Expert answer:CRJ301 Ashford University Treatment & Punishment o

  

Solved by verified expert:When looking at the relationship between social justice and juvenile justice, there are two overarching concepts when addressing juvenile delinquency: treatment and punishment. These two concepts have driven a cycle of changes in the juvenile justice system over the years. Your task is to support your premise that your state or city should implement a philosophy of treatment for juvenile offenders, punishment, or a combination of the two (i.e., treatment and punishment) for a specific crime or criminal justice issue identified in your paper. In your paper,Explain the differences between the treatment and punishment concepts.Examine types of treatment versus types of punishment for juvenile crimes.Build the case for which one (i.e., treatment, punishment, or combination of both) you believe has the stronger position based on your research and the specific juvenile crime to which you will apply the concepts of treatment and punishment. The crime you choose can be violent (e.g., homicide, sexual assault, etc.) or non-violent (e.g., drug possession or sales, theft, etc.).Select your city (or state) and one other jurisdiction in the United States.Identify the prevailing thought in your city (or state) as well as the other jurisdiction you chose (i.e., treatment, punishment, or a combination).Analyze which of the two jurisdictions has lower recidivism rates.Identify whether the recidivism rate is the best indicator of success or failure of treatment versus punishment philosophy.Explain why or why not.Examine scholarly research on the most effective strategies for reducing juvenile crime rates.Identify which strategy or combination of strategies the research appears to support.Identify whether it is based on type of crime.Explain whether a given strategy works best depending upon the nature of the crime (i.e., violent vs. non-violent).Support which juvenile justice intervention strategy would be most effective to counter the crime or criminal justice issue based on your research.Summarize which concept (i.e., treatment, punishment, or combination) best supports the overarching concept of social justice.The Treatment Versus Punishment: That Is the Question! Final PaperMust be 2,000 to 2,500 words in length (approximately 10 to 12 double-spaced pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s APA Style (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.Must include a separate title page with the following:Title of pageStudent’s nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submittedFor further assistance with the formatting and the title page, refer to APA Formatting for Word 2013 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..Must utilize academic voice. See the Academic Voice (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. resource for additional guidance.Must include an introduction and conclusion paragraph. Your introduction paragraph needs to end with a clear thesis statement that indicates the purpose of your paper.For assistance on writing Introductions & Conclusions (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. as well as Writing a Thesis Statement (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., refer to the Ashford Writing Center resources.Must use at least six scholarly and/or credible (at least four of which must be found in the Ashford Online Library) in addition to the course text.The Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.To assist you in completing the research required for this assignment, view this Ashford University Library Quick ‘n’ Dirty (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. tutorial, which introduces the Ashford University Library and the research process, and provides some library search tips.Must document any information used from sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. See the Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. resource in the Ashford Writing Center for specifications.Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.
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Running head: IMPACT OF TREATMENT AND PUNISHMENT ON REDUCING JUVENILE
CRIME RATES AND RECIDIVISM IN THE US
1
Impact of Treatment and Punishment on Reducing Juvenile Crime Rates and Recidivism in the
US
Dimas Rodriguez
CRJ 301 Juvenile Justice
Instructor: Lynn Dorey
June 2, 2019
IMPACT OF TREATMENT AND PUNISHMENT ON REDUCING JUVENILE CRIME
RATES AND RECIDIVISM IN THE US
2
Impact of Treatment and Punishment on Reducing Juvenile Crime Rates and Recidivism
in the US
Crime among the youth is a global concern that requires an effective method of reducing
its spread. The treatment has been presented as an effective method in reducing crime rates and
recidivism of juveniles (McMasters, 2015). However, there are some instances where treatment
fails to work as expected. On the other hand, Simmons(2013) argued that although punishment
reduced crime among juveniles, it harmed them. Using a combination of both the strategies,
therefore, may give an insight into whether they are complementary to each other and if their
combined impact improves the situation. This study seeks to explore the effect of both treatment
and punishment on reducing juvenile crime rates and recidivism in the US
1.2
Background to the study
This part highlights the historical developments concerning juvenile crime and correctional
approaches from as early as 1980. Young, Greer, and Church (2017) reported that punitive policy
adoption in the US was necessitated by a sharp increase in juvenile crime between 1980 and 1990.
A 20% drop in court cases witnessed in ten years starting in 1997 was widely attributed to
punishment. Treatment can significantly reduce the impact of mental problems associated with
criminal associations among young people. There are a reported 67% of young male offenders
found to require a psychiatrist. Further, 20% of the incarcerated juveniles suffer from mental health
problems and result in severe functional disorder. Although there is a higher number of boys
involved in crime, the number of girls is increasing at a higher rate (Shook, Vaughn, Goodkind &
Johnson, 2011). This increase continues to raise concerns about societal security. It is further
reported that in the last 40 years, the treatment of girls in juveniles justice systems has changed.
IMPACT OF TREATMENT AND PUNISHMENT ON REDUCING JUVENILE CRIME
RATES AND RECIDIVISM IN THE US
3
Female juvenile offenders were 1.5 times more considered to be taken to juvenile courts for
delinquency cases. The rate of female minor court cases increased by 127% between 1990 and
2000 before declining 23% from the early 2000s. Nonwhite children are also involved in more,
especially those involving drugs than children of white parents.
1.3
Statement of the problem
Although both the treatment and punishment methods are used, there is still a high juvenile
crime rate and juvenile gangs emerging. As crime becomes sophisticated, different techniques can
help in reducing the vice. Each method has strengths and weaknesses that need to be addressed by
using a different approach without disregarding any of the arrangements. A combination of ways
that can yield synergy in effectiveness, therefore, is used in this study to assess the combined
impact of the two methods on reducing juvenile crime rates and recidivism in the US.
1.4
Aim of the study
This study aims to explore the impact of the treatment and punishment methods on
reducing juvenile crime rates and recidivism in the US. The two approaches are examined
separately to elucidate where each may work and where they fail to work, and finally, the combined
impact explored.
1.4.1
i.
Objectives of the study
To explore the impact of the treatment and punishment methods on reducing juvenile crime
rates and recidivism in the US
ii. To examine the influence of treatment method on reducing juvenile crime rates and recidivism
in the US
IMPACT OF TREATMENT AND PUNISHMENT ON REDUCING JUVENILE CRIME
RATES AND RECIDIVISM IN THE US
iii.
4
To assess the contribution of punishment method on reducing juvenile crime rates and
recidivism in the US
Chapter two literature review
2.1 Theoretical review
This part explores the theoretical and empirical review framework to explain the concept
of treatment and punishment from scholarly sources. Two theories will be reviewed. Rational
Choice Theory explains that individuals choose behaviors from a motivation to avoid pain and
pursuit of pleasure. On the other hand, the utilitarian theory of punishment asserts that punishing
wrongdoers can deter criminal behavior further explains how the application of this principle can
increase societal happiness by reducing crime.
2.3 Empirical review
2.3.1 Treatment
There is a significantly higher rate of the mental health-related problem among juveniles
involved in crime than their non-offender peers (Henggeler & Schaeffer, 2016). These problems
are observed more among first-time offenders. The researchers recommend the multisystemic
therapy approach (MSA). MSA is a family-based clinical intervention to offer treatment and
support to victims. Incidentally, there is high mortality in incarcerated juveniles associated with
mental health issues. Similar views are held by Murray (2017) who noted treatment revealed much
better results in reducing crime rates among young people.
2.3.2 Punishment
IMPACT OF TREATMENT AND PUNISHMENT ON REDUCING JUVENILE CRIME
RATES AND RECIDIVISM IN THE US
`
5
According to the assertion of Simmons (2013) punitive strategies of reducing crime among
juveniles has a little and short-lived impact on the offenders creating a short-term solution.
Aroram2(018) concurred that there is no evidence that punishment deters crimes among young
people. It is also evident that punishment may work differently depending on the background of
the offender. Some methods, therefore, may work when trying to reduce juvenile crime rates and
recidivism, and others do not work in both correctional facilities and community.
2.5 Literature gap
There are mixed positions held by different stakeholders regarding the effectiveness of the
treatment and punishment as a way of reducing juvenile crime. Few studies have been done in
focusing on a combined approach in the place this study is targeting. This study seeks to bridge
the literature gap by conducting a survey that will reveal the effectiveness of these two methods
combined.
2.6 Summary
There is a genuine concern for the growing juveniles’ crime rate. Increased involvement of
girls even when correctional facilities are dreaded, especially by girls indicates a need to diversify
the approach used in taming the crime among the youth. Application of the knowledge on why
individuals choose certain behaviors and how they can be changed can help positively change the
crime statistics observed among young people. Focusing on prevention by way of application of
counseling can help those who may be getting attracted to gangs to change mind. Where youth are
already in crime, treatment can be employed first, and punishment can come as a last resort. A
diversified method is likely to give better results in reducing juvenile crime rates and recidivism
in the US for a safer, better society.
IMPACT OF TREATMENT AND PUNISHMENT ON REDUCING JUVENILE CRIME
RATES AND RECIDIVISM IN THE US
6
References
Arora, A. (2018). Juvenile Crime and Anticipated Punishment. SSRN Electronic Journal, 3(6),
56-63. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.3095312
Henggeler, S., & Schaeffer, C. (2016). Multisystemic Therapy®: Clinical Overview, Outcomes,
and Implementation Research. Family Process, 55(3), 514-528. doi: 10.1111/famp.12232
McMasters, A., (2015, June 1). Effective Strategies for Preventing Recidivism. Retrieved from
Western Oregon University Digital Commons:
https://digitalcommons.wou.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1057&context=honors_thes
es
Shook, J., Vaughn, M., Goodkind, S., & Johnson, H. (2011). An empirical portrait of youthful
offenders who sell drugs. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 39(3), 224-231. doi:
10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2011.02.014
Simmons, L. (2013). Leslie Paik, Discretionary Justice: Looking Inside a Juvenile Drug Court.
Punishment & Society, 15(5), 578-581. doi: 10.1177/1462474513496989
Young, S., Greer, B., & Church, R. (2017). Juvenile delinquency, welfare, justice and therapeutic
interventions: a global perspective. Bjpsych Bulletin, 41(1), 21-29. doi:
10.1192/pb.bp.115.052274

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