Expert answer:Bethel University United States Homeland Security

  

Solved by verified expert:With all of the terrorism we face today, do you feel Homeland Security does enough to protect the citizens of the United States? If not, what do you feel could be done to improve the situation?**The following word count and source requirements are applicable. Discuss a minimum of 250 words (main post) and two scholarly sources with one being your textbook.
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15
CHAPTER
Homeland Security
LEARNING
OBJECTIVES
M
I
L
E
S
,
AP Images/Kathy Willens
OUTLINE
Homeland Security
Terrorism
International Terrorism
Domestic Terrorism
Methods of Investigating Terrorism
Proactive Methods
Reactive Methods
Post-9/11 Response to Terrorism and
Homeland Defense
9/11 Commission’s Review of Efforts
for Homeland Security
S
H
A
Federal Law Enforcement Efforts for
N
Homeland
Security
Department
of Homeland Security
N
(DHS)
O Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
Federal
Secure
N Communities: DHS and FBI
Office of the Director of National
Intelligence (ODNI)
Other Federal Agencies
1
State and Local Law Enforcement
9 for Homeland Security
Efforts
Security
0 Versus Civil Liberties
• Define terrorism,
including threats posed
to the United States
both internationally and
domestically.
• Describe the response
of the U.S. government
immediately following
the September 11, 2001,
terrorist attacks.
• Identify and explain
federal law enforcement
efforts for homeland
security.
• Identify and explain
state and local law
enforcement efforts for
homeland security.
• Summarize both sides
of the debate between
security and civil
liberties.
9
T
S
9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst – © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization.
526
PART 4
CRITICAL ISSUES IN POLICING
INTRODUC TION
On September 11, 2001, our world changed. A series
of unthinkable and incomprehensible events led to ultimate disasters in New York City, Washington, D.C., and
a grassy field in Pennsylvania. Those events shocked
the world and changed history.
The swiftness, scale, and sophisticated coordination of the operation, coupled with the extraordinary
planning required, launched new awareness of terrorism and mass murder in the United States and, indeed,
the world. In the immediate aftermath of the attacks,
it was reported that almost 5,000 people were missing
and more than 400 confirmed dead. Eventually, it was
determined that the missing persons included 23 New
M
York City police officers, 35 New York and New Jersey
I
Port Authority officers, 3 New York State court offiL
cers, and more than 300 New York City fire fighters.
These attacks shocked us, even though there had been
E
similar events before, although not as massive.
S
Terrorism is, sadly, not new to the United States.
,
In 1993, there was the first terrorist attack on New
York City’s World Trade Center, killing 6 and wounding
1,000. In 1995, there was the bombing of the Alfred P.
S
H
A
N
Homeland Security
N
The term homeland security has been used since
O
the September 11 terrorism acts to describe defensive efforts within the borders of the United States.
N
Officials use it to separate the U.S. Department of
Homeland Security’s (DHS) operations from those
of the U.S. Department of Defense.1 Following 9/11,
1
the U.S. government prepared and published the
9
National Strategy for Homeland Security to mobilize
0
and organize the United States to secure its homeland from terrorist attacks. The objectives of the
9
strategy are to prevent terrorist attacks against the
United States, to reduce America’s vulnerabilityTto
terrorism, and to minimize the damage and recover
S
from attacks that do occur. The strategy provides
direction to the federal government departments
homeland security Efforts made since the terrorist acts
of September 11, 2001, to protect the United States against
terrorist acts.
Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, killing 168
persons and injuring 675 others. The 1996 bombing at
the Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia, killed 1 person
and wounded 111 others. During these years, there
were also terrorist acts committed against churches
and family planning clinics that provide abortions, as
well as many other depraved, senseless incidents. All
of these events awakened Americans to the fact that
terrorism had actually come ashore. However, no other
day in America’s history had been quite like September
11, 2001. The attacks jolted Americans out of a sense
of complacency, and perhaps lethargy. The need for a
strong homeland defense has been a primary interest
of U.S. law enforcement since then.
This chapter will discuss terrorism directed against
Americans and American interests abroad, including
foreign and domestic terrorism. We will discuss the
immediate aftermath of September 11, and the rapid,
unprecedented efforts made by the U.S. government.
The chapter will describe federal, state, and local efforts
for homeland security and the issue of security versus
individual rights—how we can ensure a safe environment without threatening our civil liberties and individual freedoms granted under the U.S. Constitution.
and agencies that have a role in homeland security
and suggests steps that state and local governments,
private companies and organizations, and individual
Americans can take to improve our security.2
According to Jonathan R. White, professor
of criminal justice and executive director of the
Homeland Defense Initiative at Grand Valley State
University in Grand Rapids, Michigan,
America has no common definition of homeland
security. Issues surrounding homeland security
are confused because the country is dealing with
a new concept, a new meaning of conflict, and
a change in the procedures used to defend the
United States. In the past, military forces protected the homeland, projecting power beyond
U.S. borders.3
White, however, explains that homeland security
simply means keeping the country safe. It protects
lives, property, and infrastructure and is designed to
secure the United States.4
9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst – © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization.
M
I
L
E
S
,
The events of September 11, 2001, were
an unprecedented challenge to the rescue
personnel who responded. They tried to
S
restore some order and calm, despite their
own physical and emotional responsesH
to
viewing the tragedy and its effects up A
close.
N
N
Terrorism
O
Terrorism has many definitions. The Federal
N Bureau
of Investigation (FBI) defines terrorism as “the
unlawful use of force or violence against persons or
property to intimidate or coerce a government,
the
1
civilian population, or a segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.”9The U.S.
Defense Department defines it as “the unlawful
use
0
or threatened use of force or violence against individ9
uals or property to coerce or intimidate governments
or societies, often to achieve political, religious,
T or ideological objectives.”5 Jonathan R. White sums up terS
rorism simply: “Terrorism uses violence or threatened
violence against innocent people to achieve a social
or political goal.”6 The National Counterterrorism
Center defines terrorism as “premeditated, politically
motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant
targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents.”7
© Robert Brenner/Photo Edit
CHAPTER 15
HOMELAND SECURITY
527
Terrorism has a long tradition in world history.
Terrorist tactics have been used frequently by radical and criminal groups to influence public opinion
and to attempt to force authorities to do their will.
Terrorists have criminal, political, and other nefarious
motives. Some may remember the 1972 Olympic
Games in Munich, Germany, when terrorists attacked
and took hostage the Israeli Olympic team and killed
all of them; the 1988 explosion of Flight 103 in the
air over Lockerbie, Scotland, killing all 270 persons
aboard; and the actions of the Unabomber.
Many Americans and most major U.S. firms
have been targeted by terrorists in some way.
Political extremists and terrorists use the violence
and suspense of terrorist acts such as bombing, kidnapping, and hostage situations to put pressure on
those in authority to comply with their demands and
cause the authorities and public to recognize their
power. Extremists and terrorists use their activities
to obtain money for their causes, to alter business or
government policies, or to change public opinion.
Attacks against executives are common in Latin
America, the Middle East, and Europe, and they
have spread to the United States. Successful terrorist
techniques employed in one country have spread to
others. Governments and corporations have had to
develop extensive plans to deal with terrorism.
According to Louis J. Freeh, former director of
the FBI,
Terrorists are among the most ruthless of criminals, but their motivation rarely stems from personal need or a desire for material gain. Unlike
the majority of violent criminals, terrorists do not
know their victims; in fact, one of the hallmarks
of terrorism is its indiscriminate victimization.
Also, unlike most serious criminal activity, terrorism invites—and even depends upon—media
attention to ensure a maximum yield of terror.8
The National Counter terrorism Center
(NCTC) was created in 2004, under the Intelligence
Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA), to
terrorism Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets.
National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) The National
Counterterrorism Center was created in 2004, under the
Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA), to
serve as the primary organization in the U.S. government for
integrating and analyzing all intelligence pertaining to terrorism
and counterterrorism and for conducting strategic operational
planning by integrating all instruments of national power.
9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst – © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization.
528
PART 4
CRITICAL ISSUES IN POLICING
serve as the primary organization in the U.S. government for integrating and analyzing all intelligence pertaining to terrorism and counterterrorism
and for conducting strategic operational planning
by integrating all instruments of national power.
The NCTC has the statutory mission to serve as the
U.S. government’s knowledge bank on international
terrorism and to provide the Department of State
with required statistical information. It is under the
administrative control of the Office of the Director
of National Intelligence (DNI).9
The NCTC reported that there were over 10,000
terrorist attacks worldwide in 2011 that resulted in
more than 12,500 deaths. These attacks were almost
a 12 percent decrease from 2010 and nearly a 29 percent decrease from 2007.10
M
I
L
According to John F. Lewis, Jr., retired assistant
director of the FBI’s National Security Division, E
the
FBI divides the current international threat to S
the
United States into three categories.11
First, there are threats from foreign sponsors, of
International Terrorism
international terrorism. These sponsors view terrorism as a tool of foreign policy. Their activities have
S
changed over time. Past activities included direct
H
terrorist support and operations by official state
agents. Now these sponsors generally seek to conceal
A
their support of terrorism by relying on surrogates to
N
conduct operations. State sponsors remain involved
in terrorist activities by funding, organizing, netN
working, and providing other support and instrucO
tion to formal terrorist groups and loosely affiliated
extremists.
N
Second, according to Lewis, there are threats
from formalized terrorist groups, such as al-Qaeda,
the Lebanese Hezbollah, Egyptian al-Gama’a1alIslamiyya, and the Palestinian Hamas. These auton9
omous organizations have their own infrastructures,
personnel, financial arrangements, and training facil0
ities. They can plan and mount terrorist campaigns
9
overseas as well as support terrorist operations inside
the United States. Some groups use supporters in T
the
United States to plan and coordinate acts of terrorism.
S
In the past, these formalized terrorist groups engaged
in such criminal activities in the United States as illegally acquiring weapons, violating U.S. immigration
laws, and providing safe havens to fugitives.12
Third, there are threats from loosely affiliated international radical extremists, such as those
who attacked the World Trade Center in 1995.
These extremists do not represent a particular
nation. Loosely affiliated extremists may pose the
most urgent threat to the United States at this time
because they remain relatively unknown to law
enforcement. They can travel freely, obtain a variety
of identities, and recruit like-minded sympathizers
from various countries.13
In 2005, the DHS reported that the threat of
countries facilitating or supporting terrorism had
diminished. It said that ideologically driven actors,
particularly al-Qaeda, are the top terrorist threat
against the United States today. The DHS also
named several visual symbols such as the White
House and the Statue of Liberty as the most likely
targets of terrorism, and truck bombs and small
explosives-laden boats as the most likely terrorism
weapons.14
Many cases of international terrorism have
involved the United States, primarily by targeting
U.S. citizens and interests abroad. Some memorable attacks in addition to those mentioned earlier
include the abduction of hostages in Lebanon in
the mid-1980s; the 1996 detonation of an explosive
device outside the Khobar Towers in Dhahran,
Saudi Arabia, in which 10 U.S. military personnel
were killed; the 1998 bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dares Salaam, Tanzania,
YOU ARE
THERE
Fazul Abdullah Mohammed
Killed in Somalia
The mastermind of the 1998 U.S. Embassy bombings in Tanzania and Kenya, Fazul Abdullah
Mohammed, was killed in Somalia. Mohammed
was considered the longest-serving and most
senior al-Qaeda operative in East Africa.
Fazul Abdullah Mohammed had been instrumental in bringing the extremist al-Shabab
groups in Somalia into the al-Qaeda fold as well
as attracting other militant groups from Africa.
Counterterrorism chief advisor Brennan said that
Mohammed’s death was a “huge setback” for
al-Qaeda.
Source: Based on Brian Bennett, “Al-Qaeda Operative Key
to 1998 U.S. Embassy Bombings Killed in Somalia”, June
12, 2011, retrieved June 13, 2011, www.latimes.com/news/
nationworl/world/la-fg-embassy-bombings-20110612,0,10.
9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst – © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization.
CHAPTER 15
which resulted in the deaths of 12 Americans and
200 others; the terrorist attack on the U.S.S. Cole
in the waters of Aden, which killed 19 U.S. sailors;
and the abduction and subsequent murder of Wall
Street Journal journalist Daniel Pearl in 2002. Before
the September 11, 2001, attack, the most recent case
of international terrorism occurring on our shores
was on February 26, 1993, when foreign terrorists
bombed the World Trade Center.
Foreign terrorism has continued since 9/11.
Nearly every day, terrorist acts occur in many parts
of the world, including Iraq, Afghanistan, and
Israel. In 2002, terrorist nightclub bombings in
Bali, Indonesia, killed more than 200 people. The
Indonesian capital of Jakarta was targeted by suicide
bombings during 2003 and 2004.15 In 2004,
M Russia
lost at least 425 people in terrorist attacks, includI
ing a bombing at a Moscow subway station,
two
bombed passenger jets, and a massacre at an
L elementary school in which 32 terrorists seized the school,
2004, tertaking more than 1,000 hostages.16 Also inE
rorist attacks on commuter trains in Madrid,
S Spain,
killed hundreds.
,
On July 7, 2005, during rush hour, a series
of at
least six explosions occurred on the London transportation network, including five attacks on the
S
underground system and one on a bus in the city’s
Hinjuries.
center, causing 56 deaths and more than 700
This was London’s worst attack since World War
A
II. The incidents took place on the day after it was
N games
announced that the 2012 Olympic summer
were awarded to London. The attack alsoN
coincided
with a meeting of the leaders of the G8 (major offiO
cials from eight highly industrialized nations)
at
17
Gleneagles, Scotland. Four suspects were
Narrested
within a week; all were British citizens, three Britishborn and one Jamaican-born, and all were Islamic
fanatics. Three lived in Leeds, an industrial
1 city in
Northern England.18 A few weeks later, four bombs
9 underwent off almost simultaneously on London
grounds trains and a bus again, but only the
0 detonators blew up.19
9 three
Subsequent to the London bombings,
bombings in the Egyptian resort townT
of Sharm
el-Sheikh, a vacationing hot spot for Europeans,
S
Israelis, and Arabs, killed at least 88 and wounded
more than 200.20 Also in 2005, three suicide bombers wearing explosive vests blew themselves up in
three crowded restaurants in the tourist resort of
Bali, Indonesia, killing about 25 people and wounding 101 others.
HOMELAND SECURITY
529
In April 2006, suicide bombers killed 24 persons and wounded 100 at a Sinai resort.21 In June
2006, Canadian police charged 12 men and 5 youths
with planning a wave of terrorist attacks, ranging from blowing up the Toronto Stock Exchange
to storming the national public broadcaster and
Parliament buildings in Ottawa and beheading
the prime minister. 22 Also in June 2006, 6 men
were arrested in Miami and 1 in Atlanta for plotting to destroy Chicago’s Sears Tower. The arrest
was the result of an FBI sting involving an informant who posed as an al-Qaeda operative. 23 In
July 2006, about 190 persons were killed and about
600 were injured when bombs exploded on seven
commuter trains during the evening rush hour in
Mumbai, India. A few days earlier, a series of grenade explosions struck Srinagar, the summer capital
of Indian-administered Kashmir, hitting a tourist
bus and killing 8 persons and wounding more than
40.24 Also in 2006, extreme violence was reported
in Somalia by Islamist militias operating under an
umbrella group calling itself the Council of Islamic
Courts.25
In August 2006, British authorities arrested 24
extremists who planned to use liquid explosives to
blow up airplanes flying from Britain to the United
States. The men were planning to carry the liquids
in drink bottles and combine them into explosive
cocktails to commit mass murder aboard as many as
10 flights over the Atlantic. The arrests caused massive alerts at airports and new rules regarding what
could be brought aboard a plane.26
In June 2007, bungled terrorist attacks occurred
in London and Glasgow, Scotland. In the London
incident, two terrorists parked two vehicles laden
with gas canisters and explosives near a popular nightclub. The cars, apparently positioned
to strike people leaving the nightclub, failed to
ignite. The next day, the two terrorists rammed a
Jeep Cherokee loaded with gas canisters into the
Glasgow airport. The vehicle erupted in flames;
the driver was severely burned and died several
weeks later.27
In December 2007, twin car bombs exploded in
Algiers near United Nations offices and an Algerian
government building, killing dozens of people.28
Also in December 2007, Benazir Bhutto, former
Pakistan prime minister and the leader of Pakistan’s
largest political party, was assassinated in a terrorist attack in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, as she left a
political rally. A suicide attacker detonated a bomb,
9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst – © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization.
530
PART 4
CRITICAL ISSUES IN POLICING
damaging one of the cars in Bhutto’s motorcade,
killing more than 20 people, and wounding 50. Just
two months earlier, in October 2007, Bhutto had
survived a suicide bombing that killed 150 people in
Karachi, Pakistan.29
In March 2008, Pakistani police formally
accused m …
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