Expert answer:Iranian Revolution of 1979 and Its Impact

  

Solved by verified expert:this is the final paper which is based on what you had written before ( 5 pages rough draft).this is the comment that I got for the paper that you wrote : “This is an excellent start. Your side by side analysis of Iran and South Africa makes for a fascinating read. You may want to consider whether or not you need to of the judgments you make — who was right, who was wrong — and just focus on what exactly was happening, but that is your call. Integrate into the paper illustrations of your evidence — i.e. images from Mighty Man, as well as from the British Apartheid Archives documents that you have identified. I would like you to explain through text, and illustrate through images, both your analysis and also the original material that enables you to substantiate your analysis. Good work — keep going.”please write a research paper based on what you had written and the comments that are given. Also im going to send some links, some videos, some books, that really could help this research paper.these are given:We will work with two sets of primary documents — Mighty Man published in 1976-1977 and the Black Panther Panther’s Quest published in 1989.Recommended books, all available immediately as e-books:Nancy L. Clark and William H. Worger, South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid (Seminar Studies), Routledge 2016, 3rd Edition ONLY. Multiple formats available.Trevor Noah, Born a Crime: Stories from a South African Childhood, Penguin 2016, ANYedition. Multiple formats available.Don McGregor and Gene Colan, Black Panther: Panther’s Quest, Marvel 2018, ANY edition. Multiple formats available.Required films: In class and/or independent viewingSix Days in SowetoWhen We Were Black : When We Were Black, watch all 4 episodes
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sjW1MtalBfU
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M52MCMR-NR8
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W7szDYRFMw4 li.li1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 5.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px ‘PT Sans’; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000}
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p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px ‘Helvetica Neue’; color: #454545I have also attached what I sent you earlier and what you did ( 5pages)
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Running head: REVOLUTION
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Revolution
Student Name
University
Course Title
Date
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Revolution
The year 1979 marked a decisive change in the lives of all Iranians. Indeed, this year,
the country known as Iran turned into the Islamic Republic of Iran. The leading cause of this
change was the revolution that took place in 1979. This revolution saw the departure of the
last Shah of Iran, Mohamed Reza Pahlavi along with the triumphant return of the Grand
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, as the new ruler of the country. The Iranian revolution of 1979
was an unpredicted event from a global perspective since it lacked some of the conventional
causes of the revolution. In fact, this revolution took place in the absence of any financial
crisis or peasant rebellion, in a climate of relative prosperity (Randjbar-Daemi, 2019). The
revolution of 1979 had several consequences among which the most prominent was the oil
shock of 1979. By the time of the crisis, Iran was one of the most important suppliers of crude
oil in the world, and this crisis affected several of his partners such as South Africa. In fact, in
December 1978, the Government of South Africa was preparing for the impact of an
imminent shutdown of the supply of crude oil by Iran along with its consequences (Collins,
1978). The South African government was concerned with the ongoing oil shock since Iran
supplied almost 90 percent of the crude oil refined by the country. The Iranian revolution of
1979 which had no apparent and comprehensible causes led to the oil crisis of the same year
for which several countries such as South Africa were not properly prepared.
The Era of Mohamed Shah Reza Pahlavi
The Iranian revolution of 1979 terminated the Pahlavi dynasty. Reza Pahlavi, an
Iranian army general, founded the Pahlavi dynasty with the help of his Western allies before
being replaced by his son Mohamed Reza Shah Pahlavi (Bani, 2019). Mohamed Reza Pahlavi
was a better ruler than his father was. Under his father’s reign, the Iranian industrial growth
was not balanced. There was no synergy between the industries and other sectors and this
resulted in the incapability of the Iranian industries to meet the fast-growing domestic demand
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of the population (Bani, 2019). Under Reza Shah Pahlavi, the agricultural sector from which
more than 90 percent of the population of Iran earned a living was not reformed. Further, the
Iranian industrial sector was only able to absorb less than 4 percent of the available labor
force (Bani, 2019). Iran experienced its period of glory under Mohamed Reza Shah Pahlavi.
The Iranian economy started feeling better in 1954 after Mohamed Reza took power in 1941
(Randjbar-Daemi, 2019). Mohamed Reza had a policy oriented towards collaboration with
western powers and the adoption of modernism. In 1954, the oil revenues had significantly
increased along with foreign aid to development. This led to important investments that
accelerated the country’s economic growth (Randjbar-Daemi, 2019). To counter some
drawbacks due to the rise of inflation, Mohamed Reza developed a new economic
development plan that puts an important emphasis on the financing of private manufacturing
companies. He knew that by financing manufacturing companies, he will create more jobs and
thus, accelerate the economic growth. To reach this target, Mohamed Reza created two
specialized banks whose mission was to grant credit to medium and large manufacturing
companies.
The Iranian Revolution of 1979
In spite of Mohamed Reza’s good achievements, social protests broken up in 1977.
These protests consisted of a series of demonstrations against the Shah Mohamed Reza. The
Iranian population engaged in massive actions of civil resistance with secular and religious
components. The civil resistance intensified between August and December 1978 and led to
strikes and other events that completely paralyzed the country (Bani, 2019). In January 1979,
Mohamed Reza was forced to leave Iran for exile, entrusting his duties to a regency council
and his Prime Minister Shapour Bakhtiar. Shapour Bakhtiar was an opposition-based minister
and, under his impulsion, the government called for the return of the Ayatollah Ruhollah
Khomeini (Bani, 2019). The Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini is a member of the Shia’s
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clergy and was the leader of the opposition against Mohamed Reza’s reforms that he qualified
as “White Revolution”. The return of Ruhollah Khomeini was highly applauded by millions
of Iranians and he came to power after a short guerrilla in February 1979. The first thing that
Ruhollah Khomeini did as the Iranian ruler was initiating a national referendum through
which Iran became the Islamic Republic of Iran in April 1979 (Randjbar-Daemi, 2019)
The Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini can be compared to “Mighty Man” the hero
of a South African comic book published in 1975. In this book, Danny Ndhlomo aka Mighty
Man is a superhero whose values are deeply rooted in the traditional South African values.
Mighty Man is a superhero proud of his cultural roots who considers that the honesty and
generosity which characterized the South African community, are the most important values
(Afri-Comics, 1975). Like Mighty Man, Ruhollah Khomeini appeared as a hero for all the
entire Iranian community which is in the majority made up of Muslims. The Iranian
populations argued that Mohamed Reza’s Westernization of Iran was not in accordance with
the country’s Islamic traditional values (Bani, 2019). Since The Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah
Khomeini claimed to be the protector of the Islamic traditions of Iran, he was perceived by the
entire population as a hero. Further, still, in this South African comic book, Danny Ndhlomo
becomes “Mighty Man” further to the kidnapping of Donna’s brother. Donna is his Danny’s
hierarchical superior and he is in love with her (Afri-Comics, 1975). Since Donna was
threatened by three gangsters who kidnaped her brother and asked Donna to steal some
classified documents, Danny turned into Mighty Man to rescue Donna’s brother and capture
the gangsters (Afri-Comics, 1975). In the context of the Iranian revolution of 1979, Iran can
be compared to Donna, the endangered woman. Danny Ndhlomo’s love for Donna made him
a hero, as The Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini’s love for Iran also turned him into a
hero. Love and respect for traditional values are two similarities between The Grand
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Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and Danny Ndhlomo, the hero of the South African comic
book.
The Oil Crisis of 1979
Between 1978 and 1979, Iran was the second-largest OPEC producer. However, the
strikes and other social protests that preceded the departure of Mohamed Reza along with the
return and access to power of the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini adversely impacted the
country’s crude oil production. From August 1978 to January 1979, Iran crude oil production
declined by 4.8 million barrels per day (Randjbar-Daemi, 2019). This means that the world
was deprived of almost 7 percent of its overall production. In spite of the efforts made by
other crude oil producers to compensate for this loss, the availability of crude oil across the
world from 1979 became worrying. In fact, the efforts of the other crude oil producers
managed to decrease the net loss of supply between 4 and 5 percent (Randjbar-Daemi, 2019).
Nonetheless, this shortage of crude oil led to a rapid increase in the crude oil price between
1979 and 1980. In fact, this price moved from $13 to $34 (Randjbar-Daemi, 2019). This
increase was mostly the result of a reaction of panic among the buyers. Indeed, there had
already been an oil shock in 1973 following political movements in the Middle East. Thus,
crude oil buyers were afraid of a prolongation of the chaos in Iran since religious and national
interests were involved in the conflict. In this regard, crude oil buyers started to buy more
than usual to increase their inventories (Jafari, 2019). As a result, this movement worsened the
shortage and adversely impacted the prices which were already bad.
The South African Reaction to the Oil Crisis
In this movement of panic, South Africa was preparing to be hit by the shortage of
crude oil faced all over the world. However, the situation of South Africa was a much more
serious since Iran supplied almost 90 percent of the crude oil refined by the country (Collins,
1978). Thus, the Iranian revolution of 1979 became a real threat to the country’s survival. The
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South African authorities initiated a series of reforms aimed at countering as much as possible
the probable effects of the decrease in the production of the Iranian crude oil. Knowing that its
existing stocks were endangered, the South African government decided to restrict the sale of
diesel fuel and petrol from 8 am to 6 pm only from Monday to Saturday (Collins, 1978).
Secondly, further to the increase in the OPEC price, the government decided to proceed to an
increase in the petrol price by 10 percent (Collins, 1978). For deeper analysis, the South
African government established a committee made up of representatives of commerce,
industries, and the oil companies, with the aim of anticipating most of the effects that the
upcoming shortage would have on the economy (Collins, 1978). By adopting such a strategy,
the South African government wanted to assess the remaining time before the situation
becomes out of control. In fact, for social and political purposes, the government wanted, at
all costs, to avoid drastic increases in petrol and diesel fuel prices. Meanwhile, the South
African Government was scouring the world to look for alternative sources of supply (Collins,
1978).
In conclusion, the Iranian crisis of 1979 resulted from social protests coming from the
Muslim opposition which hardly criticized Mohamed Reza’s reforms. Formed and led by The
Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the opposition succeeded to terminate the Pahlavi
dynasty and turning the country into an Islamic republic. This revolution had no economic
and social basis since Mohamed Reza had excellent achievements and was leading the
country to a new economic era. As a result, the whole world has been impacted by this crisis
since it affected the supply of crude oil across the world and results in a crisis. South Africa
was one of the countries which were more exposed to the decrease of crude oil supply from
Iran since it supplied 90 percent of this resource. To anticipate the consequences of this crisis,
the South African government decided to implement a series of reform to thoroughly manage
its existing inventories while looking for alternative supply sources.
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References
Afri-Comics (1975). Might-Man: The Human Law Enforcing Dynamo, N°1. South African
Ephemera. Available at:
https://dl.library.ucla.edu/islandora/object/africanephemera:20/datastream/OBJ
Bani, S. A. (2019). Where The Iranian Revolution Went Wrong. NPQ: New Perspectives
Quarterly, 36(2), 24–27. https://doi.org/10.1111/npqu.12209
Collins R., L., (1978). Implications of the Iranian Prices for South African Oil Supplies.
British-Consulate General Johannesburg.
Jafari, P. (2019). Linkages of oil and politics: oil strikes and dual power in the Iranian
revolution.
Labor
History,
60(1),
24–43.
https://doi.org/10.1080/0023656X.2019.1537018
Randjbar-Daemi, S. (2019). “Death to the Shah.” History Today, 69(4), 28–45. Retrieved
from
http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=135190585&site=ehostlive
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