Expert answer:Columbia Southern Kelley Model Followership and Le


Solved by verified expert:Research the Kelley model of followership beginning with the article by Bjugstad, Thach, and Thompson (2006):Bjugstad, K., Thach, E., & Thompson, K. (2006). A fresh look at followership: A model for matching followership and leadership styles. Journal of Behavioral & Applied Management, 7(3), 304-319. Retrieved from…Then, write an essay that addresses the following elements:§Describe Kelley’s effective followership.§Describe how a leader might utilize the Kelley model of followership to assess follower effectiveness.§Identify the categories of followers.§Explain how knowledge of effective followership can help one’s leadership perspective.§Discuss how a leader might develop individuals into more effective followers.Your essay should be two to three pages in length.Be sure to include the rubric elements from the guidelines below:§The introduction engages the reader in the topic with some form of creative “hook” (such as a story, quote, example, etc.) and provides a clear background for the topic so that readers can gain an understanding of the purpose of the paper.§§The quality of the discussion is clear and appropriate, providing strong evidence of critical thinking.§§The organization results in clarity and presents logically arranged points to support the proposed solution.§§The writing is clear and concise with correct sentence structure, grammar, and punctuation, and it is free from spelling errors.§§The number of credible academic sources meets or exceeds requirements, and they are properly cited using APA format.


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Research the Kelley model of followership beginning with the article by Bjugstad, Thach, and
Thompson (2006):
Bjugstad, K., Thach, E., & Thompson, K. (2006). A fresh look at followership: A model for
matching followership and leadership styles. Journal of Behavioral & Applied Management, 7(3),
304-319. Retrieved

Then, write an essay that addresses the following elements:
Describe Kelley’s effective followership.
Describe how a leader might utilize the Kelley model of followership to assess follower effectiveness.
Identify the categories of followers.
Explain how knowledge of effective followership can help one’s leadership perspective.
Discuss how a leader might develop individuals into more effective followers.
Utilize the CSU Online Library to locate two sources to use as references that support your
essay. Your essay should be two to three pages in length.
Be sure to include the rubric elements from the guidelines below:

The introduction engages the reader in the topic with some form of creative “hook” (such as a story,
quote, example, etc.) and provides a clear background for the topic so that readers can gain an
understanding of the purpose of the paper.
The quality of the discussion is clear and appropriate, providing strong evidence of critical thinking.
The organization results in clarity and presents logically arranged points to support the proposed
The writing is clear and concise with correct sentence structure, grammar, and punctuation, and it is
free from spelling errors.
The number of credible academic sources meets or exceeds requirements, and they are properly
cited using APA format.
Can There Be Leadership
Without FoUowership?
and focus on leadership in the fire service lately. It
seems as if everyone wants to be a leader of some sortMost officer development programs emphasize leadership
and management skills, and officer candidates are commonly
evaluated on their ability to lead others. Clearly, the ability to
lead others and manage the daily operations is critical to an
effective fire officer.
1. Followership Patterns
Independent, Critical Thinking
Alienated Followers
But what about followership? One thing is for sure in our
business: Everyone has a boss. Even the chief answers to
someone, be it the mayor, the county administrator, or a board
of directors. Every level of the organization reports to someone. There was a time when I struggled to even utter the word
“follower,” as if it somehow was taboo in our culture. I guess
it’s the take-care-of-business mindset we’re programmed with
in the academy that stays with us as we progress through
the ranks. Think about it. How much training or education is
offered in following others? 1 think that is because following
really isn’t that cool. But, a lack of follower skills is causing us
some headaches. Imagine trying to lead with a dance partner who is constantly trying to lead you. It looks more like a
wrestling match than a dance. We’re essentially running blind
when it comes to a conscious approach to follow the leader.
At first glance, the concept of followership elicits images
of bowing before the boss and having to be careful you don’t
bump into the boss if he were to make a sudden stop. To the
contrary, effective followers are just the opposite. They challenge the boss when necessary and share their opinions, even
if they might be viewed as controversial.
Effective Followers
Yas P«opte
Dependent, Uncritical Thinking
Adapted by author from “In Praise of Followers,” Robert E. Kelley, in The Leader’s Companion, Charles Wren, 196-197.
who are constantly improving and reading everything they can
get their hands on, even on their own time. They are the people
you can trust to tell you bluntly and honestly wtiat you need to
hear when you need to hear it, even when you don’t particularly want to hear it.
Followers can be broken into five basic types: effective followers, yes people, sheep, alienated followers, and survivors.’
Effective followers are self-managed and committed. They
are constantly sharpening their skills and the skills of ihose
they supervise. They are courageous—they say what needs
to be said when and how it needs to be heard. These are the
people you can trust to tell you when you’re messing up, even
if you don’t see it coming. This type of follower might tick you
off at first for being so honest; but, after you think about it for
awhile, you end up thanking him for it.
Yes people are the bobble-headed followers who constantly
work to stay on the boss’s good side. They’ll let the boss run
straight into rush-hour traffic and pat him on the back the enRobert E. Kelley, a professor and an author who has studied tire way. From the boss’s perspective, these followers are the
the concept of followership, defines effective followers as
most dangerous. They won’t tell you what they honestly think.
those who possess the following traits:
Instead, they will tell you what they think you want to hear.
• They manage themselves well.
This type of follower will not have your back when things get
• They are committed to the organization and to a purpose, tougb. Yes people offer no real value to the organization; their
principle, or person outside of themselves.
function is to protect themselves.
• They build their competence and focus their efforts for
Followers who fall into the sheep category will do what you
maximum impact.
tell them, but that’s all—nothing more, nothing less. Although
• They are courageous, honest, and credible,
it’s great that they will do what they are told, they require a
This hardly sounds like the “yes man” that comes to mind
great deal of supervision, almost to the point where it can be
when you think about classic followers. This list describes
more trouble than it’s worth. If I, as a manager, have to literally
individuals who are self-motivated and make the extra effort to tell you every move to make, then sometimes it is easier to do it
t:arry out the organizational mission. They are those firefighters myself. Sheep seldom have any true ownership of the organi-
FIRE ENGINEERING August 2007 105
zation or its mission. They simply come
to work, punch the clock, do as little as
possible to get by, and go home. In a
nutshell, they really don’t care.
Alienated followers generally get a
bad rap. From the leadership perspective, they are the followers who seem to
be constantly working against the system. It seems that they kick and scream,
fighting progress at every chance. Leaders often wish these followers would
simply go away to make things easier.
But, there is a lot more to the story.
There are many reasons followers
become disgruntled, but one thing is for
sure: They still care. To be upset about the
direction of the deparuiient or the way a
leader leads, you have to care about the
organization. Often, disgruntled foUowera are just one click away from being
effective followers. It’s just that something
happened to upset them along the way.
Leaders often try to assume that they
know why the followers are disgruntled,
but we know how that usually works out.
A common theme among disgruntled
followers is that their version of a perfect
department is different from the leader’s.
The disgruntled follower believes the
organization should be something it is
not, for whatever reason. Usually, an
honest conversation between the leader
and the follower can resolve the issues.
A follower who cares is of great value to
the organization and is hard to replace.
In contrast, the sheep, who does minimal
work without a lot of controversy, is more
of a drain on the organization.
Many of us have played the role of the
survivor at one time or another. We float
around on the cliart lietween tlie different
types of followers, just trying to make our
way tlirough tlie day. Everyone has “off
days,” and it is natural to float among the
different types.
Followers who are independent and
critical thinkers are valuable to the
organization. Hopefully, most followers
will fall in the effective follower category
rather than in the alienated category.
Both are independent-minded, generating their own ideas and thinking for
themselves. They challenge reality and
ask tough questions. The line between
these two categories is very thin. An
alienated follower simply has been
turned off by some experience and has
become disengaged and passive.
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It’s very easy for leaders to sometimes
wonder what some of their subordinates
arc tliinking. For whatever reason, the
employee isn’t following in the way the
leader had hoped and mast be “managed.”
Tliis same situation can appear drastically
different from tlic follower’s perspective.
The employee may have come to work
that day with the intention of trying to
have a g(xxl day, doing what he thought
\ as right. Before long, he found himself in
iiie office standing on the infamous carpet.
TTiis leads to what I believe is one of
the core truths in human nature. I believe
that when people get up in the morning
and head out to work, the primary goal is
simply to have a good day. Sure, there are
ta.sks to be completed and errands to run,
but the overall concept is simply to have
a good day. There are exceptions to the
rule. There are those who will willfully try to throw a monkey
wrench into the system, but they are the exception.
That said, how is it that a follower goes from “Let’s have a
good day” to “Uh oh, I’m in trouble now”? How could he go
astray if his intention was not to do wrong?
I remember getting an annual evaluation that surprised me.
I thought I had done a pretty good job over the course of the
year, but it turned out my boss thought differently. I was listening to his reasons for his dissatisfaction with my perfonnance, I
remember thinking to myself, i wish he had just told me that’s
what he wanted in the first place!” If I had known his expectations, I, like any other good employee, would have delivered. I
was giving the boss what I thought he wanted, only tofindout,
too late I might add, that he had different expectations.
For leaders, this is a critical point: If your followers aren’t
doing what you expect them to do, have you been clear about
what you want? By clear, I don’t mean clear to you; I mean
clear to them. Vividly describe what “good” looks like, even
if it makes you uncomfortable being that forward with your
followers. What does an above-average performance look like?
If the leader paints a clear picture of what is good, then it’s up
to the followers to achieve that performance.
One of the toughest traits associated with followership is
loyalty. It is easy to be loyal if you have a great leader. But,
liow do you find it within yourself to be loyal if you don’t
believe in the leader? The answer is simple: The leader really
has little to do with it. Sure, your leader can ruin your day
and make things miserable, but only for a short time. This job
is bigger than any one person; leaders will come and go. If
you’ve been on the job for awhile, I’ll bet you can think back
on the leaders you have seen come and go—some were pretty
good, and others you’d just as soon forget.
For the follower, it’s important to remember that you don’t
have to be loyal to the leader. Be loyal to your department, your
organization, the job, and the citizens. If the leader is missionoriented and is doing the right thing, that’s a bonus. Over the
span of your time in the fire service, you may encounter leaders
who want personal loyalty. Usually, these individuals eventually start to believe their own line of baloney. If you give them
enough time, they’ll go away. Be loyal to the patch; that’s what
really matters. Do a good job because the citizens and your
brothers and sisters deserve it. The rest will take care of itself.
My local government merged our fire and EMS departments
some years ago. All division heads gathered in the conference
room where the new chief was about to give his grand vision
for the organization. He walked in nonchalantly, sat down, and
laid out his vision. It was simple—to be the best fire and EMS
department there is. Each of us had a choice in how we would
respond to that command. We could have played the yes-person role, giving it the old, “Yes chief, that’s a great idea.” We
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Enter 181
108 August 2007 FIRE ENGINEERING
wouldn’t have accomplished a darn thing other than loading
the boss up with a heap of empty words. You get the point.
We could have played the sheep, waiting for specific direction, which would have completely paralyzed the organization.
But then again, as sheep, what would we care? Imagine the
chief’s having to nucromanage each division! There simply
would not be enough hours in the day to get anything done.
As alienated followers, we might have grumbled and complained. There would have been the office drama so common in
the workplace. Some may have been onboard with the mission
but would have drawn heat from the others for doing too much
and making the others look bad.
Luckily in our situation, we had a good supply of effective
followers. Was the chiefs vision extreme and seemingly overwhelming? Yes. We thought of all of the great departments in
the country and wondered how it would be possible to match
them. But, instead of complaining or withdrawing, we kicked
around ideas. Have we achieved the chief’s vision today? No,
but we’re ahead of schedule.
All of this is to say that each of us has a choice in what kind
of follower we will be. No matter who you are, you follow
someone. Which category best suits you? If you think you
might be a sheep or a yes person, repent now. Become reengaged in your organization’s mission, and look for that spark
you had when you first came on the job. If you think you
might be alienated—let me rephrase that—if you are alienated,
you know it. Consider what caused the dit between you and
the organization. Was it a person, a process, or a policy? If it’s
a person, talk it out. If it’s a policy or process, work to change
it. But, work within the system to get that done.
It’s easy to categorize people, and that is essentially what
Kelley’s leadership patterns do. But, be careful. On more than
one occasion, I have pegged someone as a sheep only to find
that that person thought he was acting as an effective follower.
In his mind, he was meeting the mission and doing well. To
me, when this occurs, it is a failure of the leadership, not the
followers. The leader is responsible for ensuring that performance expectations are clear. Otherwise, leaders are expecting
their followers to read minds. So, it is critical to maintain open
communication. Without constant and personal communication, it is easy for effective followers to creep into survival
mode and then into a disgruntled follower or sheep mode.
The role of the follower is absolutely critical to the success
of the organization. Without great followers, leaders would
become schizophrenics sitting in their offices talking to themselves. Could it be that great leadership is born out of great
followership? Being independent, a critical thinker, self-motivated, and committed to the organization and to a principle
outside of yourself sound.s like the perfect combination of
traits for sound leadership. Could it be that we have put the
cart before the horse when it comes to leadership? Should we
be focusing also on following effectively, not only on having the entire department trying to lead? All members in the
department have a job to do. each with its own perspective of
the organization and the mission.
We are leaders and followers at the same time. The true test
in this dance is knowing when to do what. Life’s a dance you
learn as you go; sometimes you lead, sometimes you follow. #
1, Kelley, Robert E., “In Praise of Followers,” The Leader’s Companion, J.
Charles Wren (ed.), Simon & Schuster, 1995, 96-197.
• EDDIE B U C H A N A N began his fire service career in
1982 and is division chief of operations for Hanover (VA)
Fire & EMS. He is director at large for the International
Society of Fire Service Instructors. He is the author of
Volunteer Training Officer’s Handbook (Fire Engineering,
2003) and serves on the NFPA Technical Committee on
Fire Service Training.
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Enter 183 at
The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 12: 111–131, 2009
Copyright © The Society of Psychologists in Management
ISSN 1088-7156 print / 1550-3461 online
DOI: 10.1080/10887150902888718
Followership Styles and Employee
Attachment to the Organization
Psychologist-Manager Journal
Journal, Vol. 12, No. 2, April 2009: pp. 1–37
et al.
Anita L. Blanchard
University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Jennifer Welbourne
University of Texas Pan American
David Gilmore and Angela Bullock
University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Successful followership is an important but understudied characteristic of employees.
Following Kelley’s (1992) followership conceptualization, we propose that there
are two dimensions of followership: independent critical thinking and active
engagement. Additionally, we argue that these two dimensions of followership
interact and are associated with important work outcomes, particularly job satisfaction
and organizational commitment. We surveyed 331 university employees. Results
indicate that there are two followership behavior dimensions from Kelley’s model
that align with critical thinking and active engagement constructs. Active engagement is positively associated with job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
Independent critical thinking is negatively associated with organizational commitment and extrinsic job satisfaction. Interaction effects between these constructs are
also discussed.
Leaders are important in organizational success. However, little attention has
been paid to the other side of the leadership interaction: followership. Part of this
neglect, we argue, is due to organizational and research bias for leaders and
against followers. Nonetheless, leadership …
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