Solved by verified expert:This is a scholarly, data-driven, cited assignment on a Historical or Current Leader. The paper is expected to be between 7 to 8 typed pages, not including APA citations and bibliography. Please ensure you have a coversheet with your name and course number on it. The paper should be Times New Roman, 12-pt font, double spaced.Choose one Leader that you can find articles, books, or data on. It can be a leader from anywhere in the world, and remember you have to be able to find references on them.Within the paper discuss:A brief history of leader… (1+ page) Where did they grow up, what inspired them, education level, etc…Where do or did they work, what was their position?Using the textbook, what kind of leadership techniques does, or did this leader use (1-3 pages)? Were they successful? You should have at least 4 outside sources, plus the text book. The outside sources CANNOT be wikipedia or a blog. Ensure that whatever sources you cite within the paper are in your APA bibliography.Minimize the use of quotations… paraphrase your work and cite it appropriately.
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Guidelines for Written Work
Written assignments will be graded on content and style. Factors that contribute to (or detract
from) the quality of a paper:
• Organization and clarity: Use appropriate headings and subheadings. Always include an
introduction and conclusion.
• Precision: Do not ramble just to fill paper.
• Rigor and thoroughness: Use facts and sources to support your conclusions.
• Application of class concepts: Integrate your analysis with class material. Your textbook can
be used as a source, be certain to cite it properly.
• Grammar and spelling. Recommend reading your paper out loud to catch most mistakes.
All written assignments must be double-spaced, typed with 1-inch margins (top, bottom,
Plagiarism is a serious and significant issue within universities. A student will have committed
plagiarism if he or she reproduces someone else’s work without acknowledging its source. In
your professional career, you will find that reputation is everything. Plagiarism can ruin your
reputation and cost you your professional career, along with the respect of your peers.
Hints for Avoiding Plagiarism:
• More than three words is plagiarism. This is a good yardstick to use when wondering whether
or not quotes are appropriate. They are, if you are copying more than three words in sequence.
• One source is not “common knowledge.” Common knowledge does not require citation. But
something is not common knowledge if you have found just one source for the information.
• When in doubt, cite! If you have any doubt about whether or not to cite a source, error on
the side of making the attribution.
• If your co-author sounds surprisingly eloquent, make sure the contribution is his or her own.
We often work in groups and co-author papers and projects. You should ask the question of
your co-author if you doubt the work is their own. In group work, you are responsible for the
project/paper in its entirety.
• Look away. When you are writing, do not have open books or papers in front of you as you
type. Read your sources, and then put what you have read into your own words.
• Writing is hard work. Paraphrasing is relatively easy, writing is hard. Learning to be a good
writer is part of what your college education is about. Staring at an empty screen in MS Word
does become less daunting over time!
• Just because it’s on the Internet, doesn’t mean it’s yours. The Internet is a fantastic resource
and search engines are terrific research tools. But what you find on the Internet was written by
someone. You must cite Internet web sites, and if you use a quote, use appropriate quotation
• Paraphrasing is more than changing a verb tense or reordering a list. There is a difference
between citing a source for a fact and creating a bad quote.
• Use a Style Guide. Purchase a style guide and refer to it. I recommend American
Suggested Outline of an Academic Paper:
• Introduction (include a thesis statement in the first two paragraphs)
• Supporting paragraphs – analysis, argument, example(s); quotes should not exceed 10%
of the paper.
• Conclusion with analysis, i.e. “so-what?” Do not provide any new information in a
For citations, APA is required. Please include a bibliography at the end of the paper. As an
approximation, you should have roughly one source per page (six pages = six sources) to ensure
you researched the topic thoroughly.
Paper Grading Rubric
Structure, Format, and Organization (10%)
Does the paper have an introduction and conclusion?
Does the paper have a clear, informative purpose?
Are headings within the paper effectively utilized?
Synthesis and Application of Evidence (25%)
Has the author used factual/scholarly sources and evidence to support their claims?
Are multiple sources utilized to support the paper (at least 1-2 sources per page)?
Has the author paraphrased the evidence?
Synthesis and Application of Course Materials (25%)
Has the author utilized and cited materials presented in the course via text and/or class lectures
to support their claims?
Critical Thinking and Analysis (25%)
Has the author adequately answered the assignment’s purpose?
Is there evidence of original thought?
Has the author used both course materials and outside scholarly evidence to support their
Grammar and APA Skills (15%)
Is the paper free of grammatical, usage, and spelling errors?
Has APA been properly used throughout the paper?
Does the paper contain a properly formatted APA bibliography?
Dr. Carly Speranza, September 2018
WHY DO WE CITE?
Using citations and providing a list of references is a vital part of
writing scholarly papers
Rather than primarily serving as a sort of honesty check to ensure
that one isn’t plagiarizing, citation is actually intended to:
Allow those who are interested in your arguments to investigate
the matter further
Provide support to your arguments by indicating that they are
grounded in areas that have been researched by others
Ensure that scholars who have developed unique arguments or
taken the time to do important research receive proper credit
WHAT DO WE CITE?
A scholar should cite any of the following concepts or items:
Arguments drawn from other authors
Statistics that are not commonly available or known
Historical or background information that is not commonly
WHAT DO WE CITE?
One might ask “What does ‘commonly known’ mean?”
Here are a few examples:
The fact that George Bush was President of the United States
The fact that Germany, Japan, and Italy were allies in World War II
The fact that Margaret Thatcher was a famous conservative
The fact that the President Obama is a Democrat
The fact that President Clinton served from 1992 – 2000
A good rule of thumb: Does my mother, father, or best friend know this fact? If
so, it is probably commonly known. If there is any doubt cite it.
HOW DO WE CITE?
There are many citation styles. A short list of
the most popular styles:
style (from the Chicago Manual of Style)
APA style (from the American Psychiatric
Association) – The one I use in this course!
MLA style (from the Modern Language Association)
APA WITHIN TEXT CITATIONS
Northouse (2013) stated that leaders are born and
Miller and Brockman (2017) said that sheep are
Fifty-seven percent of the human population likes
cheese (Smith, 2018).
A list of references at the end of a paper is very important. Here are a
three examples of references that provide a sense of how to do it. For
other resources, check out an APA style guide of your choice.
Golder, M. (2006). Presidential coattails and legislative fragmentation.
American Journal of Political Science, 50(3), 34-48. doi:10.1111/j.15405907.2006.00168.x
Wooldridge, J. (2009). Introductory econometrics. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western
Nordsieck, W. (2012). Parties and elections in Europe. Retrieved from
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