Expert answer:FP8740 Capella University Human Resource Developme

  

Solved by verified expert:Analyze the information provided in a case study and write a five-to-six-page paper outlining your recommendations for a training program.For this assessment, you will analyze the information provided in a case study and write a five-to-six-page professional assessment of a training program, including ethical and fairness issues, types of training intervention that might be necessary, and methods to explore training issues and monitor effectiveness of a training program.Required ResourcesClark, R., Kimbell, J., Philpot, D. & Terry, N. (2016). Hazing and bullying in the NFL. Journal of Business Cases and Applications (16), 1–19. Retrieved from http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/162510.pdf. This case study will be used to complete Assessment 3, Human Resource Development and Training. Read it critically and take careful notes so you can relate the case details to the concepts of this assessment.Overview and DeliverableAn I-O psychology practitioner working with HRM will need to work within the context of various restrictions and regulations, which may be either organization-specific or industry-specific or both. Regardless of the regulations, an I-O psychology practitioner must be able to recommend effective strategies that comply with legal restrictions and regulations, as well as with the internal rules and policies of each particular organization.Imagine you are an I-O psychologist who has been hired to advise the HR leader in the case study, “Hazing and Bullying in the NFL.” Even if employees are the primary source of discrimination, the employer is accountable if condoning behavior that facilitates a hostile work environment. Let’s suppose that in your conversations with the HR leader, you both agree that a training program will be an effective tool with respect to modifying the NFL culture of hazing and bullying. You will write a write a report that lays out the training needs and gaps, issues, and what the training intends to achieve. Your report should also include components you believe this training needs to include and how its effectiveness will be measured over time.RequirementsUsing the case study, “Hazing and Bullying in the NFL,” write a professional assessment in which you:Analyze the ethical or fairness issues presented by the training program in the case study.Analyze important points from what you learned from the employee interviews, to determine what type of training intervention might be appropriate.Analyze a method you would use to further explore the training issues facing your chosen employee or position. What methods of job analysis might you use? Why are they appropriate? Discuss the underlying issues and the models that help you interpret them.Analyze a method you would employ, such as the Kirkpatrick Training Evaluation model, to monitor the short- and long-term effectiveness of the training program. Reference and apply an I-O psychology training evaluation.Additional RequirementsWritten Communication: Written communication should be free of errors that detract from the overall message.APA Formatting: Resources and in-text citations should be formatted according to current APA style and formatting.Length: 5–6 pages in content length. Include a separate title page and a separate references page.Font and Font Size: Times New Roman, 12-point, double-spaced.Number of Resources: 8–10 peer-reviewed resources.Required ResourcesClark, R., Kimbell, J., Philpot, D. & Terry, N. (2016). Hazing and bullying in the NFL. Journal of Business Cases and Applications (16), 1–19. Retrieved from http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/162510.pdf. This case study will be used to complete Assessment 3, Human Resource Development and Training. Read it critically and take careful notes so you can relate the case details to the concepts of this assessment.Suggested ResourcesConnections Between HR and Job PerformanceMcDermott, A. M., Conway, E., Rousseau, D. M., & Flood, P. C. (2013). Promoting effective psychological contracts through leadership: The missing link between HR strategy and performance. Human Resource Management, 52(2), 289–310.Abernathy, W. B. (2011). An analysis of the effects of selected management practices on organizational productivity and performance. Performance Improvement, 50(6), 39–47.Training and Job SatisfactionJodlbauer, S., Selenko, E., Batinic, B., & Stiglbauer, B. (2012). The relationship between job dissatisfaction and training transfer. International Journal of Training & Development, 16(1), 39–53.
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Journal of Business Cases and Applications
Volume 16
Hazing and bullying in the NFL
Robin Clark
West Texas A&M University
Joanna Kimbell
West Texas A&M University
Denise Philpot
West Texas A&M University
Neil Terry
West Texas A&M University
ABSTRACT
Employee interpersonal relationships vary across work environments. Acceptable actions
in one organization might not follow the social norms in an alternative organization. This case
will focus on the work environment in the National Football League (NFL) by exploring
accusations of employee bullying and abuse from the Miami Dolphins locker room in 2013. The
case explores the theoretical foundation of employer, employee, and customer discrimination
within the practical application of the associated legal responsibilities of the major case
stakeholders. The case is designed for use upper-division undergraduate courses in employment
law, labor economics, or human resource management
Keywords: Bullying, Employee Discrimination, Employment Law, Hazing, National Football
League
Copyright statement: Authors retain the copyright to the manuscripts published in AABRI
journals. Please see the AABRI Copyright Policy at http://www.aabri.com/copyright.html
Hazing and bullying, Page 1
Journal of Business Cases and Applications
Volume 16
INTRODUCTION
Jeff Ireland looks out at the empty practice field and reflects on his history of being
involved with the culture of football. Now in his fifth year as general manager of the Miami
Dolphins, he began his football initiation as a childhood ball boy with the Chicago Bears. After
a successful high school career in the football hotbed of Texas, Jeff moved on to play college
ball at Baylor University. Before joining the Dolphins, his professional experience included
successful scouting appointments with the Kansas City Chiefs and Dallas Cowboys. The
departure of a starting offensive lineman in the NFL for emotional issues based on an accusation
of hazing and bullying by other veteran lineman is not a situation Ireland can recall at any level
of football. After a day of sports talk tales of out-of-control hazing in the Dolphins locker room,
the players union released a statement clarifying an expectation that players, coaches, club
owners, and executives should follow standards for appropriate professionalism and safety in the
workplace. Jeff hopes to move the team focus back on the field and away from the locker room
drama once and he concludes meetings with several players.
The case is designed to apply critical thinking and ethical issues in employment law,
labor economics, or human resource management courses. The discussion of the case begins
with a brief narrative about the National Football League. The second section explores the
theoretical background of hazing and bullying in the workplace. The third section puts forth key
issues from the perspective of various case stakeholders. The fourth section provides a
theoretical background for the sources of discrimination. The next two sections offer case
questions for class discussion followed by a brief analysis of the case questions. The final section
puts forth a case epilogue.
THE NFL: POPULARITY AND CHALLENGE
One billion in sponsorship revenue, one billion for satellite broadcast via DirecTV, and
approximately five billion in broadcast television rights. Add in ticket revenue and the National
Football League (NFL) generates over $10 billion a year in revenue. In fact, Commissioner
Goodell has publicly stated that he expects revenue to reach $25 billion by the year 2027
(Ejiochi, 2014). Several factors influence the popularity of the league. First, football is the most
popular team combat sport in the United States. Despite the physical nature of football, it is easy
to modify the rules of contact in a range of simple touch to full tackle. Hence, many children
play the sport at a young age and continue through adulthood. Second, high definition television
has made the NFL experience very accessible on the small screen. In fact, camera angles and
replay might make the television experience superior to the stadium experience. Third, fantasy
football and gambling are extremely popular indirect facilitators of the sport. Gambling and the
point spread have always been an important part of the professional football world but the rise of
fantasy sports activity and gaming continues to grow in popularity. Some fans follow players on
their fantasy team closer than the traditional local team. Fourth, the brief regular season schedule
of 16 games versus 162 in baseball or 82 in basketball helps focus fan interest and makes every
game a relatively significant entertainment event.
Although football has never been more popular, the sport faces future environmental
challenges. First, the potential of head trauma, or chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE),
continues to rise as an issue. The high-profile suicide case of a Hall of Fame player, Junior Seau,
Hazing and bullying, Page 2
Journal of Business Cases and Applications
Volume 16
combined with a $765 million NFL settlement with former players has kept the potential danger
of playing football in the headlines (Wilson, 2013). On the one hand, football fans recognize the
combat nature of the sport and continue to watch in record numbers. On the other hand, there
continues to be an increasing number of parents with reservations about allowing children to play
the game with full contact. Second, violence and arrest off the field have become an offseason
challenge. The combination of murder (e.g., Aaron Hernandez), animal abuse (e.g., Michael
Vick), and domestic assault (e.g., Ray Rice and Greg Hardy) decreases the connection between
the general public and players. Third, the use of performance-enhancing drugs and human
growth hormone are not encouraged but not aggressively discouraged in football. Players caught
violating the substance policy are suspended but the general attitude of the fans is somewhat
apathetic compared to other sports such as baseball, boxing, or cycling. If fans do not care about
the use of banned substances, football players are at risk of simply being a collection of helmets
and jerseys that entertain.
BACKGROUND: HAZING AND BULLYING IN THE WORKPLACE
Incidents of workplace aggression have been documented for a long time, dating back well
before the game of professional football. Bullying, the most severe form of workplace
aggression, is generally defined as intentional/deliberate, causes harm (emotional and/or
physical), is repeated over time and can include social exclusion and behaviors that negatively
affect the victim’s work tasks (Ritzman, 2016). It is not surprising that a common characteristic
of bully-prone industries is one where employees tend to be high achievers and perfectionists
that cannot tolerate mistakes made by others (Wilkie, 2016). Researchers have examined the
behavior of bullies as well as the responses of their victims. The perpetrators of workplace
bullying are often in a position of power over the victim, whether it be in a supervisory role or
simply higher in the hierarchical structure (Northouse, 2016). When asking observers about
reported bullying behavior, their different perceptions of the event make investigations difficult
to conduct.
When assessing a level of significance to the types of workplace aggression, physical
assaults are perceived as very serious while verbal assaults have a much wider interpretation in
terms of their intent and level of harm. Reactions to bullying by the victim range from
forgiveness to revenge (Howard and Wech, 2016). It is fairly common for the victim to leave the
organization as the most permanent solution for terminating their relationship with a toxic work
environment. Employer responses to bullying include doing nothing (the lowest level of
response), discussing the behaviors with both parties, sanctioning or transferring (viewed as one
way of adjusting the workplace dynamics) the aggressor, or at the highest level – termination of
the perpetrator (protecting the victim).
Bullies are often unaware that they are perceived as bullies (Wilkie, 2016). In their mind,
they are helping to motivate peers or simply treating the victim or recipient of their special
attention as one of the group. It is not unusual for the bully to see their behavior as necessary to
create an atmosphere where everyone gets hazed as a rite of passage into the group or team.
From their perspective, it helps to create the sense of commitment to the common cause and a
feeling of loyalty to the group/team. Sports locker rooms are especially vulnerable to this type of
atmosphere with behaviors that would not be tolerated in other work environments. Fans expect
their football teams, like gladiators, to be mentally tough, physically strong, and ultimately
Hazing and bullying, Page 3
Journal of Business Cases and Applications
Volume 16
winners. While bullying cannot be openly condoned, it does not seem to elicit the same strong
negative reaction from fans of professional sports that one would expect if the situation were
being reported about their child on a pee wee football team. What has been reported in the media
about behaviors in professional football locker rooms would be perceived as highly unacceptable
in other environments, where teamwork is essential, such as an operating room or fire station.
Currently, there are no federal or state laws that specifically prohibit bullying in the
workplace; including a workplace of professional football teams, the locker room. Although no
legislation expressly targets workplace bullying, franchises and players may still be legally liable
for the hazing and bullying of players and other members of the franchise. One source of liability
for a franchise is Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. According to guidance adopted by the
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), Title VII prohibits the harassment of
employees when the harassment relates to the employee’s race, color, religion, sex, or national
origin, and where 1) enduring the harassment becomes a condition of continued employment, or
2) the conduct is severe or pervasive enough to create a hostile work environment. Examples of
behavior that may create a hostile work environment are offensive jokes, slurs, name-calling,
physical assaults or threats, intimidation, ridicule or mockery, insults and put-downs; all of
which can be considered bullying as well as harassment. To be unlawful under these antidiscrimination statutes, the bully’s conduct must be more than just minor insults, aggravations, or
annoyances; the conduct must create a work environment that is intimidating, hostile or offensive
to reasonable people (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2016). In addition to
Title VII, states have their own version of anti-discrimination laws that prohibit harassment of
protected employees. Under anti-discrimination laws, the employer’s liability for an employee’s
harassment of another employee depends on whether the employer knew, or should have known
about the harassment and failed to take corrective action.
Even if workplace bullying is not unlawful under anti-discrimination laws because the
bullying is directed at an employee who is not protected against discrimination, the bullied
employee may file a civil lawsuit for the tort of intentional infliction of emotional distress or
negligent supervision. Generally, the tort of intentional infliction of emotional distress involves
some kind of behavior that is so awful that it causes emotional trauma. Courts have held that
workplace bullying can be considered a form of intentional infliction of emotional distress,
depending on the circumstances. “To prove a case of intentional infliction of emotional distress,
the affected employee must prove that 1) the bully acted intentionally or recklessly; 2) the
bully’s conduct was extreme and outrageous; 3) the bully’s conduct must be the cause 4) of
severe emotional distress, and if the employee is suing the employer, 5) the employer was
responsible for the bully’s conduct” (Restatement of Torts Section 46, 1965). An employer may
be held to be responsible for a bully’s conduct if the bully was acting within the course and scope
of his or her employment, the employer failed to address complaints filed by the injured
employee about the bully’s conduct, or the bully held an important position in the workplace so
that the bully’s actions may be vicariously attributable to the employer. An emotionally injured
employee may also claim that his or her employer is liable for the employee’s trauma arising
from the bullying because the employer failed to use reasonable care in controlling or monitoring
the bully. This theory of liability arises under the tort of negligent supervision.
Hazing and bullying, Page 4
Journal of Business Cases and Applications
Volume 16
THE MIAMI DOLPHINS, RICHIE INCOGNITO, AND JONATHAN MARTIN
Since joining the Miami Dolphins as General Manager at the end of the 2007 season, Jeff
Ireland had orchestrated an impressive turnaround. The once floundering Miami Dolphins had a
combined 25 -24 record in Ireland’s first three years with the team and had captured the AFC
East title. Owner Steve Ross was pleased with Ireland’s progress and looked forward to more as
Ireland signed a multi-year contract extension in 2011 (NFL Wire Reports, 2011). The focus
moving forward after the Ireland extension was upgrading the coaching staff. The first step in the
effort to upgrade the coaching staff was hiring a new Head Coach: Joe Philbin. A former
offensive coordinator with the Packers, Philbin joined the Miami Dolphins as Head Coach in
2012. He brought 28 years of coaching experience to the job. His expertise with offense seemed
a good fit for the Dolphins; a strong offense was what Miami needed (NFL Wire Reports, 2012).
In his early days on the job Coach Philbin promised reporters, “You’re going to see a team that’s
tough physically and mentally and a team that plays the game the right way” (Kent, 2012).
Head Coach Philbin brought in a fresh new coaching staff for the offensive line,
including Offensive Line Coach Jim Turner. Jim Turner joined the Miami Dolphins coaching
staff at the recommendation and urging of Miami Offensive Coordinator Mike Sherman, who
Turner had coached Offensive line for at Texas A&M University. Turner had previously worked
with Head Coach Philbin too, at Northeastern University. Though best known for his experience
coaching offensive line, Turner’s career background had patches of diversity. He had also
coached defensive line, worked as a player/coach for pro team Kent Rams in London, England,
and he served four years in United States Marine Corp as a lieutenant in the infantry. “As far as
being a football coach and preparing to be a football coach, I do not think there is any greater
experience that I have had in my life than my four years in the Marine Corps,” Turner said in an
interview for the Miami Dolphins website (Kent, 2012). Turner’s experience in the military
impacted his coaching philosophy: “I know from my time in the Marine Corps as a lieutenant
and my time as a coach, the more time you spend being wordy with things like [philosophy] the
more difficult they become. So I just try and keep it simple and really it is … In football you play
hard, you play physical and you play smart and it is that simple” (Kent, 2012).
The Dolphins already had some building blocks for a great offensive line, starters brought
to the team by Jeff Ireland. One of those building blocks, a lineman picked up through free
agency in 2010, lived to play hard, aggressive, physical football – Richie Incognito.
Unfortunately for his past teammates and his own career, Incognito did not always play a clean
game. At his last NFL team Incognito had earned the title Dirtiest Player in the NFL (Darlington,
2012). Incognito had always played a hard game, even as a child. That was the game he knew.
Incognito’s father, a blue-collar worker and Vietnam veteran, had raised his son to be tough.
“You don’t take no s— from anyone. If you ever let anyone give you s— now, you’re going to
take s— your entire life,” Richie Senior once told his son (Darlington, 2012). Incognito took that
lesson to heart and carried it onto the football field. In college, Incognito’s attitude made him a
liability for the team. His college football career at the University of Nebraska ended in
suspension, a result of numerous fights he had with teammates, opponents, and random students
(Darlington, 2012).
The start of his pro career brought Incognito more evidence that though he played well,
he was not playing right. An offensive lineman taking an aggressive play too far picks up
penalties, and that hurts the team. Incognito committed 38 penalties and drew more flags for
Hazing and bullying, Page 5
Journal of Business Cases and Applications
Volume 16
unnecessary roughness than any other player in the league during the 2006-2009 years with the
Rams (Biggane, 2012). In one 2009 game, Incognito committed 2 personal fouls and the NFL
imposed a $50,000 fine. The Rams responded by cutting Incognito from the team (Darlington,
2012). That seemed to be the end of Incognito’s NFL career. The Buffalo Bills did pick him up
on the waiver wire but dropped him when the season ended. Incognito took a hard look in the
mirror and admitted that he did not like what he found. Incognito decided it was time to change.
He began attending regular therapy sessions and started a prescribed regime of the antidepressant Paxil (Darlington, 2012).
Then the news came: Incognito would get another chance in the NFL. In 2010, the Miami
Dolphins threw him a career changing opportunity – a starter position on the offensive line. Once
in the Miami locker room he took action, finding fellow Dolphin Ricky Williams, a man
recognized as a spiritual seeker, and asking for advice on meditation and relaxation techniques.
The reformed Incognito embraced the philosophy of the Miami Dolphins coaching staff. Miami
made it very clear, “We want you to be you. We want you to get out there and get after people.
That is why we brought you in,” Incognito reported (Darlington, 2012). At the same time,
Incognito knew that the very traits that made him an asset on the field would make him a liability
if he picked up penalties that hurt the team.
Incognito was voted into the 2012 Pro Bowl by his peers. Local media also awarded him
the Good Guy award along with Reggie Bush in recognition for being the Dolphin’s most
cooperative player. Incognito marked his successful transformation with a new tattoo. The
phoenix tattoo, a black ink piece covering much of the outside portion of Incognito’s lower left
arm, symbolizes what he sees as his personal rebirth, recreated from his own ashes and rising up
newer and stronger (Darlington, 2012).
Coming off a great 2012, Incognito could not wait for the start of the Dolphin’s 2013
season. The rest of the team looked to the future too, and General Manager Jeff Ireland gave
them more reason to think the future would be bright. In the second round of the NFL draft, the
Miami Dolphins picked up offensive lineman Johnathan Martin, a standout left tackle from
Stanford University (Kaufman, 2013).
Johnathan Martin, nicknamed Moose at Stanford for his formidable size, did not fit the
mold of the typical professional football player. He had studied ancient Greek and Roman
classics at Stanford. Had he accepted an offer to attend Harvard, Jonathan Martin would have
followed in the footsteps of three previous generations of his family at the Ivy League school.
But Martin did not want Harvard; he wanted to play at Stanford, where he believed he would
have a better chance at making it into the NFL (Kaufman, 2013).
The idea of using college to build …
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