Expert answer:Design bilingual program paper


Solved by verified expert:Imagine that you are working with a group of parents, teachers and/or community members who seek to establish a bilingual education program in a local school or community site. Your task is to design a bilingual program and persuade the school or governing board to adopt it. Keeping in mind García’s argument that bilingual program designs reflect the aspirations and resources of particular societies, start by considering the situational factors – the needs of the imagined local community of your choice (e.g., demographic, linguistic, socioeconomic, sociocultural, and political factors) and present a proposal to operationalize a bilingual language program to meet desired outcomes (e.g., linguistic, academic, and cultural goals).A 5-7-page white paper could be submitted to your imagined audience. The paper should include evidence to support your proposed design. It should include charts or other data representations , as well as narrative evidence, such as quotes from research studies, to back up your claims. The paper should be in 12-point font, 1” margins, double-spaced, and followed by a Reference or Works Cited list (using APA or MLA format). At least three of your six references should be from your own research outside of course content. Please read the instructions and grading rubric carefully, make sure to address that the budget is unlimited and where the bilingual teachers come from. You can say through bilingual certification and screening. Thank you for your help!


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EDS 125
Unit 2: Examining and Developing Bilingual Programs
Part 2: Program Design Project
Imagine that you are working with a group of parents, teachers and/or community members who
seek to establish a bilingual education program in a local school or community site. Your task is
to design a bilingual program and persuade the school or governing board to adopt it. Keeping in
mind García’s argument that bilingual program designs reflect the aspirations and resources of
particular societies, start by considering the situational factors – the needs of the imagined local
community of your choice (e.g., demographic, linguistic, socioeconomic, sociocultural, and
political factors) and present a proposal to operationalize a bilingual language program to meet
desired outcomes (e.g., linguistic, academic, and cultural goals). Refer to García, Ch. 7, for
situational, operational, and outcome factors to help guide you.
The final project has two parts:
1. A presentation that could be presented to an imagined governing board. You will have
five minutes to present this work to a small group of your peers in class, followed by five
minutes of discussion. Please limit your presentation to 10 slides or less. The presentation
should be uploaded to TritonEd before class on Thursday, June 6th. (10 points)
2. A 5-7-page white paper or video that could be submitted to your imagined audience.
The paper or video should include evidence to support your proposed design. It should
include charts or other data representations , as well as narrative evidence, such as quotes
from research studies, to back up your claims. The paper should be in 12-point font, 1”
margins, double-spaced, and followed by a Reference or Works Cited list (using APA or
MLA format). If you create a video, it should be at about 10 minutes long, and you can
add citations as credits at the end. At least three of your six references should be from
your own research outside of course content. The paper or video link should be
uploaded to TritonEd by 11:59 pm on Sunday June 9th, 2019. (20 points)
Your presentation and white paper or video should include the following components:
1. An introduction to the situational factors in the local school context (geographical
location and demographics; language majority/minority groups; initial linguistic position
of children; existing educational programs);
2. A statement of the language, literacy and cultural goals (outcome factors) for the new
3. The rationale for the proposed program model (e.g., theoretical framework, see García,
Ch. 6; goals; type of bilingual education). Include a brief review of 2 successful bilingual
programs that you have learned about through class readings, your own research, or
through the global group presentations. Explain why you believe that these programs are
relevant for the local context and goals and provide evidence to support your claims in
the form of relevant theories AND/OR research findings.
4. Describe a proposed new bilingual program model for consideration that innovates on
or replicates one of the successful models described above. Be sure to address the
following operational factors:
a. How will the languages be allocated (e.g., language arrangement, models of
bilingual/biliteracy pedagogy)? Why?
b. How will families be involved? What community resources might be used?
c. What are requirements for teachers and staff at your proposed site? How will
you recruit and/or prepare teachers? How will you make sure teachers have
sufficient support and time to collaborate?
Here are some resources you may find helpful in addition to the examples linked above.
Suggestions for talking to School Boards
ACLU – Parents’ Guide to School Board Advocacy in Washington
Small Schools Project – 33 Tips for Making Presentations to School Boards
Information on Bilingual Program Effectiveness
1. San Diego County Office of Education (2006): Successful Bilingual Programs in California:
Six Effective Programs (Includes achievement data and case studies)
Type(s) of BE
Breeze Hill Elementary,
Vista USD
Spanish, English
Cahuenga Elementary, Los
Angeles USD
Spanish, Korean, English
Korean/Eng: Dual Language
(some students in tri-lingual
Gascon Elementary,
Montebello USD
Spanish, English
Larsen Elementary,
Hueneme ESD
Spanish, English
Olivewood Elementary,
National SD
Spanish, English
San Fernando Elementary,
Spanish, English
2. San Diego County Office of Education: Dual Language Directory (see School Accountability
Report Cards on school websites for demographics and program effectiveness information)
3. Center of Applied Linguistics Directory of Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Programs in the
United States
4. Education Alliance – Quality Bilingual Education: Defining Success
5. VL2 – Visual Language & Visual Learning Research Brief: ASL/English Bilingual Education
– Models, Methods & Strategies
6. Heritage Language Program Directory (Center for Applied Linguistics; Contains examples of
programs in K-12, University and community-based settings)
7. Programs for Emergent Bilinguals (“Newcomers”): Bridges and Newcomers High School
(New York City) – student oral histories
Short & Boyson (2012) Helping Newcomer Students Succeed in Secondary Schools and Beyond
Center for Applied Linguistics. (Contains case studies of exemplary programs across the US)
8. Global examples by program type:
See García, Chapter 8 (US); 9 (EU); 10 & 11 (Global)
See Global Group Perspectives Investigation presentations by EDS 125 Students
9. San Francisco Studies on Successful Bilingual Programs:
10. Successful Bilingual Program at Sherman Elementary, San Diego:
11. Demographics and school effectiveness
Local, state, national, international: (UCSD Library Guide – Education Statistics)
Bilingual Program
As our world progressively becomes more interconnected by the growing intricacies of
new technologies, the need to communicate with people who speak varying languages is
becoming increasingly imperative. In fact, being bilingual is also growing in the amount of
advantages it holds in being prepared for a global economy. In particular, the United
States and China have the two largest economies in the world, and, thus, speaking both
English and Mandarin boasts countless of benefits both internally and externally, allowing
for increased cognitive “executive function” as well as ample job prospects (Kamenetz).
In this sense, it is important that, as a school system, we educate our students to not only
succeed within an English society, but also be able to thrive in connecting with others
who do not speak English. This is most effectively done in an Mandarin-English
immersion program that targets first and second generation Chinese American students
who will be able to learn their heritage language and culture as well as expand their
worldviews and opportunities in an increasingly diverse society.
Situational Factors
Geographical Location and Demographics
Located in New York City, the Mandarin-English immersion program operates in
one of the most ethnically diverse cities in the United
States. With a population of 44% white, 29% Hispanic,
25% black, and 13% Asian, New York City is also home
to one of the nation’s largest Chinese American
populations with almost 600,000 residents, a number
that has grown 15% between 2010 to 2015. In
particular, the amount of Asian students the school
system in NYC serves is far greater than that of the
national average. The city has also historically been a major port of entry for immigrants
so it follows that 37% of the population is foreign-born, 28% of
which is made up of people born in Asia. Additionally, more
than half of all children in New York City have mothers who
are immigrants. The language majority in New York City is
English while the language minority would be Mandarin.
Despite this, only half of the population speaks only English at
home. The rest of the families largely speak either Spanish (1.8
million), Mandarin (419K), or Indic (200K). However, in the
United States, only 1 in 4 Chinese Americans, despite coming
from a Mandarin speaking home, know how to speak fluent Mandarin (Ryan). As the
immigrant generation becomes older, this number is likely to decrease even more. Thus,
there is a high number of first and second generation Chinese American students who
would be well-suited to attend the immersion program.
Initial Linguistic Position of Children
The immersion program targets Native-English speaking students who are interested
in maintaining their heritage language of Mandarin through immersion. It is expected that
most students will be either first generation Chinese Americans who have parents who
are fluent in Mandarin or, more likely, second generation Chinese Americans who have
parents who are not fluent in Mandarin and grandparents who are fluent. Neither group
has an extensive knowledge of the Chinese language or culture, and begin schooling at
the immersion program as monolingual in just English. In order to properly focus on a
single track of instruction, it is only encouraged for students who are not already fluent in
Mandarin to attend the immersion program from K-8.
Existing Educational Programs
As a school with common goals and in a similar local context, Shuang Wen School
is also a Mandarin-English bilingual program located in New York City. However, the
student population is a generally equal mix of both English Language Learners and native
English speakers. The school believes including students of both backgrounds in the
same classroom allows students to help one another, peer teach their respective native
languages, and fill in language gaps for each other. As part of their multiple background
philosophy, Shuang Wen’s “curriculum establishes an integrated environment that helps
each student achieve the highest level of language proficiency”. This immersion school
has proven to be very effectively as it consistently ranks in the top percent of school in
NYC based on test scores and aims to prepare students to contribute to the global market
by becoming fully bilingual from Pre-K to 8th grade.
Though based in Spanish rather than Mandarin, Amistad School is also a
Kindergarten to 8th grade bilingual program in New York City that serves a majority of
students who are initially fluent in Spanish, though there are also students who are native
English speakers. The school has very small class sizes in order to adequately give
individual attention and unique instruction for students from different language
backgrounds. Amistad highly encourages teachers to have at least three years of
teaching experience and aims for students to graduate with fluency and literacy in both
English and Spanish.
Operational Factors
Language Allocation
Because immersion in the Chinese language and culture requires a majority of
classroom interaction to be in Mandarin, 70% of instruction is in Mandarin and 30% is in
English from Kindergarten to third grade. The pronunciation of Mandarin is very
particular and extremely difficult to learn if the language is not spoken often from a
young age. Thus, the program will put a large emphasis on pronunciation for
Kindergarten students and teaches the language in the same way young children learn
English—by speaking and repeating in different contexts. This is especially important
since many of the children are not exposed to a native Mandarin speaking community
outside of school, so the only influence they receive in terms of proper pronunciation is
from teachers in the classroom. In first through third grade, the curriculum introduces
more Chinese culture topics and shifts focus onto reading and writing in both Mandarin
and English in order to develop full biliteracy. While their social interactions outside of
school are mostly in English, students speak a majority of Mandarin in the classroom
even when instruction is in English in order to practice not only understanding but also
speaking in both casual conversations (with peers) and more formal scenarios (with
teachers). School benchmark tests will also be given in order to assess language fluency
and provide parents with a bimonthly report on their child’s development which helps
involve parents in pinpointing areas in which they can work with their child at home.
These assessments are neither standardized nor uniform school-wide, but are uniquely
developed by each instructor. This is to prevent teachers from constraining their
curriculum to simply achieve high test scores, but instead develop it according to their
specific class’s needs (Milner 744). In fourth through sixth grade, instruction in Mandarin
increases to 80% while instruction in English decreases to 20%. Teachers also begin
using bilingual culminating products as a means of instruction and incorporating
translanguaging as the students become increasingly fluent in both languages (Celic,
Seltzer 57). In seventh and eighth grade, Mandarin instruction increases even more and
English is now taught as a second language. Thus, English instruction is only used in daily
English classes where students learn to read and write formally and analytically as well
as in math classes, where mathematical jargon is learned in order to prepare students for
the transition to English only high schools.
The immersion program uses an 80/20 model that increases in the target language
rather than decrease like most other approaches. The rationale behind this distribution is
that, as students grow older and are involved in more English speaking extracurricular
activities, the need for school to the one place they are exposed to more Mandarin than
English becomes more important. Additionally, because Mandarin is not phonetic, reading
and writing can be especially difficult to maintain as students must essentially memorize
the symbols. Thus, as their daily environment outside of school allows them to practice
English, we increase instruction in Mandarin to balance their language use, without
sacrificing English proficiency as the reading and writing skills as still taught daily in
English class.
Teacher and Staff Requirements
The immersion program requires for teachers to be fully bilingual in Mandarin in
English, regardless of their native language. In particular, every instructor should be able
to read, write, and speak in both languages. It is also mandatory for teachers to have at
least an undergraduate degree in Education, or related field. As a desired skill, teachers
are recommended to have at least two years of experience in teaching, with at least one
year teaching in a bilingual program. It is unlikely that there will be a problem of teacher
shortages in NYC since Mandarin is most spoken language in the world and many of the
large population of Chinese immigrants can also speak mandarin.
Family and Community Involvement
Because parent involvement is shown to have huge benefits in test scores, social
skills, attendance, and graduation rates, parents are highly encouraged to volunteer in
classrooms, set up meetings with teachers, communicate with the principle, and join the
PTA (NEA). In fact, parents are required to sign an agreement at the beginning of the
year, outlining their responsibilities in taking part in their children’s education, including
helping with homework, showing genuine interest in children’s school work, and speaking
Mandarin at home. In order to promote speaking with children in Mandarin in the home
environment, the immersion program offers weekly adult language classes for parents
who are not already fluent in Mandarin. As a way to involve the community in their
education, students are encouraged to volunteer at or participate in events and
environments where the majority of people are native Chinese speakers such as certain
nursing homes, NYC Chinatown, weekend Chinese language schools, and any
opportunities to translate between Mandarin and English. The program holds fundraising
events on Chinese holidays such as Chinese New Years, Dragon Boat Festival, MidAutumn festival that require students, as future global leaders, to take leadership in
organizing and be immersed in Chinese culture all while teaching the community about
Chinese holidays and traditions.
Policies and Legal Requirements
Because the school will follow the Common Core Standards in NYC, teachers will
benefit form working with the Bilingual Common Core Initiative in New York which
provides a framework for teachers to ensure that students in bilingual education
programs are meeting the NYS Common Core Learning Standard in every grade.
Additionally, Chancellor’s Regulation A-663 makes translation and interpretation services
available to parents and increased awareness of parental rights to translated documents,
which the school will be closely following in providing sent-home newsletters and papers
in both Mandarin and English.
Outcome Factors
Language Goals
The immersion program aims for students to develop and maintain a variety of
Chinese language registers, to achieve language proficiency to the point where students
can effectively use their bilingualism in their future workplaces, and become able to
comfortably communicate with native Mandarin speakers.
Literacy Goals
The school strives for students to have full biliteracy in English and Mandarin, be able
to read novels and newspapers written in Mandarin, and become familiar with both formal
and professional jargon and vocab as well as the vernacular used in Chinese majority
societies. Students should also have a high level of English fluency as they prepare to
leave immersion school to likely attend all English high schools.
Cultural Goals
As a means of helping students to identify with their heritage culture, the
immersion program encourages appreciation for and heightens understanding of Chinese
culture, expands students’ worldviews by becoming aware of diversity, and provides
curriculum and instruction that is based on ancestral knowledge to mold future leaders in
industries that involve English and Mandarin interactions.
Similar Bilingual Programs
Pu’ohala Elementary School is a Hawaiian immersion program that is similar to this
program in that Hawaiian is also the heritage language of the majority of students and
children begin school with little to no knowledge in Hawaiian as well. Pu’ohala also
heavily emphasizes parental involvement as they also offer adult language classes.
Additionally, Pu’ohala adopts a similar language allocation as student speak entirely in
Hawaiian in class and English outside of class and Kindergarten through fourth grade is
taught entirely in Hawaiian and English is added as a second language afterwards.
Teachers are also required to have at least a Bachelor’s degree in Hawaiian and minor in
Hawaiian immersion education.
Chinese Immersion School at De Avila is a Cantonese-English program for first
generation Chinese American children that is located in San Francisco, a local context
that is similar to NYC in that it is a major U.S. city with the third largest Chinese
population. Like the cultural goals for our program, this school aims for “students to be
part of a diverse and multi-lingual community which provides them with the opportunity
to see the world through new lenses and to gain a better understanding of …
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