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Expert answer:Excelsior College Essays for A Leadership/Manageme - Ray writers

Solved by verified expert:The final integrated paper will probably be 4,500-6,000 words. Note that it is due on Wednesday 12june. You cannot simply insert minor changes to the original papers. Each draft section must be thoroughly revised and rewritten to incorporate the feedback provided as well as additional scholarly sources necessary to fully support your thesis. Your revised work must reflect clear evidence of improved research, writing, analysis, synthesis, and argument development skills.Begin your document by drafting a working thesis for your final paper. Be prepared to edit after you’ve completed all sections of the final paper. Leave your introduction section empty for now. (As E.M. Forster said, “How do I know what I think until I see what I say?”)Copy/paste in your revised/rewritten Literature Review. Your revised work must present a comprehensive overview of the contemporary research studies and other recent scholarly articles examining the topic approved by your instructor (a minimum of 7-9 relevant scholarly articles in this final version). If appropriate, your review may also include a limited number of discipline-specific reports from industry or government agencies. When using industry-related sources, be mindful of the potential bias involved and examine that in your review. Include additional scholarly sources as needed with appropriate citations. We expect you to expand the sources from your original Literature Review with other peer-reviewed sources specific to diversity and ethics.Draft a transition to move the reader from your Literature Review to your Diversity and Ethics section. Be sure you state the problem you are examining and its significance.Copy/paste in your revised/rewritten Diversity and Ethics paper. Be sure you touch on all the required elements of that scaffold step, but be prepared to move the information around. Possibly some of what you wrote will work better in the introductory or concluding sections of the final paper, and that’s fine, so long as it’s covered! The resulting section will summarize who’s affected by the problem, key differences found in your examination of multiple perspectives, and the significance of such differences. Draft a transition to move the reader from your Diversity and Ethics section to your final section.Write a final, new section in which you advocate the most equitable solution to the problem examined. Draw upon the scholarly sources in your previous sections to substantiate your position. If necessary, provide further support with government reports and studies as well as non-governmental organizational reports and studies.Based on the work you’ve developed thus far, review and revise your working thesis.Draft a comprehensive introduction for your paper. Your original Research Proposal could be helpful here.Draft a conclusion that fully wraps up all themes and ideas presented in all the sections.Draft an Abstract that provides a preview of the entire paper in about a paragraph.Build your comprehensive reference list in correct APA format.The result of these steps should be a very rough draft of your final paper. As you further revise and refine it, keep in mind this basic framework that your final submission should follow:The final submission you work on and submit on the final Wednesday should follow this basic framework:AbstractIntroduction (250-300 words)Provide overview with significance of the issue related to field of studyLiterature Review (1,000-1,500 words)Build upon Scaffold Step #3Conclude this section with concise statement of the problem based upon the literatureDiversity & EthicsCultural perspectives & inequities (1,000-1,200 words)Analyze competing entities including disenfranchised/vulnerable groupsAddress issues such as ingroup favoritism, intergroup bias, etc. Integrate Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory in analyzing perspectivesSummarize cultural perspectives and perceived inequitiesEthical implications (1,000-1,200 words)Analyze decision making and actions, social responsibility, applying specific ethical theoriesIdentify possible pathways to equitable solutionsSummarize compelling ethical issuesProposed solution (1,000-1,500 words)Advocate most equitable, ethical solution to meet needs of vulnerable, disenfranchisedDraw upon scholarly sources & previous sections to substantiate positionProvide further support with government reports & studies, NGO reports & studiesConclusion (250-300 words)Reference listCompose your work in a .doc or .docx file type using a word processor (such as Microsoft Word, etc.) and save it frequently to your computer. For those assignments that are not written essays and require uploading images or PowerPoint slides, please follow uploading guidelines provided by your instructor.


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The Effects Diversity and Ethic has on Productivity and Leadership
Sergio Venegas
June 8, 2019
The Effects Diversity and Ethic has on Productivity and Leadership.
The global markets thrive on profit resulting from productivity. There are many factors
that influence productivity, and diversity and ethics both factor into the productivity equation.
There are both positive and negative effects of diversity and ethics in the workforce and
workplace. This essay will examine the effects diversity and ethics has on the productivity of
both military personnel and millennials in the workplace. This essay will also analyze how these
two groups have historically been and currently impacted by diversity and ethical policies,
decisions, and actions of others.
What is diversity and why is it so important in the workforce? Diversity enables access
to more talented workforces, employees that brings a lot of different skills and talent. Diversity
provides insight into a larger pool of information that can lead to increased productivity.
Employees from various parts of the world have diverse cultures and can provide a better
understanding in a matter pertaining to their demographics. From example, an American Soldier
of Middle Eastern descent can better aid his unit’s understanding and planning for operations in
the region where the Soldier has firsthand knowledge. In the workforce diversity can affect
productivity in both positive and negative ways, which can depend on the leadership and the
Diversity is the difference in humanity, from culture, religion, race, ethnicity, gender,
sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, age, physical abilities, political beliefs, or other
ideologies. Both leaders and employees need to have the mental conscientious of knowing
people are different and acknowledging that the differences are ok. On the opposite side of the
diversity token, people must understand the possibility of biases, conscience or unconscious.
Leaders and employees need to understand the concepts of diversity to achieve greater
productivity. The concepts of diversity include the acceptance and respect of one another’s
differences. Everyone in the workforce needs to understand the unique qualities of their fellow
coworkers. Leaders need to have an environment that fosters a safe and positive atmosphere that
appreciate the differences of their workforce.
Diversity in the workplace can be difficult to manage and comes with inherited problems.
Diversity most often causes problems in convergent process, when the company needs to be on
the same sheet of paper. Diversity tends to cause communication and integration issues. People
from various cultures fail to understand or communicate effectively with their coworkers. The
culture of employees may result in diverse ways to work and potentially increase conflict in the
workplace (Kamal, 2009).
Diversity in the Military
In the military, it is common to see a diversity of cultures, genders, age, and experience
forced to work towards a common goal. The United States Army invests in diversity training for
both Soldiers and Leaders to improve productivity. The US Army also has policies to address
the conduct of its personnel as it pertains to diversity, to what some say is example for society to
follow. The US Army is considering a melting pot of diversity and therefore it is important to
have policies to address diversity to prevent issues arising from diversity. As we continue to
expand the knowledge and understanding of the diversity within our ranks, not only will our
strength, versatility, and efficiency be amplified, but we will be more effective in understanding
the cultures and environments where we serve. We expect all leaders to develop and maintain an
inclusive environment that will sustain the Army as a relevant and ready Force, Army Policy on
The US Army understands the climate of the nation’s diverse population and workforce,
which is why the US Army has dedicated Diversity Office. The US Army’s Diversity Office
understand the US population has a wide diversity and is the US Army’s talent pool for recruits.
Understand the potential negative impacts, the US Army has determined the best practice is to
train and educate the workforce prior, during and after predetermined times in an effect to reduce
conflict and improve productivity.
Whether it’s Maslow’s hierarchy of needs or Hertzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory,
Soldiers need to know that promotions and awards will be a direct result of performance and
productivity and not biases of favoritism from leaders. Evidence suggests productivity can be
based by whether individual motivators are being met, and that is not necessarily all about
money (Gaskell, 2016). The military pay chart is a good sign that Soldiers do not serve for the
money, so the motivating factors are not monetary as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs outlines.
Knowing and understanding the hygiene and maintenance factors of a Soldier may result in an
employee’s desire to work less if not present. Motivating factors will encourage an employee to
work harder if these factors are meet. Motivating factors are promotion, responsibility, and
recognition. Unfavorable or poor work conditions, low salary and an unhealthy relationship with
the employee’s boss are examples of bad work hygiene that may lead to lack of productivity.
Millennials in the Workplace
Another vulnerable group in the workplace are Millennials. According to Pew Research
Center, Millennials are people generally born between 1981 and 1996, and according to the US
Chamber of Commerce Foundation, Millennials are the most studied generation in history. With
all the research gathered on Millennials, the media generally claims they are another globally
disenfranchised group in the workplace. The perception of Millennials in the workplace are
mostly negative, entitled, lazy, and with little loyalty. By 2020, Millennials will be 50 percent of
the US workforce, according to the US Bureau of Labor Statics. About 21 percent of Millennials
are reported to switch jobs in 2017 and 60 percent are open to a different opportunity at a
turnover cost of $30.5 billion to the US economy annually (,2018). An astonishing 71 percent of
Millennials are not involved at work, while 44% say they would be more involved if their
manager would hold regular meetings. 69 percent of Millennial employees that believe their
senior management as diverse will see their working environment as motivating and stimulating
versus 43 percent who do not perceive leadership as diverse (Gartner Research, 2018).
To say Millennials cannot be productivity is incorrect. Leaders must learn the motivation
factors, possibly using Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and apply this theory to Millennials in the
same manner as other generations in the workplace. Millennials also have a hierarchy of needs
can be used to generate productivity in the workplace. When Millennials believe their company
or organization has a high trust culture, they are more than 22 times more likely to want to work
there for a longer time. Companies where the manager show sincere interest in Millennials as
people, the organization sees an eight times improvement in agility and seven times increase in
innovation. The biggest motivator for Millennial seems to be money. When surveyed, 92
percent of Millennial said the top priorities when looking for a job is money and great people
was only 80 percent (Gartner Research, 2018).
Hofstede’s Culture Dimensions
The Hofstede’s culture dimensions are a tool to analyze the diverse in culture
perspectives within militaries from different countries and generational gaps, such as
Millennials. In the US Army, culture skills are a means to execute a mission. The US Army
strives to have a cultural astute force capable of global engagement. The US Army’s strategy
outcome is to enhance cultural competencies to achieve a single Army culture, because a high
performing organization is one that leverages the total capacity of all its people (US Army
Diversity Office, n.d.). In the western countries, the US military is the gold global standard for
diversity. The United States ended the requirement for military service in 1973,
transitioning to the all-volunteer force. Over 60 countries require some sort of mandatory
military service (World Population Review, 2019). Mandatory service when compared to
voluntary violates Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. If a person is forced to work in a
diverse or non-diverse environment, it will affect the person’s productivity. This is especially
true in Millennials that perform better in a diverse workplace.
However, Hofstede’s culture dimensions are not affective when it comes to analyzing
cultures in an organization, such as the US Army. Hofstede’s Institute for Research on
Intercultural Cooperation (IRIC) has conducted a separate research project in order to study
organizational culture. The IRIC is a better tool to examine whether motivational factors that
encourage an employee to work harder are present. The IRIC can compare similar organizations
like the US Army to the US Air Forces and US Army to Walmart. The IRIC can compare
motivating factors, unfavorable or poor work conditions, low salary and an unhealthy
relationship with the employee’s boss are examples of bad work hygiene that may lead to lack of
Ethics are a vital component in the workplace but what role does ethics play on
productivity. Ethics are a person’s moral standards or their compass for right and wrong.
Companies have ethical rules for conduct to guide employees while at work and in some cases
away from the workplace as well. The term work ethic is viewed as a desirable quality in an
employee but does that effect productivity. The importance of ethical conduct and behavior in
the workplace is a global expectation.
In the US military, it is important to have a strong ethic foundation. A Soldier’s grasp
and understanding of what is considered right and wrong by the US Army helps improve a
positive workplace and environment, which leads to productivity. Millennials can also become
victims of biases from their boss over preferential treatment. The ethic issues in addressing the
potential problems in productivity are important to identify and understand early to prevent
issues that could prove more difficult to address later.
Despite current global economic growth, expansion and opportunity, Millennials and are
expressing uneasiness and pessimism about their careers, their lives and the world around them,
according to Deloitte’s eighth annual Millennial Survey (2018). Millennials have had their work
ethics questioned and are viewed as having little sense of loyalty.
Work ethic is a form of measuring a person’s will to work but does not measure their
productivity. Just because an employee has a hard or strong work ethic does not mean they are
productive. There are studies that show overworked employees tend to make more mistakes and
have increased stress. These mistakes and added stress result in added costs.
The extreme form of unethical abuse of worker is slavery and it is still a global issue. To
combat unethical abuse of workers labor laws and worker unions were established. Demanding
managers, requiring more out of their tired employees is counterproductive. This is something
business first learned a long time ago. In the 19th century, when organized labor first compelled
factory owners to limit workdays to 10 (and then eight) hours, management was surprised to
discover that output actually increased and that expensive mistakes and accidents decreased
(Carmichael, 2015).
From a personal and professional perspective, ethical resources are only valuable if it
improves productivity. Recently the Secretary of the Defense issued a memorandum to
prioritize efforts focused on military readiness and lethality. The purpose of the
memorandum was to dram attention to the purpose of the US military and away from
distractions, such as unneeded training. This policy is not directly connected to ethical
conduct or behavior but indirectly appeals to the Service Member’s hierarchy of needs that
could improve productivity and work ethic.
Labor laws are also highly questionable and created worker’s unions to defend worker
from unethical practices. There are no global standards on ethics in the workforces, which
makes the abuse of employees easier.
Ask how these groups have historically been and currently impacted by policies,
decisions and actions of others
Strategies and Solutions
Evaluate the potential equity of the different strategies and solutions
Accepted concept of increasing productivity to generated or increase profits in business world,
irrelevant of which industry is the standard. Companies have been trying to improve
productivity for decades to increase profit margins. Companies have invested money and
resources into leadership in hopes to improve profits, with hopes that effective productivity
depends on leadership and management.
Different researchers have emphasized the affect of ethical perspectives on different
factors like corporate ethical values, ethical leadership and employee performance (Syverson,
2011). However, there is some evidence that support a positive impact of corporate ethical
values in the workplace has on leadership and employee performance, which can only assume
leads to better productivity. Ethics are important in the workplace to maintain a healthy
workforce, but How does it effect productivity? Can too much ethical involvement reduce
productivity? This is why we must explore the connection ethics has to productivity. The
common trend during the literature review seems to only focus on leadership styles and effects
on employees. Most peer reviewed work is mostly focus on the people and not the results of the
employee’s work. However, a recent Bain & Company comprehensive study of more than 300
senior executives from large companies worldwide on workforce productivity and performance
highlights three fundamental tenets of a productivity mindset. Leadership must recognize: Most
employees want to be productive, but the organization too often gets in their way. The company
has a few talented people are too often put in roles that limit their effectiveness. People have
huge amounts of discretionary energy that they could devote to their work, but many are not
sufficiently inspired to do so (Mankins, 2017).
Aside from this study, there is a lack of information on the effects from leadership on
productivity is a great opportunity for future research. The results from such findings will be
highly sort after by companies and industries seeking greater productivity. Studies and surveys
will allow us to know more about what causes the measured differences in productivity, and how
factors both internal and external to the plant or firm shape the distribution (Syverson, 2011).
In summary, there is an overwhelming about of literature focused on leadership and
management theories but few on the effects on productivity. The disproportionate amount of
information makes the studies of leadership and management easy. Unfortunately, for the
research on the measuring the effective productivity resulting from leadership and management
will be extremely difficult due to the lack of literature and studies.
Ethics and diversity in the workforce are commonplace terms but little to no research on
the direct link to the effects ethics and diversity plays on leaders, managers and employees.
This global topic is a great opportunity for research teams to take on because the findings
will help companies save resources and potentially redirect resources where needed.
In closing, are the investments of resources in leadership and management paying off in
the form of productivity and can there be an established non-subjective metrics to clearly answer
the question.
Carmichael, S. (2015). The Research is Clear Long Hours Backfire for People and for
Companies. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from
Gartner Research. (2018). Millennial Digital Workers Really DO Differ From their Elders.
Gaskell, C. (2016). Just because there are hard workers does not equate to productivity. The
guardian. Retrieved from
Kamal, Y. (2009). Managing Diversity at Workplace: A Case Study of HP. ASU University
Mankins, M. (2017). Great Companies Obsess Over Productivity, Not Efficiency. Harvard
Business Review. Retrieved from
Syverson, C. (2011). What Determines Productivity? Journal of Economic Literature 2011, 49:2,
326–365. Retrieved from
US Army Diversity Office, n.d.
US Army Prioritizing Efforts-Readiness and Lethality
A Case on Effective Productivity Resulting from Leadership and Management.
Sergio Venegas
May 26, 2019
A Case on Effective Productivity Resulting from Leadership and Management.
The global markets thrive on profit resulting from productivity. The accepted concept of
increasing productivity to generated or increase profits in business world, irrelevant of which
industry is the standard. Companies have been trying to improve productivity for decades to
increase profit margins. Companies have invested money and resources into leadership in hopes
to improve profits, with hopes that effective productivity depends on leadership and
However, there have been studies conducted and articles written about leadership, but
little on the effects on productivity resulting from leadership of management. Should companies
invest so many resources into the development of leadership and management? The focus of this
literature review is on the significance leadership and management has on productivity on a
global scale. Are the investments in leadership and management paying off in the form of
productivity and can there be established non-subjective metrics to clearly answer the question.
The literature review’s structured is in a logical format to highlight themes and trends.
First, identifying the key components. Second, outlining the relationship between management
and employees. Third, providing information of what effects relationships in the workforce have
on productivity. The different effects cultures and diversity have on leadership, management,
employees, and how those correlations have on productivity.
Leadership and Management
Leadership and management are usually synonymous in the workforce, for the
purpose of this paper these terms will be interchangeable with no differentiation. Managerial
roles or positions of authority in the workforce and often considered desirable. Kimberlee
Leonard wrote …
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