Expert answer:HIS009A Chinese History Reformers and Revolutionar

  

Solved by verified expert:For this paper, rely on the assigned primary sources (that is, the readings from the sourcebook and other documents). You may use the textbook for background information, but the paper must be principally based on your reading of the primary sources.Prompt:From the late nineteenth century to the early twentieth, what were reformers’ and revolutionaries’ criticisms of the past/present and their visions for the future? Possible angles to consider: gender, the place of intellectuals, culture, the role of the state, cities/countryside, tradition, etc. Be specific in your arguments, and back them with evidence from the assigned readings. NB: Be wary of bald generalizations between “the West”/modernity and “China”/tradition.For the cite, please use the MLA, and really take serious of citation, thank you.
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Copyright © 1993 by Patricia Buckley Ebrey
Copyright © 1981 by The Free Press
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording,
or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from
the Publisher.
The Free Press
A Division of Simon & Schuster Inc.
1230 Avenue of the Americas
New York, N.Y. 10020
www.SimonandSchuster.com
Printed in the United States of America
printing number
17 19 20 18
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Chinese civilization: a sourcebook / edited by Patricia Buckley Ebrey.—2nd ed., rev.
and expanded.
p. cm.
Rev. and expanded ed. of: Chinese civilization and society.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-02-908752-X
eISBN-13: 978-1-4391-8839-2
1. China—Civilization—Sources. 2. China—History—Sources. I. Ebrey, Patricia
Buckley II. Chinese civilization and society.
DS721.C517 1993
951—dc20 92-47017
3
CIP
4
CONTENTS
Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
Contents According to Topics
A Note on the Selection and Translation of Sources
Map of China
I. THE CLASSICAL PERIOD
1. Late Shang Divination Records. The questions and answers inscribed on oracle
bones used to communicate with divine powers
2. The Metal Bound Box. A scene in which the Duke of Zhou offers his life to the
ancestors in place of his nephew the king, from the Book of Documents
3. Hexagrams in the Book of Changes. Two passages from an ancient diviners’
manual
4. Songs and Poems. Songs of courtship, feasting, and war, from the Book of Songs
5. The Battle Between Jin and Chu. Description of the strategies, jockeying for
position, and boasting of a major battle, from the Zuo zbuan
6. Confucian Teachings. Passages from the Analects, Mencius, and Xunzi
7. Daoist Teachings. Passages from the Laozi and Zhuangzi
8. Legalist Teachings. Passages from the Book of Lord Shang and Han Feizi
9. Two Avengers. From the Intrigues of the Warring States
10. Social Rituals. The procedures to be followed when an inferior visits a superior
and vice-versa, from the Book of Etiquette and Ritual
II. THE QIN AND HAN DYNASTIES
11. Penal Servitude in Qin Law. From excavated wooden-strip documents
5
12. The World Beyond China. From Sima Qian’s Historical Records
13. Heaven, Earth, and Man. From the writings of Dong Zhongshu
14. The Debate on Salt and Iron. A court debate between the Legalist prime
minister and the Confucian scholars about the role of the government in
economic matters
15. The Classic of Filial Piety. A popular primer that glorifies the virtue of filial
devotion
16. Wang Fu on Friendship and Getting Ahead. A second-century man’s cynical
view of how men get ahead
17. Women’s Virtues and Vices. An exemplary biography of a model woman, the
lament of a man whose wife was far from model, and a woman’s admonitions to
girls on how to behave
18. Yin and Yang in Medical Theory. The theory behind traditional medicine, from
the Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine
19. Local Cults. Three stone inscriptions describing shrines erected to honor various
deities
20. Uprisings. Accounts of two religious leaders and the uprisings they staged
III. THE ERA OF DIVISION AND THE TANG DYNASTY
21. Ge Hong’s Autobiography. By a fourth-century scholar and reluctant official
22. Buddhist Doctrines and Practices. Wei Shou’s summary of Buddhist doctrines,
hagiographic accounts of two monks, and documents found at Dunhuang
showing Buddhist belief in practice
23. Tales of Ghosts and Demons. Three tales from a fourth-century collection
24. Cultural Differences Between the North and the South. Two views of the
distinctions that developed during a period of political separation and non-Han
domination in the North
25. Emperor Taizong on Effective Government. A summary of political theory,
written by the second Tang emperor for his sons
6
26. The Tang Legal Code. Sections from the laws on theft and robbery and those on
land and taxes
27. The Errors of Geomancy. An official’s complaints about the profusion of
theories
28. The Dancing Horses of Xuanzong’s Court. Unusual and exotic entertainment
29. Family Business. Documents from Dunhuang on the sale of slaves, division of
property, and household registration
30. The Examination System. Humorous and semihumorous anecodotes about
men’s efforts to pass the civil service examinations
31. A Pilgrim’s Visit to the Five Terraces Mountains. From the diary of a
Japanese monk who made a pilgrimage to one of the sacred sites of Buddhism
IV. THE SONG AND YUAN DYNASTIES
32. The Tanguts and Their Relations with the Han Chinese. Some Tangut
maxims, a Tangut ruler’s letter to the Song emperor, and the preface to a
Chinese-Tangut glossary
33. Book of Rewards and Punishments. A moral tract associated with popular
Daoism
34. Precepts of the Perfect Truth Daoist Sect. Principles of a Daoist monastic sect
35. Wang Anshi, Sima Guang, and Emperor Shenzong. A court debate between
the leading activist and his conservative opponent and letters they wrote each
other outlining their differences
36. Rules for the Fan Lineage’s Charitable Estate. The rules by which a charitable
trust was to be run for the benefit of the members of the lineage
37. Ancestral Rites. From a ritual manual giving the procedures to be followed
38. Women and the Problems They Create. Three folktale-like stories of unusual
women and a sympathetic view of women’s problems
39. Longing to Recover the North. Poems by six twelfth-century writers expressing
their anguish at the loss of China’s heartland
7
40. Zhu Xi’s Conversations with His Disciples. Conversations between a leading
neo-Confucian philosopher and his students
41. The Attractions of the Capital. A description of economic activity,
entertainment, and amenities in the city of Hangzhou
42. The Mutual Responsibility System. One magistrate’s instructions on how these
units were to operate
43. On Farming. How to plant, weed, care for tools, budget time, and so on
44. A Mongol Governor. The biography of a Mongol who spent decades putting
down rebellions and securing Mongol rule
45. A Schedule for Learning. Neo-Confucian rules and advice for teachers and
students
46. A Scholar-Painter’s Diary. Two weeks of social and intellectual activity
V. THE MING DYNASTY
47. Proclamations of the Hongwu Emperor. A despot’s complaints about how
difficult it was to get his subjects to act properly
48. The Dragon Boat Race. A description of the festival as performed in one place
in Hunan
49. Village Ordinances. Sample ordinances a village could adopt
50. Commercial Activities. Sample contracts, an essay on merchants, and a
biography of an admired one
51. What the Weaver Said. An artisan’s view of his work
52. Tenants. Two contracts specifying the responsibilities of quasi-hereditary
tenant-servants on one estate and reports of riots by tenants
53. Shi Jin the Nine-Dragoned. Episode from a novel describing the background of
one outlaw
54. Family Instructions. Advice and rules found in a lineage genealogy
8
55. Concubines. How concubines were bought, the reminiscences of a man for a
beloved concubine, and an episode from a novel depicting the ploys of a
malicious concubine
56. Widows Loyal Unto Death. Accounts from a local history glorifying women
who showed loyalty to their dead husbands by killing themselves
57. Two Philosophers. Letters and conversations of two important thinkers, Wang
Yangming and Li Zhi
58. A Censor Accuses a Eunuch. A memorial to the emperor accusing the eunuch
Wei Zhongxian of usurping his authority and acting tyrannically
VI. THE QING DYNASTY
59. The Yangzhou Massacre. One family’s experiences, recounted in a diary
60. Proverbs About Heaven. Standard sayings
61. Taxes and Labor Service. A description of the forms in which taxes and service
were assessed in one county
62. Permanent Property. The advice a man gave his sons concerning the
importance of owning land and how to manage it
63. Lan Dingyuan’s Casebook. Two examples of how an energetic Magistrate
solved administrative and legal cases
64. Exhortations on Ceremony and Deference. A lecture delivered by an official
in the hope of teaching villagers good behavior
65. Village Organization. Two records of village affairs, one about a water-use
agreement, the other the creation of a fair
66. The Village Headman and the New Teacher. Episode from a novel about how
a teacher was hired
67. Boat People. A local history’s account of a minority group
68. Placards Posted in Guangzhou. Official orders to admit foreigners to the city
after the Opium War and protests from local residents
9
69. Infant Protection Society. An account of one man’s efforts to stem infanticide
70. Mid-Century Rebels. Confessions, proclamations, petitions, and descriptions of
a number of different rebel groups
71. The Conditions and Activities of Workers. A stone inscription recording
official disapproval of organizing by workers and an official report of working
conditions in a water-logged mine
72. Genealogy Rules. The rules one lineage used in compiling its genealogy
VII. THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY
73. Liang Qichao on His Trip to America. Comments on the amazing sights in
New York, and reflections on Chinese social organization
74. Ridding China of Bad Customs. Proposals for ways to end footbinding,
suppress opium addiction, and free young girl bondservants
75. Rural Education. Recollections of a teacher introducing science to a rural
school
76. My Old Home. A story showing problems of communication between upper and
lower class men
77. The Spirit of the May Fourth Movement. Recollections of a woman who had
been in middle school at the time
78. The Haifeng Peasant Association. How one man tried to organize peasants
79. The Dog-Meat General. An account of one of the more incompetent and brutal
warlords
80. The General Strike. A magazine account of a strike in Shanghai in 1928
81. Funeral Processions. A description of two funeral processions with a list of the
equipment used and the cost
82. My Children. An essay by a man with five children
83. The Life of Beggars. An account of the social organization of beggars and their
various techniques of earning a living
10
84. Generalissimo Jiang on National Identity. Two speeches, early and late in the
War Against Japan, on China’s relations with other countries and the relations of
the various nationalities within China
VIII. THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC
85. The Communist Party. A speech by Liu Shaoqi on party organization and
discipline
86. Land Reform. An episode from a novel showing peasants learning “to stand up”
87. Hu Feng and Mao Zedong. Letters of a leading intellectual which Mao
published with his own commentary on how they demonstrated his
counterrevolutionary tendencies
88. A New Young Man Arrives at the Organization Department. An episode
from a story of the conflict between an idealistic young party member and the
entrenched power structure
89. Peng Dehuai’s Critique of the Great Leap Forward. Peng’s letter to Mao
offering measured criticism of his policies
90. Developing Agricultural Production. A newspaper account of efforts to inspire
members of a production brigade to work harder
91. Lei Feng, Chairman Mao’s Good Fighter. Inspirational anecdotes about a
model worker and soldier, devoted to aiding the people
92. Housing in Shanghai. A newspaper article describing the effects of state control
of housing
93. Red Guards. Red Guards’ accounts of their activities during the Cultural
Revolution
94. Victims. A short story written after the fall of the “Gang of Four,” showing some
of the negative effects on both the older and younger generations of the Cultural
Revolution
95. The Changing Course of Courtship. Four documents that show the changing
circumstances in which young people have looked for spouses
96. The One-Child Family. One province’ regulations for fostering the one-child
11
family and a magazine article on the pressure young mothers have experienced
because of this policy
97. Economic Liberalization and New Problems for Women. Newspaper and
magazine articles protesting some of the ways new policies have had adverse
effects on women’s employment or welfare
98. Peasants in the Cities. An interview and a newspaper article concerning the
rural residents who flocked to the cities in the 1980s
99. Posters Calling for Democracy. Posters from the 1989 Democracy Protests
100. Defending China’s Socialist Democracy. A newspaper article refuting the
views of those who believe that the West is more democratic than China
Glossary
Suggestions for Further Reading
Original Sources
Index
12
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
Over the years I have had the pleasure of meeting and talking with many students and
teachers who used Chinese Civilization and Society: A Sourcebook in their classes.
Repeatedly they told me that what they liked most about it was its liveliness—the
variety in the kinds of sources, the abundance of ones about ordinary life, the
sprinkling of humor and glimpses of personal life. For their sakes I have long been
thinking I should update it to bring it up to the 1990s and take into account
reevaluations of the Mao years.
When I finally found the time to tackle revisions, I decided to do a more thorough
rethinking of the overall purposes of this sourcebook and how it actually gets used.
My original goal fifteen years ago was to get into print lots of new translations of the
sorts of documents that had been neglected in other sourcebooks: popular stories,
descriptions of local customs, texts like tenancy contracts, essays that would reveal
how relatively ordinary people thought, and so on. There were already many good
translations of philosophical and religious texts, of standard historical accounts of
great events, and of China’s relations with foreign peoples, so I did not give these
topics as much space as texts about daily life or the mental world of ordinary people.
From my conversations with colleagues around the country who have been assigning
this book to their students, I have come to realize that few of them assign any other
sourcebook or any other original texts. Chinese history is commonly taught in a rapid
survey lasting only one or two semesters, with never enough time to read widely in
the available translations. The Sourcebook would better meet classroom needs, I now
realized, if it gave balanced coverage to all aspects of Chinese civilization, regardless
of whether a source had also been translated elsewhere.
Consequently I have made revisions throughout this book. The selection of sources
for China since 1949 has been extensively revised and the coverage of the earliest
periods expanded. Sometimes I have substituted an earlier piece for a later one on the
same subject; for instance, I added a selection from the Tang code in place of one
from the Ming code and some fourth-century ghost stories instead of some
seventeenth-century ones. I have also expanded coverage of philosophy and religion
in general, with new selections on Confucianism, Taoism, Legalism, and Buddhism.
In addition, I have added quite a few pieces that relate to political ideas and practices
and to China’s contacts with foreign peoples. Altogether there are thirty-nine new
selections, bringing the total to one hundred. To make room for these new pieces, I
have had to make cuts, sometimes shortening pieces, sometimes eliminating ones that
seemed, on balance, to contribute less to the overall understanding of Chinese
civilization. Although the final selection is still rich in sources for social and cultural
13
history, I now believe that it is sufficiently well rounded to serve as the sole
sourcebook in a course on Chinese history or civilization. To bring attention to the
change in the focus of this book, I decided to change the title as well, to Chinese
Civilization: A Sourcebook.
Several people have helped me prepare this new edition. My colleagues Kai-wing
Chow, Peter Gregory, and Kenneth Klinker offered advice on new selections. Chiuyueh Lai did the conversions from Wade-Giles to pinyin romanization. She and
Chunyu Wang each translated one of the new pieces. Susan Harum helped with the
final preparation of the manuscript. Two scholars at other universities generously
provided translations in areas of their expertise, David Keightley of the University of
California at Berkeley and Ruth Dunnell of Kenyon College. The remainder of the
new translations I did myself.
P.B.E.
September 1992
14
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION
This sourcebook came into being because of my belief that listening to what the
Chinese themselves have had to say is the best way to learn about China. In teaching
Chinese history and culture, however, I found that available translations were of
limited use for the kinds of questions students were asking: How different were
ordinary Chinese from ordinary Westerners? Did their different religions or
philosophies lead to major differences in daily life? Did the Chinese have the same
kinds of personal, social, and political problems as we do, or different ones? To help
students find answers to these questions, I had to search for sources that could tell us
more about the lives, outlooks, and habits of the full range of the Chinese population,
not merely philosophers and scholars, but also women, peasants, townsmen, and
undistinguished local officials. Since such people seldom wrote essays or
autobiographies, I had to look for different kinds of sources—folk songs, plays, moral
primers, descriptions, contracts, newspaper articles, and so on.
My efforts to make a sourcebook out of this material could never have succeeded
without the generous help of others. Acknowledgment for funding must be made to
the National Endowment for the Humanities for an Education Project Grant. This
grant allowed me to employ several graduate-student research assistants. Jane Chen,
Lucie Clark, Mark Coyle, Nancy Gibbs, Lily Hwa, Jeh-hang Lai, Barbara Matthies,
and Clara Yu helped prepare, correct, and polish the translations in this book.
Although all the translations we did are attributed to specific translators, they are in
fact joint efforts, since in all cases either I as editor or one of the assistants extensively
revised the translation to improve accuracy or style. Clara Yu’s contribution to this
book deserves particular note; she worked with me from the inception of the project to
its completion and is responsible for thirty of the eighty-nine selections.
Over the past five years, I have also regularly profited from the advice and criticisms
of colleagues. Robert Crawford and Howard Wechsler helped test the translations in
courses at the University of Illinois. Several other faculty members at Illinois have
been ready to answer my questions on subjects about which they knew more than I,
including Richard Chang, Lloyd Eastman, James Hart, Richard Kraus, Whalen Lai,
and William MacDonald. I have also benefited greatly from the reactions and
suggestions of professors at other colleges who saw earlier versions of this
sourcebook in whole or part. These include Suzanne Barnett (University of Puget
Sound), David Buck (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee), Parks Coble (University
of Nebraska), Wolfram Eber-hard (University of California, Berkeley), Edward
Farmer (University of Minnesota), Charlotte Furth (California State University at
Long Beach), Peter Golas (University of Denver), John Langlois (Bowdoin College),
15
Susan Mann Jones (University of Chicago), Susan Naquin (University of
Pennsylvania), John Meskill (Barnard College), Keith Schoppa (Valparaiso
University), Jonathan Spence (Yale University), Philip West (Indiana University), and
Arthur Wolf (Stanford University).
Finally, I was fortunate to have excellent clerical assistance from Mary Mann …
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