Expert answer:EDU696 Ashford Learning and Innovation Skills & St


Solved by verified expert:Week 3 – AssignmentLearning and Innovation Skills and Student AssessmentThis assignment requires you to make connections between high-quality assessment and learning and innovation skills. Additionally, using the Framework for 21st Century learning (Links to an external site.) as a resource, you will redesign or modify a prior activity from one of your courses in the master’s program. There are several approaches you could take with this assignment. For example, you may redesign an instructional plan with assessment plans embedded throughout or a full assessment plan including a summative assessment you may have constructed. These are just two ideas out of numerous possibilities. If you do not have previous work to use for this assignment, please contact your instructor for guidelines on how to proceed. As needed, refer to your program learning outcomes (PLOs) list (MAED, or MASE).NOTE* Before you select the PLO’s you will highlight in this assignment, be sure to read the final assignment for this course to ensure that you will cover each of your programs PLOs adequately.Create your assignment to meet the content and written communication expectations below.Content ExpectationsThe Redesign expectations explain what you are required to do with the prior coursework you choose to redesign. The Summary expectations are for the separate written portion of this assignment.Redesign – Alignment and Mastery (1 Point): Redesign an instructional plan with assessment plans embedded throughout, or a full assessment plan as noted above including a summative assessment that could be selected to include alignment between specific skills, CCSS, and objectives and includes criteria for mastery.Redesign – Learning and Innovation Skills (1 Point): Redesign an instructional plan with assessment plans embedded throughout, or a full assessment plan as noted above including a summative assessment that could be selected to include specific learning and innovation skills (Links to an external site.) from either/each of; creativity and innovation (Links to an external site.), critical thinking and problem solving (Links to an external site.), and/or communication and collaboration (Links to an external site.).Summary – Introduction/Conclusion (1 Point): A one paragraph introduction to a summary that concisely presents the scope and organization of the summary writing, as well as a one paragraph conclusion that recaps your summary’s key points.Summary – Modification (1 Point): In one paragraph summarize the changes you made to your activity to meet the redesign expectations for this assignment. Explicitly state how your redesign assignment provides evidence of mastery of at least two PLO’s from your master’s program.Summary – Evaluation (1 Point): In one paragraph, evaluate how your assessment promotes Learning& Innovation Skills, assess how it could be used as a tool for ongoing evaluation of student progress, and evaluate how it could be used as a guide for teacher and student decision making.Summary – Reflection (1 Point): Summarize, in one paragraph, your experience with the redesign in terms of challenges you encountered and how you overcame those challenges.Written Communication ExpectationsPage Requirement (.5 points): Two to four pages, not including title and references pages.APA Formatting (.5 points): Use APA formatting consistently throughout the assignment.Syntax and Mechanics (.5 points): Display meticulous comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics such as spelling and grammar.Source Requirement (.5 points): References three scholarly sources in addition to the course textbook.All sources on the references page need to be used and cited correctly within the body of the assignment.Links -21st Century –


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Week Three Instructor Guidance
As you were reminded in Week Two, it is a good idea to look ahead to Week Five to
prepare for the group activity – ask questions now in our Ask Your Instructor area if
you are unclear about any of the requirements for the group activity. In Week Two, the
Common Core State Standards (CCSS) were discussed as well as a summary of your
understanding of the foundation of the CCSS in Math and English Language Arts. This
week, one discussions and an assignment are required.
Week Three Intellectual Elaboration
The intellectual elaboration for Week Three explores 21st Century Learning Skills, the
cognitive taxonomy, often referred to as Bloom’s Taxonomy, or the revised Bloom’s
Taxonomy, and the process for creating high quality assessments.
21st Century Learning Skills
The concept of 21st Century Learning Skills recognizes the need for students to think
critically, analyze information, comprehend new ideas, communicate, collaborate, solve
problems, and make decisions. In 1956, a group of educational psychologists, headed
by Benjamin Bloom, created a system that categorized the level of intellection in
assessment questions commonly used in educational settings (Krathwohl 2002; Clark,
1999). Figure 1, below, shows the original taxonomy.
Figure 1. Cognitive Taxonomy (Bloom, 1994)

Evaluate is the ability to make judgments about information, provide for validity on
ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria. It is the ability to debate a subject
and provide evidence for your answer

Synthesis is the “…ability to compile information together to form new patterns or
proposals to alternative solutions” (Krathwohl, 2002, p. 212).
Analysis is process of examining and breaking down information into parts to
identify motives or causes. To make inferences on and find supporting evidence to
support the information.
Application is “… using new knowledge. Solving problems in a new situation by
applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way ”
(Krathwohl, 2002, p. 212).
Comprehension is the basic demonstration of understanding of facts and ideas by
organizing, comparing and translating the information into the main ideas.
Knowledge, the lowest on Bloom’s Taxonomy is the recalling of facts, terms, and
basic concepts to answer questions.
Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning
The cognitive taxonomy has been used by educators to guide curriculum assessment
and development for decades. However, while the levels of thought are still recognized
as valid, 21st Century Skills required a revision of Bloom’s terms and considerations of
how technology influences the assessment of the levels. Essentially, the revisions
require technology skills to be of use in today’s classrooms (Krathwohl, 2002; Clark,
Table 1, below, lists the cognitive level and some verbs commonly associated with
assessment at each level in the traditional and digital realms. For additional inspiration
about designing with the revised taxonomy, see Johnson (2008) or search online where
you can find multiple resources for designing and assessing learning in the digital age
with the cognitive taxonomy.
Traditional Assessment Strategies
Digital Assessment Strategies
designing, constructing, planning,
producing, inventing, devising,
programming, filming, animating,
blogging, mixing, wikiing,
publishing, podcasting
checking, hypothesizing, critiquing,
reviewing, posting, moderating,
experimenting, judging, testing,
collaborating, and networking
detecting, monitoring
comparing, organizing,
deconstructing, attributing,
outlining, finding, structuring,
mashing, linking, tagging,
validating, cracking
implementing, carrying out, using,
running, loading, operating,
uploading, sharing, editing
advanced searches, Boolean
interpreting, summarizing, inferring,
searches, blog journaling,
Understanding paraphrasing, classifying,
twittering, commenting, annotating,
comparing, explaining, exemplifying
Recognizing, listing, describing,
identifying, retrieving, naming,
locating, finding
Bulleting, highlighting,
bookmarking, searching, Googling
Table 1. Comparison of Traditional and Digital Assessment Strategies for
Cognitive Taxonomy; adapted from Krathwohl (2002) and Clark (1999).
Creating High Quality Assessments
Keeping the Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy restructuring in mind, in regards to 21st
Century Skills, one can debate the issue of creating high quality assessments for
today’s students. Many states and school districts across the nation are discussing
student assessments as they move to implement the Common Core State Standards
(CCSS). The Standards focus on an increased need for deeper learning and the
students’ ability to analyze, synthesize, compare, connect critique, hypothesize, prove,
and explain their ideas. Therefore, the question becomes: are assessments still valid
measures of student learning when the CCSS promotes a deeper learning of 21st
Century skills?
Chapter 5 of Brown and Burnaford (2014) includes several articles on the topic of
dynamic curriculum and instruction in the 21st Century. For example in the article by
Boss and Krauss (2007) they discuss the need to include project based learning into the
classroom to support 21st century learning using real world assessments. Additionally,
the Noddings (2013) article discusses the need to create in classrooms the “…concept
for guiding a dynamic approach in the 21st century suggests the critical role of creating
and making in an environment that fosters problem solving and critical thinking” (p.19).
Week Three Assessments Overview
Remember to review the full instructions for each assessment on the Week Three
homepage in addition to the guidance provided here.
Discussion 1 – Creativity and Innovation
Discussion one ask you to think about the concept of the Flipped Classroom; an
instructional approach that brings creativity and innovation to the classroom. A direct
connection will be made between the flipped classroom concept, the Common Core
State Standards, and teacher decision-making based on student assessments. You
also attach a link to your ePortfolio and reflect on your redesign activity from your Week
Two assignment. In this discussion reflect back on the discussion of Common Core
State Standards from week two, discussion one and how the incorporation of
technology was used to enhance instruction. Think about how the concept of the
Flipped Classroom in relationship to the incorporation of technology, assessment and
student learning all intertwine to create a learning experience for diverse learners.
Assignment – Learning and Innovation Skills and Student
This assignment requires you to make connections between high quality assessment
with 21st Century Learning and Innovation Skills. Using the Framework for 21st Century
Learning as a resource, you will redesign or modify a prior activity from one of your
courses in your Master’s program. For this assignment; consider all the discussions you
have had to date about differentiated instruction, diversity, assessment/report cards and
technology. Consider as well the information presented this week in the instructor
guidance about the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning list. You may want to
include in your discussion how this revision of Bloom’s affects students’ assessments
and learning in the classroom.
Bloom, B. S. (1994). Reflections on the development and use of the taxonomy. In
Rehage, Kenneth J.; Anderson, Lorin W.; Sosniak, Lauren A. “Bloom’s taxonomy: A
forty-year retrospective”. Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of
Education. Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education, 93(2).
Boss, S. & Krauss, J. (2007). Mapping the journey: Seeing the big picture.
In Reinventing project based learning: Your field guide to real-world projects in the
digital age. Washington, DC: ISTE.
Brown, T. & Burnaford, G. (2014). Masters in education capstone reader. San Diego,
CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Clark, D. R. (1999). Bloom’s taxonomy of learning domains (Links to an external
site.). Retrieved from
Gerwetz, C. (June, 2013). Experts urge states to stay course on high-quality
assessments (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from
Johnson, L. (2008). Bloom’s taxonomy: Designing activities tutorial (Links to an external
site.) (Flash File). Retrieved from
Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy: An overview. Routledge 41
(4). 212–218.
Noddings, N. (2013). Standardized curriculum and loss of creativity. Theory into
Practice, 52(210), 215.
Required Resources
Burnaford, G., & Brown, T. (2014). Teaching and learning in 21st century learning
environments: A reader. Retrieved from

Chapter 5: Dynamic Curriculum and Instruction in the 21st Century
Prensky, M. (2001, October). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5). 1.

Prensky discusses the difference between digital immigrants (those who acquired
knowledge about technology) and digital natives (those who grew up with
technology). This resource will support student completion of the discussions and
assignment for this week. The full-text version of this article is available through the
EBSCOhost database in the Ashford University Library.
Web Pages
Framework for 21st century learning (Links to an external site.). (n.d.). Retrieved from

This web page presents an all-inclusive view of 21st-century teaching and learning.
It includes a focus on student outcomes and support systems that help students’
master skills they will need in the 21st century. This resource will support student
completion of the discussions and assignment for this week.
Accessibility Statement does not exist.
Privacy Policy does not exist.
Read the standards (Links to an external site.). (n.d.). Retrieved from

This web page provides information on how the standards communicate what is
expected of students at each grade level. The focus of CCSS is on core conceptual
understandings and procedures starting in the early grades, providing teachers a
timeline needed to teach core concepts and allowing each student the time needed
to master the concepts. This resource will support student completion of the
discussions and assignment for this week.
Accessibility Statement does not exist.
Privacy Policy does not exist.
Pathbrite (Links to an external site.). (

This website provides an ePortfolio resource. This resource will support student
completion of the final project, as well as discussions and assignments throughout
the course.
Accessibility Statement does not exist.
Privacy Policy (Links to an external site.)
Supplemental Material
Brame, C., (2013). Flipping the classroom (Links to an external site.). Vanderbilt University
Center for Teaching. Retrieved from

This resource provides information related to the use of technology in the classroom
as well as how the flipped classroom approach takes learning outside of the
classroom for students to experience independently, moving homework help back
into the classroom. This resource will support student completion of the discussions
and assignment for this week.
Accessibility Statement does not exist.
Privacy Policy does not exist.
Recommended Resources
Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every class
every day. International Society for Technology in Education. Retrieved from

Bergmann and Sams discuss how students need their teachers present to answer
questions or to provide help if they get stuck on an assignment; they don’t need their
teachers present to listen to a lecture or review content. This resource will support
student completion of the discussions and assignment for this week.
Gray, A. (2013). Week four, discussion 1: Data analysis practice scenario
Education, Ashford University, San Diego, CA.
. College of

This document was used to inform your Week Four Discussion response for those
that have completed EDU 671 when practicing data analysis and serves as a
reminder to help inform your response to Discussion Two in Week Three of this
Nelson, M. E., (2012). Review of deconstructing digital natives (Links to an external
site.) [Review of the book, Deconstructing digital natives: Young people, technology,
and the new literacies by M. Thomas (Ed.)]. Language, Learning, & Technology, 16(3),
35-39. Retrieved from

Nelson discusses the ideas behind Prensky (2001) and the flipped classroom. The
review discusses the myth, perspectives and beyond digital natives examining the
varied interpretations and significance of Prensky’s ideas. Nelson reports research
that grounds and tests the digital natives/digital immigrants formulation. This
resource will support student completion of the discussions and assignment for this
Web Page
Defining critical thinking (Links to an external site.). (n.d.). Retrieved from

On this web page, critical thinking is defined with specific examples. This resource
will support student completion of the discussions and assignment for this week.
Accessibility Statement does not exist.
Privacy Policy does not exist.
1. The MASE graduate designs appropriate learning experiences for students with exceptionalities that are informed
by diverse cultural experiences and varied patterns of learning and development.
2. The MASE graduate creates a safe, inclusive, culturally responsive environment that cultivates active and effective
learning for students with exceptionalities.
3. The MASE graduate plans cross-disciplinary learning experiences that promote individualized academic and social
abilities, attitudes, values, interests, and career options for students with exceptionalities.
4. The MASE graduate synthesizes results from evidence-based assessments to guide educational decisions for
individuals with exceptionalities.
5. The MASE graduate incorporates cross-disciplinary skills using evidenced-based instructional strategies for
students with exceptionalities.
6. The MASE graduate evaluates special education ethical principles and standards that are driven by the many
aspects of diversity and social justice, which are used to advance the profession.
7. The MASE graduate constructs an action research proposal that addresses local or global issues related to
individuals with exceptionalities.
8. The MASE graduate integrates positive collaborative practices with various stakeholders to address the needs of
students with exceptionalities across a range of learning experiences.
Graduates of Ashford University will be able to:
Demonstrate the ability to read and think critically and creatively;
Demonstrate the ability to communicate effectively in speech and in writing;
Demonstrate the ability to communicate effectively through the use of technology;
Demonstrate an understanding of the various forms of diversity;
Demonstrate an understanding of the interdependence among living beings, the environment and humanlycreated systems;
Demonstrate competence in their major fields of study;
Demonstrate an understanding of service directed at meeting the needs of others;
Demonstrate the ability to draw information from different fields of study to make informed decisions; and
Develop skills and abilities that provide for lifelong learning.
Subtitle and Author
Issues in Research
Theoretical Framework
Text goes here
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Data Source
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