional articles.

399
Citing CQ Researcher
Sample bibliography formats.
Michele Sordi
Todd Baldwin
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CQ Researcher (ISSN 1056-2036) is printed on acidfree paper. Published weekly, except: (March wk. 5)
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Free Speech at Risk
BY ALAN GREENBLATT
THE ISSUES
First Amendment protections
couldn’t be expected to prevail. Several made that case
t wasn’t an April Fool’s
after protests broke out in
joke. On April 1, “Daily
several Muslim countries last
Show” host Jon Stewart
September over an Americandefended Egyptian political
made video uploaded to
satirist Bassem Youssef, who
Yo u T u b e d e f a m e d t h e
had undergone police quesProphet Muhammad.
tioning for allegedly insultEven the administration of
ing President Mohammed
President Obama, who deMorsi and Islam.
fended the nation’s free-speech
“That’s illegal? Seriously?
traditions at the United NaThat’s illegal in Egypt?” Stewtions in the wake of video
art said on his Comedy Cenbacklash, supports a proposed
tral show. “Because if insultU.N. resolution to create an
ing the president and Islam
international standard to rewere a jailable offense here,
strict some anti-religious
Fox News go bye-bye.”
speech. And, under Obama,
Stewart was kidding, but
the Justice Department has
Youssef’s case has drawn atprosecuted a record number
tention from free-speech adof government employees
vocates who worry Egypt’s
who have leaked sensitive docnascent democracy is acuments, discouraging potencording no more respect totial whistleblowers from exward freedom of expression
posing government waste,
than the regime it replaced.
fraud or abuse. 2
The U.S. Embassy in Cairo,
“Wherever you look, you
which had linked to Stewsee legislation or other meaart’s broadcast on its Twitter
sures seeking to reassert state
Egyptian political satirist Bassem Youssef arrives at the
feed, temporarily shut down
control over speech and the
public prosecutor’s office in Cairo on March 31. Police
questioned Youssef for allegedly insulting President
the feed after Egyptian aumeans of speech,” says John
Mohammed Morsi and Islam. The government filed
thorities objected to it. Egypt’s
Kampfner, author of the 2010
charges against hundreds of Egyptian journalists but
nascent government also has
book Freedom for Sale.
dropped them earlier this month. Free-speech advocates
filed charges against hundreds
In the United Kingdom and
worry that journalists, bloggers and democracy
of journalists, although Morsi
Australia, government minissupporters worldwide are being intimidated into silence.
asked that they all be dropped
ters last month proposed that
earlier this month.
media outlets be governed by
In many cases, freedom of speech
Concerns are widespread that is losing. “Free speech is dying in the new regulatory bodies with statutory
commentators, journalists, bloggers — Western world,” asserts Jonathan Tur- authority, although they ran into opand, yes, even comedians — are being ley, a George Washington University position. Two years ago, a new media
intimidated into silence. And not just law professor. “The decline of free law in Hungary created a regulatory
in Egypt.
speech has come not from any single council with wide-ranging powers to
Free speech, once seen as close to blow but rather from thousands of paper grant licenses to media outlets and asan absolute right in some countries, cuts of well-intentioned exceptions de- sess content in a way that Human
is beginning to conflict with other val- signed to maintain social harmony.” 1 Rights Watch says compromises press
ues, such as security, the protection of
In an era when words and images freedom. 3
children and the desire not to offend can be transmitted around the world
“Not only is legislation such as this
religious sensibilities, not just in the instantaneously by anyone with a cell bad in and of itself, but it is crucial
Middle East but in much of the world, phone, even some American acade- in sending a green light to authoriincluding Western Europe.
mics argue that an absolutist view of tarians who use these kind of meaAFP/Getty Images/Khaled Desouki
I
www.cqresearcher.com
April 26, 2013
379
FREE SPEECH AT RISK
Democracies Enjoy the Most Press Freedom
Democracies such as Finland, Norway and the Netherlands have the most press freedom, while authoritarian regimes such as Turkmenistan, North Korea and Eritrea have the least, according to Reporters
Without Borders’ 2012 index of global press freedom. European and Islamic governments have enacted
or considered new press restrictions after a recent phone-hacking scandal in Britain and Western media
outlets’ irreverent images of the Prophet Muhammad triggered deadly protests by Muslims. Myanmar
(formerly Burma), which recently enacted democratic reforms, has reached its greatest level of press
freedom ever, the report said.
Press Freedom Worldwide, 2013
G R E E N L A N D
ICELAND
Norwegian
R
SWEDEN
Sea
U
S
S
I
A
FINLAND
N O RWAY
C
A
N
A
D
EST
ON
IA
L AT
UNITED
V IA
DENMARK
L
KINGDOM
RU ITHUA
SSIA NIA
BELARUS
IRELAND
NETHERLANDS
POLAND
BELGIUM GERMANY
CZECH
UKRAINE
LUXEMBOURG REP.
AUSTRIA
SLOVAKIA
MOLDOVA
SWITZERLAND
HUNGARY
A
SLOVENIA
ANDORRA
FRANCE
PORTUGAL
N O R T H
A T L A N T I C
MACEDONIA
ANIA
ALB
M e d
MONTENEGRO
i t
GREECE
e
r
ra
SYRIA
CYPRUS
TUNISIA n e a n
S e a LEBANON
I R A Q
ISRAEL
JORDAN
ALGERIA
EGYPT
CUBA
DOMINICAN
REPUBLIC
ECUADOR
S AU D I
BURUNDI
BHUTAN
NEPAL
QATAR
UNITED
ARAB
EMIRATES
TAIWAN
A
HONG
KONG
I N D I A
MYANMAR
LAOS
THAILAND
O
SRI
LANKA
P
A
O
C
C
I
E
F
A
I
N
C
S O U T H
PARAGUAY
ZIMBABWE
PA P UA
NEW
GUINEA
BOTSWANA
A T L A N T I C
CHILE
O C E A N
C
C
E
A
N
SOLOMON
ISLANDS
VANUATU
Press Freedom
MADAGASCAR
I
M A L AY S I A
I N D O N E S I A
TIMOR LESTE
MOZAMBIQUE
NAMIBIA
F
BRUNEI
D I A N
Z A M B I A MALAWI
BOLIVIA
I
PHILIPPINES
O C E A N
TANZANIA
C
VIETNAM
CAMBODIA
ANGOLA
PERU
P
BANGLADESH
OMAN
M A L I
NIGER CHAD
Arabian
ERITREA
SENEGAL
Sea
YEMEN
en
BURKINA
GAMBIA
Ad
FASO
SUDAN
of
NIGERIA
Gulf
GUINEA-BISSAU
GUINEA
GHANA
CENTRAL
SOMALIA
SIERRA LEONE IVORY
SOUTH E T H I O P I A
AFRICAN
COAST
SUDAN
REPUBLIC
LIBERIA
CAMEROON DEM. REP.
UGANDA
OF
I N
EQUATORIAL GUINEA
KENYA
CONGO
CONGO
GABON
RWANDA
B R A Z I L
JA PA N
C H I N A
TO
BEGO
NIN
VENEZUELA
COLOMBIA
GALAPAGOS
ISLANDS
G
UY
SU AN
R A
FR IN
EN AM
C
H
G
U
IA
N
A
PUERTO RICO
COSTA RICA
PANAMA
MAURITANIA
TRINIDAD & TOBAGO
AFGHANISTAN
I R A N
ARABIA
a
S e
JAMAICA HAITI
BELIZE
GUATEMALA HONDURAS
EL SALVADOR
NICARAGUA
NORTH KOREA
SOUTH
KOREA
PAKISTAN
L I B YA
e d
WESTERN
SAHARA
R
O C E A N
BAHAMAS
MEXICO
MOROCCO
M O N G O L I A
GEORGIA
UZBEKISTAN
KYRGYZSTAN
ARMENIAAZERBAIJAN
TURKMENISTAN
T U R K E Y
TAJIKISTAN
BOSNIA AND
AMERICA
K A Z A K H S TA N
ROMANIA
ITALY
ATIA SERBIA
CRO
Black Sea
BULGARIA
S PA I N HERZEGOVINA
U N I T E D S TAT E S O F
Sea of
Okhotsk
FIJI
MAURITIUS
RÉUNION
SWAZILAND
LESOTHO
SOUTH AFRICA
Good
AUSTRALIA
NEW CALEDONIA
Satisfactory
URUGUAY
Noticeable
problems
ARGENTINA
Difficult
NEW
ZEALAND
Very serious
FALKLAND/MALVINAS
ISLANDS
South Georgia
Source: “Freedom of the Press Worldwide in 2013,” Reporters Without Borders, http://fr.rsf.org/IMG/jpg/2013-carte-liberte-presse_1900.jpg
sures by Western states to say, whenever they are criticized by the West,
‘Hey, you guys do the same,’ ” says
Kampfner, former CEO of Index on
Censorship, a London-based nonprofit
group that fights censorship.
Some observers have hoped the
growth of social media and other
technologies that spread information
faster and more widely than previously thought possible could act as
380
CQ Researcher
an automatic bulwark protecting freedom of expression. “The best example
of the impact of technology on free
speech is to look at the Arab Spring,”
says Dan Wallach, a computer scientist
at Rice University, referring to the series of upheavals starting in 2011 that
led to the fall of autocratic leaders in
Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen and Libya. 4
But as studies by Wallach and
many others show, countries such as
China and Iran are building new firewalls to block sensitive information
and track dissidents. “The pattern seems
to be that governments that fear mass
movements on the street have realized that they might want to be able
to shut off all Internet communications in the country and have started
building the infrastructure that enables them to do that,” said Andrew
McLaughlin, a former White House
adviser on technology. 5
In January, a French court ordered
Twitter to help identify people who had
tweeted racist or anti-Semitic remarks,
or face fines of 1,000 euros (about $1,300)
per day. The San Francisco-based company refused to comply, citing First
Amendment protections for free
speech. 6
But even as Twitter appeals the
French court order, the microblogging
site in October blocked the account
of a neo-Nazi group called Besseres
Hannover, or Better Hanover, which
had been charged with inciting racial
hatred. Twitter said it was the first
time it had used technology to monitor and withhold content based on a
given country’s concerns and laws.
Meanwhile, government arrests of
journalists and mob attacks against
them are on the rise. Journalists are
being arrested more often than in previous years in countries such as Russia and Turkey, and in 2012, mobs attacked journalists in Mali and Canada
— among other countries — for what
the protesters perceived as their blasphemous coverage of Islam. Blasphemy prosecutions have become more
common, especially in predominantly
Islamic countries such as Pakistan,
where blasphemy laws apply only to
comments about Islam or Muhammad,
not to derogatory comments about
Christianity, Judaism or other world
religions. 7
“There have been attempts to pass
so-called religious-sensibility laws,
which are, in fact, a way of curbing
press freedom and expression,” says
Robert Mahoney, director of the Committee to Protect Journalists, a New
York-based nonprofit group that promotes press freedom.
In one widely covered case, three
members of the Russian punk rock
band Pussy Riot were found guilty of
hooliganism motivated by religious
hatred last year. They had been arrested in March after a performance
in Moscow’s main cathedral, in which
www.cqresearcher.com
Number of Journalists Killed on the Rise
Seventy journalists were killed in 2012, nearly half of them murdered, a 43 percent increase from 2011. A total of 232 journalists
were imprisoned in 2012, the highest number since the Committee
to Protect Journalists began keeping track in 1990. Experts say a
select group of countries has fueled the increase by cracking down
on criticism of government policies.
Journalist Deaths, by Cause, 2012*
Dangerous assignment
17%
Murder
46%
Crossfire/combat
36%
* Figures do not total 100 because of rounding.
Imprisoned Journalists, 2000-2012
No. of Journalists
250
200
150
100
50
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Source: “Attacks on the Press,” Committee to Protect Journalists, 2013, www.cpj.org/
attacks/
they profanely called for the Virgin
Mary to protect Russia against Vladimir
Putin, who was returned to the presidency soon after the performance. The
three were sentenced to two years in
a prison colony, but one member was
released on probation before being
sent to prison. 8 In more open societies, laws meant to protect against
hate speech, Holocaust denial and offenses against religious sensibilities also
can end up limiting what people can
talk and write about.
Free-speech laws traditionally have
been about the protection of unpopular and provocative expression. Popular and uncontroversial opinions usu-
ally need no protection. But in recent
years, free-speech protections have
been fading away.
“The new restrictions are forcing
people to meet the demands of the
lowest common denominator of accepted speech,” Turley contends.
As people monitor the health of free
expression around the globe, here are
some of the questions they’re debating:
Has technology made speech freer?
As Arab protesters took to the streets
— and the Internet — in 2011 in
countries such as Tunisia and Egypt,
everyone from commentators for serious foreign-policy journals to “The
April 26, 2013
381
FREE SPEECH AT RISK
AFP/Getty Images/Attila Kisbenedek
Daily Show” asked whether the world seminate text, images and video all over technology can be a two-edged sword.
was witnessing a “Twitter revolution.” the world, ensuring that their voices can “Suddenly, you have the ability to
Social-media sites such as Twitter and be heard even at moments when regimes reach people all over the world and
Facebook were used by activists both are violently cracking down on them. communicate in ways that you never
Social media and other technolog- could before, and that’s wonderful,” says
as organizing tools and as a means of
communication with the outside world. ical tools have become so omnipresent Eva Galperin, global policy analyst with
“Tunisians got an alternative picture that former Rep. Tom Perriello, D-Va., the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF),
from Facebook, which remained un- worries that people become addicted a San Francisco-based group that procensored through the
motes an unrestricted Inprotests, and they comternet. “But it also allows
municated events to
government surveillance on
the rest of the world
a scale that was never beby posting videos to
fore possible.”
YouTube and DailyJournalists find that their
motion,” Ethan Zucke-mail accounts have been
erman, a researcher at
hacked by “state-sponsored
Harvard University’s
attackers” in countries such
Berkman Center for Inas China and Myanmar. 10
Mobile phones become
ternet and Society,
surveillance devices.
wrote in 2011. “It’s like“Modern information
ly that news of demontechnologies such as the
strations in other parts
Internet and mobile phones
of the country dis. . . magnify the uniqueseminated online
ness of individuals, further
helped others conclude
enhancing the traditional
that it was time to take
challenges to privacy,” acto the streets.” 9
Unquestionabl …
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