Expert answer:Define Presidential Doctrine

  

Solved by verified expert:Assignment 2: Current Events and U.S. Diplomacy Due Week 9 and worth 135 pointsDraw from the information gained in your first research paper and expand your research to follow up in a new paper. Write three to four (3-4) new pages that address the following:Define presidential doctrine and summarize the regional or global events during the Cold War leading up to the formation of the presidential doctrine you wrote about in Assignment 1. Select one country you wrote about in Assignment 1 and describe the Cold War relationship that existed between the country you selected and the U.S. before the presidential doctrine was announced.Describe the relationship that currently exists between the U.S. and the country you selected in section (2) above.Describe the effect that the presidential doctrine has had on regional or global affairs since it was announced during the Cold War.Assess whether the presidential doctrine you wrote about in Assignment 1 had had the intended effect of altering the behavior of the country you selected in section (2) above in the time since the doctrine was first announced.Cite at least four (4) reputable sources in addition to the textbook, not including Wikipedia, encyclopedias, or dictionaries.To help you understand this assignment further, the following description and examples may be useful.Step 1: Define a doctrine and identify why a president would want to announce one. A doctrine is an ideological platform that a president uses to advance a policy towards a country or region in order to accomplish foreign policy goals for the United States, so you will need to expand on this theme. Refer back to Assignment 1 and build on whatever doctrine you wrote about then. Say, for example, you selected the Truman Doctrine. Therefore, this is the only thing you will write about in Assignment 2 step 1.Step 2: Select one country you wrote about in Assignment 1 and describe the Cold War relationship that existed between it and the U.S. before the presidential doctrine was announced. In the case of Truman, you would pick either the Soviet Union, Greece, or Iran, because all three were affected by his doctrine. If you are writing about the Eisenhower Doctrine, you would choose Lebanon or Egypt; if you wrote about the Kennedy Doctrine, you would have write about Cuba or Vietnam; if your wrote about the Nixon Doctrine, you would choose either Vietnam, Saudi Arabia, or Iran; if you chose Carter, you would select either Iran or Afghanistan; and if you wrote about the Reagan Doctrine, you would select Nicaragua, Angola, Russia, or Afghanistan (although there were several others).Step 3: Describe what effect the presidential doctrine you chose has had on regional or global affairs since it was announced during the Cold War. That is, how did the doctrine change the status quo regionally or globally after it was announced by the U.S.? What happened in Western Europe after the Truman Doctrine was announced? What happened in the Middle East after the Eisenhower Doctrine was announced? What happened with Cuba or Vietnam after Kennedy offered up his doctrine of flexible response? What happened in Southeast Asia or the Persian Gulf after the Nixon Doctrine went in effect? What happened in the Middle East after the Carter Doctrine was announced? What happened in Central America or Africa or the Middle East after Reagan announced his doctrine?Step 4: Refer back to the country you selected in step two and describe the relationship that currently exists between the U.S. and that country. How has the relationship changed between the U.S. and that country since the doctrine was announced?Step 5: Evaluate whether the presidential doctrine had had the intended effect of altering the behavior of the one country you selected in section (2) above since the doctrine was first announced.Your assignment must:Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required page length.The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:Identify the cultural, economic, and political context of information resources, and interpret information in light of that context.Use technology and information resources to research issues in international problems.Write clearly and concisely about international problems using proper writing mechanics.
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Running head: CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL PROBLEMS
Contemporary International Problems
Kellie Jordan
Professor Jane- EL-Yacoube
May 4,2019
CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL PROBLEMS
2
Introduction
President Ronald Reagan was one of the most diplomatic leaders in the US. He believed
in personal diplomacy where he would involve the idea of face to face discussions with his
opponents. When he first clinched power to lead the super nation, Reagan had the desire to
engage in talks with the leader of the Soviet Union. This was to clear the tensions in the United
States and enhance peace. During his tenure, President Reagan introduced foreign policy. The
aim of the policy was to win back the cold war and enable communism policies to be applied. At
the end of it all, the victory of the US made it the world’s superpower nation with better relations
with other communist nations such as Russia. This paper broadly explains how the cold war
escalated in the United States during Reagan’s term of service. It also gives the reader an
overview of how Reagan employed diplomacy and doctrines with several parties to ensure a win
for the United States.
The foreign policy introduced from 1981 to 1989 was featured by approaches of making
“peace through strength” (Craig & Logevall, 2012). Although critics regard the policies made by
Reagan were aggressive and directed to stir war, the foreign policy was supported by the
American conservatives. They saw that it was vital for secure the interests of U.S. As the
president struggled to control the influence of the federal government to the nation, he also tried
to pursue the interventionist policies in the foreign countries. This was a global strategy of
getting ready for the cold war. He therefore increased and built a more outstanding army ready to
cure the nation of “Vietnam Syndrome”. He enabled the purchase of most modern military
weapons and machinery. He also aided the anti-communist groups in Central America and the
Caribbean. This was the policy best known as the Reagan Doctrine. US government offered
CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL PROBLEMS
3
financial aids to the anti-communist troops in Europe. This also made it take fierce moves and
actions against the communist and socialist governments in Nicaragua, Angola, and Afghanistan.
The reversal of the foreign policy of détente in 1979 brought about the looming of the
cold war. This led to the Soviet war that started in Afghanistan. President Reagan, therefore,
commanded ready and strong armed forces to enable implementation of the new policies in the
Soviet Union. Reagan recalled the B-1 Lancer program which had earlier on been canceled and
started to produce MX missile. Reagan also got into terms under the North Atlantic Treaty
Organizations (NATO) which deployed a missile in West Germany. Under the partnership with
Margret Thatcher, the United Kingdom prime minister, Reagan denounced the Soviet Union in
ideological terms. He announced that communism would soon come to an end as he termed it as
an evil empire. The Soviet army brought down the Korean plane in September 1983 killing all
passengers on board including the Georgia state congressman (Marlo, 2012). This caused
remorseful actions by the president as he termed the act as a massacre. He suspended all Soviet
passenger tickets to the United States and called off most agreements made with the Soviets.
This affected the Soviets financially as they were economically weak.
Reagan Doctrine
President Reagan was desperate to end the reluctance of using military forces by nations
for fear of embarrassment due to defeats. This has earlier influenced the United States foreign
policy in the 1970s. Under the Reagans doctrine, the administration intended to end the influence
of the Soviet Union through covert and overt to anti-communist guerillas and resistance
movements. The doctrine was based on Reagan’s belief that freedom is a universal right
CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL PROBLEMS
4
(“Reagan Doctrine: Sources of American Conduct in the Cold War’s Last Chapter,” n.d). Reagan
wanted to manipulate the governments in Asia, Africa, and Latin America to shun from
communism and drive into capitalism. Reagan enabled deployment of special tactics of CIA to
Pakistan and Afghanistan. This helped the Mujahedeen forces to get equipped ready at war with
the Soviet army. The troops deployed were able to outdo the Soviet army ending the occupation
and their power in Afghanistan. The troops destroyed the Soviet army since they were well
equipped with special skills and machinery.
Effects of the Reagan Doctrine
The doctrine led to the end of the occupation of the Soviet in Afghanistan. The Soviet
Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev, therefore, decided to carry on talks to make peace with
President Reagan. The war also ended in Nicaragua which led to the loss of Sandinistas in the
general elections held in 1990. In Cambodia, the Reagan regime spearheaded the fall of Soviet
and Vietnamese occupation by limiting foreign aid to their troops. However, the success of the
Reagan doctrine brought more prestige and recognition of the United States as a superpower (Pee
& Schmidli, 2018). The tackle of the U.S to the Soviet Union was feared to cause the cold war.
Therefore, the Reagan Doctrine was unexpected especially by other nations to succeed.
The Reagan doctrine, however, had its own advantages to the United States and other
related parties. First, the military troops involved did not directly tackle the Soviet army.
Therefore, there were no casualties. Another advantage was that the cost incurred by the US to
arm the anti-communist troops to face the communist regime was much less than what the Soviet
would incur. It was hence a win-win situation for Reagan (“Reagan Doctrine,” 2012). The
Doctrine also brought down the Soviet rule and expansion under the garb of the Brezhnev
Doctrine which gave the Soviet Union powers to intervene in any affairs arising from the
CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL PROBLEMS
5
communist countries. The idea of the Reagan Doctrine was helpful in the successive regime as
president George Bush used it influence the US foreign relations until the cold war ended in
1991.
However, the Doctrine led to several disadvantages. First, there were huge costs that the
US parted with to fund the troops. The Reagan administration provided arms to the less known
militants to outdo the Soviet army. This meant that the US strengthened the troops. In return after
the mission was accomplished, the militants turned hostile on the US. In conclusion, the United
States contributed directly to the rise of terrorist groups such as Al Qaeda which later on came to
haunt the nation in the 21st century. Since US aid to Mujahedeen was facilitated through
Pakistan, the country took advantage of the matter and created Taliban forces that pursued war
with India.
CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL PROBLEMS
References
Craig, C., & Logevall, F. (2012). America’s Cold War. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Press.
Marlo, F. H. (2012). Planning Reagan’s War: Conservative Strategists and America’s Cold War
Victory. Lincoln, NE: Potomac Books.
Pee, R., & Schmidli, W. M. (2018). The Reagan Administration, the Cold War, and the
Transition to Democracy Promotion. Basingstoke, England: Springer.
The Reagan Doctrine. (2012). Deciding to Intervene, 14-39. doi:10.1215/9780822379423-002
The Reagan Doctrine: Sources of American Conduct in the Cold War’s Last Chapter. (n.d.). The
SHAFR Guide Online. doi:10.1163/2468-1733_shafr_sim250030009
6

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