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NATV 1220 essay rubric
Length: approx. 2000-25000 words
Font: 12pt Times New Roman
Quality
Excellent
Research



Good



Satisfactory
Acceptable citation formats: MLA/APA (endnotes/footnotes are not acceptable); min. 5 scholarly articles
Spacing: double
Margins: 1 inch
Misc.: page numbers (except first page & title page)


Argument
significant
independent,
scholarly research
sources are peerreviewed
publications, those
that aren’t are used
as primary
research only.
research
exemplifies the
scope of the
analysis and thesis
argument

reasonable amount
of independent,
scholarly research
sources are
primarily peerreviewed
sound research but
common

minimum amount
scholarly research
undertaken
research is weak
and unoriginal







Analysis
original and
provocative thesis
(clearly stated at the
beginning)
method of proving
that thesis is
established early on
and academically
justified
thesis provides core
of analysis (leads to
appropriate
conclusion based on
initial proposal)

interesting/predictable
thesis, clearly stated
at the beginning
thesis tends toward
more description than
argument, leading to
a weak conclusion
methodology is there
but isn’t clearly
described, or
described but not
adequately followed
through on

thesis fundamentally
descriptive or value
driven (good/bad,
right/wrong)
method is vague
argument fails to
reach a satisfying
conclusion






Clarity

strong analysis
clearly following
research questions
research aptly
distributed
throughout the
analysis, thoughtfully
supporting the
argument
information is ably
contextualized and
guides the argument
towards a coherent
conclusion

good analysis is
good but some
significant
weaknesses
paper occasionally
drifts into tangents
or into unsupported
territory
research questions
are interesting but
potentially
unrealistic in terms
of the type and/or
level

uninspired analysis,
largely descriptive
research questions
poorly laid out/
inadequately
explored







Format
paper is easy to
read, analysis flows
expertly
language is
appropriate not
simply jargonistic
terms of analysis
and argumentation
are clear and welldefined

well written but
suffers from some
significant
grammatical/spelling
errors
language is clear,
lacks scholarly
depth
some lapses in
definition/explication
of terms
weak segue points

significant but not
major problems in
grammar/spelling
vague language, or
shallow




Times Roman
12pt, double
spaced, 1-inch
margins, page
numbers
cover page
provides
pertinent
information
(SID)
bibliography/
citations are
thorough and
well
documented
throughout the
paper
follows technical
requirements, a
few minor
exceptions
solid citations,
not thorough,
(some
noticeable
omissions)
some significant
problems with
technical
requirements
affecting
strength of
analysis
Unsatisfactory



Poor


Misc Notes
less than minimum
amount of
scholarly research
sources are mostly
non-scholarly
publications
research is weak,
unoriginal, and fails
to adequately
support the
argument

little to no research
undertaken
little evidence of
scholarly research




research does not
adequately support
analysis

terms not well
defined, analysis
leaps erratically

citations are
weak and/or the
bibliography is
incomplete
no easily identifiable
thesis, little in the way
of method
no conclusion
because no real
argument was
established

research questions
not identified in intro
little relationship
between
research/analysis
analysis is better
called description

major problems
grammar/spelling
murky language,
confused and
difficult to follow
lack of definitions or
context

major problems
with the
technical
requirements of
the paper
affecting the
analysis
next to no
citations and/or
no bibliography
or it does not
follow assigned
styles
no thesis and/or no
method
deeply flawed
conclusion (or nonexistent)

non-existent, weak,
minimal analysis
unsupported by
research


sub-par language
extensive
grammatical/
spelling errors
analysis is difficult to
follow, lacks any
sense of flow







does not follow
a scholarly
format (either
technical or
citation format)

Gilbert, Kimutai. “The Indigenous People of Canada.” WorldAtlas, 12 July 2017,
www.worldatlas.com/articles/the-indigenous-people-of-canada.html.

Parott, Zach. “Indigenous Peoples in Canada.” The Canadian Encyclopedia,
www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/aboriginal-people.

Cadotte, Marcel. “Epidemic.” Epidemic | The Canadian Encyclopedia,
www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/epidemic.

“The Impact of European Diseases on Native Americans.”. “The Impact of European
Diseases on Native Americans.” Science and Its Times: Understanding the Social
Significance of Scientific Discovery, Encyclopedia.com, 2019,
www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/impacteuropean-diseases-native-americans.

Houston, C S, and S Houston. “The First Smallpox Epidemic on the Canadian Plains: In
the Fur-Traders’ Words.” The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases = Journal
Canadien Des Maladies Infectieuses, Pulsus Group Inc, 2000,
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2094753/.

Joseph, Bob. “The Impact of Smallpox on First Nations on the West Coast.” The Impact
of Smallpox on First Nations on the West Coast, www.ictinc.ca/blog/the-impact-ofsmallpox-on-first-nations-on-the-vwest-coast.

McIntyre, John W.R., and C. Stuart Houston. “Smallpox and Its Control in Canada.”
CMAJ, CMAJ, 14 Dec. 1999, www.cmaj.ca/content/161/12/1543.

BROWN, J R, and D M McLEAN. “Smallpox–a Retrospect.” Canadian Medical
Association Journal, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 6 Oct. 1962,
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1849642/.

“Amherst, Jeffrey Amherst 1st Baron.” Dictionary of British History, Market House
Books Ltd, 1st edition, 2002. Credo Reference,
https://uml.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/mhbh/
amherst_jeffrey_amherst_1st_baron/0?institutionId=1217. Accessed 20 Jun. 2019.

Bhardwaj 1
Taneesha Bhardwaj
J.A Sharpie
NATV1220
[Date]
Diseases in Native peoples: Past and Present
Indigenous peoples also known as the Aboriginals are the originals inhabitants of Canada
and are divided into three main groups: Métis, Inuit and the First Nations. The Inuit are the
inhabitants of the northern regions of Canada and their homeland is called Inuit Nunangat which
is contained in the Arctic region. Métis peoples belong to the Prairie provinces, Ontario and also
the other parts of Canada. And are a mix of European and Indigenous ancestry. First nation are
the original inhabitants of Canada and occupy the territories south of the Arctic.
Contact between Europeans and Native Americans, few centuries ago, led to a
demographic disaster of unprecedented proportions. An epidemic occurs when a community is
affected by the spread of an infectious disease at a particular time. The most disastrous epidemics
in the course of Canadian history occurred during the first contact between the Europeans and
native Americans. Many of the epidemic diseases were absent from the Americans and were well
established in rest of the world before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492. The ruinous
epidemics that attended the European conquest of the New World decimated the indigenous
population of the Americas. Influenza, smallpox, measles, and typhus fever were some of the
first few diseases introduced to the natives by the Europeans. As the Aboriginals were never
introduced to such diseases before, they did not have the antibodies needed to cure the infections
and therefore their population started to collapse rapidly.
Bhardwaj 2
Great cities with advanced cultures were developed in Guatemala, Mexico, and the
Andean Highlands centuries before the Europeans arrived in the Western hemisphere. Before the
arrival of Europeans, these areas were generally affected by famines. The biological and social
landscape of America was irreversibly transformed by the European diseases, seeds, weeds, and
animals. By 1518 , slaves from Africa were imported to America because of the Native
American demographic catastrophe and the demands of Spanish settlers for labor. Thus, the
America quickly became a site of the mixing of peoples and infectious agents of previously
separate continents.
Of the considerable number of ailments that influenced the Native peoples, smallpox was
the worst. Smallpox was brought to Mexico by the Spaniards in 1520.It reached Massachusetts in
1633 and the St. Lawrence River in both 1635, and 1669 to 1670. The 1702 epidemic reached as
far west as Sault Sainte Marie and the 1736 to 1738 epidemic extended to Lake of the woods, at
the south- east corner of present day Manitoba.
While each tribe’s encounter with European illness can’t be catalogued here, two stories
fill in as a prominent models. While travelling the St. Lawrence River, Jacques Cartier observed
well established, heavily populated communities at Stadacona , an Iroquoian village situated at
what is currently Québec City. Not long after his landing, in the winter of 1535, he noticed that
Iroquoian were dying of an illness that he and his own men appeared to be immune to. Later
history specialists would distinguish the sickness as smallpox. Around 70 years after the fact,
when Samuel de Champlain investigated a similar course in 1603, Stadacona was a ghost town.
Bhardwaj 3
Another episode addresses the deliberate spread of the disease. In 1763, as Odawa chief
Obwandiyag (Pontiac) started his Resistance movement against British principle, Sir Jeffery
Amherst, pioneer of the British army, proposed to Col. Henry Bouquet that smallpox be
acquainted by means of contaminated blankets given to the First Nations they were fighting. He
stated, “You will do well to try to inoculate the Indians by means of the blankets as well as to try
every other method that can serve to extirpate I’m this exorable race.” A few historians note
there is no proof that Bouquet or any of his men completed the demonstration. That same year,
however, William Trent, a trader at Fort Pitt (situated in present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania)
composed of a gathering with two members of the Delaware Nation, “we gave them two blankets
and a handkerchief out of the Small Pox hospital. I believe it will have the desired effect.”
Estimations of the number of Native peoples in the Western half of the globe at the time
of Columbus’ arrival differ broadly, and hence it is hard to state precisely how many peoples died
out of the illnesses Europeans introduced. However, a few researchers gauge that, by around
1900, Aboriginal populations had declined by upwards of 93 percent. Despite the fact that
different components added to their termination (e.g., war, dispossession), epidemic diseases was
effectively the most crushing.
The first recorded smallpox epidemic on the Western plains took place in 1780 and 1781
when William Tomison and Mathew Cocking arrived. William Tomison became the inland
master of the Hudson’s Bay company at Cumberland House ( now in Saskatchewan) in 1778 and
Cocking was in charge at the York Factory in 1781 and 1782. Both Tomison and Cocking
recognized that smallpox was contagious and provided long standing immunity to the victim.
Tomison clearly understood that in severe cases, death could occur during the generalized
Bhardwaj 4
systematic (viremic) stage before the skin eruption. Tomison’s daily journal entries provide a
Good assessment of the mortality among Aboriginals during the 1781 and 1782 epidemic.
The close confines of the winter homes provided the ideal footing for the virus to
devastate the entire communities. People died at such a rate that it wasn’t possible to bury the
dead consistent with traditions that diode to mass burials, and eventually those too became
unmanageable, and the dead were left where they died. Community members who fled to avoid
the sickness took it with them thereby spreading the infection.
The small pox epidemic at Cumberland House, 1781-1782, has demonstrated the
compassion shown by William Tomison and his men. They took dying Indians into their already
jam-pawncked quarters and provided them with food and shelter, and 24 hour care. They then
dug their graves within the deeply frozen ground.
Small pox has always been prominent in the seaports of Canada. The Hôtel-Dieu hospital
in Quebec city was originally opened for the care of small pox victims in 1639. The following
year saw the beginning of the series of epidemic among the Indians and the others along the
hinterlands of the lowerSt. Lawrence and northern Maine. During the first decade of the
eighteenth century, numerous serious epidemics occurred in Quebec. In 1702 an epidemic killed
over 3000 in Quebec alone, and by 1721 Boston had witnessed six major epidemics. Following
this, there were six major outbreaks in Canada.
The introduction to Jennerian vaccination in Canada in the early 1800s kept the disease
under some control. Although small pox was more or less epidemic throughout Eastern Canada
in the nineteenth century, vaccination was not compulsory and re vaccination was seldom carried
out or thought necessary. After the introduction to British North American Act, legislation was in
Bhardwaj 5
force in Quebec requiring that all the hospitals receiving provincial grants should admit small
pox cases.
Bhardwaj 6

Gilbert, Kimutai. “The Indigenous People of Canada.” WorldAtlas, 12 July 2017,
www.worldatlas.com/articles/the-indigenous-people-of-canada.html.

Parott, Zach. “Indigenous Peoples in Canada.” The Canadian Encyclopedia,
www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/aboriginal-people.

Cadotte, Marcel. “Epidemic.” Epidemic | The Canadian Encyclopedia,
www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/epidemic.

“The Impact of European Diseases on Native Americans.”. “The Impact of European
Diseases on Native Americans.” Science and Its Times: Understanding the Social
Significance of Scientific Discovery, Encyclopedia.com, 2019,
www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/impacteuropean-diseases-native-americans.

Houston, C S, and S Houston. “The First Smallpox Epidemic on the Canadian Plains: In
the Fur-Traders’ Words.” The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases = Journal
Canadien Des Maladies Infectieuses, Pulsus Group Inc, 2000,
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2094753/.

Joseph, Bob. “The Impact of Smallpox on First Nations on the West Coast.” The Impact
of Smallpox on First Nations on the West Coast, www.ictinc.ca/blog/the-impact-ofsmallpox-on-first-nations-on-the-vwest-coast.

McIntyre, John W.R., and C. Stuart Houston. “Smallpox and Its Control in Canada.”
CMAJ, CMAJ, 14 Dec. 1999, www.cmaj.ca/content/161/12/1543.

BROWN, J R, and D M McLEAN. “Smallpox–a Retrospect.” Canadian Medical
Association Journal, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 6 Oct. 1962,
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1849642/.

“Amherst, Jeffrey Amherst 1st Baron.” Dictionary of British History, Market House
Books Ltd, 1st edition, 2002. Credo Reference,
https://uml.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/mhbh/
amherst_jeffrey_amherst_1st_baron/0?institutionId=1217. Accessed 20 Jun. 2019.


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