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Solved by verified expert:Final topic was Narcotic Violations.Consider one issue or trend you learned about in this course that is of particular interest to you, other than the one youfocused on in your final project. Name that issue or trend, identify at least one of its potential underlying causes, anddescribe how you will learn more about the issue or trend.What was one aspect of this course that you feel you need to learn more about to be successful in your chosen career andwhy?I have provide some papers that i have from this class just make sure u use my final for the information for the top part of the questions. The other papers will help with the last part


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7-1 Final Project Submission: Literature Review (Narcotic Violation)
CJ-300 Research Methods for CJ
Nicole Obeni
Narcotic violation is the unlawful purchase, distribution, sale, and manufacture of a
controlled drug.
According to American Public Health Association, which did a research on the public
health aspect of drug abuse, shows the impact of drug misuse on public health, and it faults the
current laws for the problem. According to the article, current U.S. drug laws are outdated and
unsupportive of evidence-based practices in reducing the problem. The article is important to my
topic because it shows the effects of narcotics violations on public health. It relates to other
articles herein used in the sense that it extends on their ideas to include the impact of narcotics
violations on public health. The article is a qualitative research paper clearly brings out various
opinions of through participation, something that brings out its authenticity and encompasses the
opinions and reasons of interviewed groups/ individuals.
Bronson et al. (2017) research in their article about drug abuse among state prisoners and
jail inmates, gives statistics on cases of drug use, abuse, and dependence in major prisons and
correctional facilities. The statistics indicate a rising trend in these cases, and this is worrying
especially considering the impacts this has on inmates’ health. The research presented in this
article is related to narcotics violations because it shows the trend and prevalence of violations.
The research is also related to other articles in the sense that it builds on them by outlining
specific statistics. The methodology of quantitative chosen is advantageous as it gives definite
figures on the number of inmates affected by drug abuse and the rising trend, this can, therefore,
be used in prevention measures to be taken. The methodology is however disadvantageous as it
does not address the underlying issues that lead to the figures obtained from the research. For
example, it does not explain the reasons for the rising trends in drug about at the penitentiary.
A qualitative research study conducted by Johnson et al. (2018) shows the widespread
Narcotic consumption in a Southwestern U.S. university campus. The study employed
Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) to establish an estimate of consumption rates of twelve
narcotics in the study area, and the number of respondents was 80. The research relates to
narcotics violates because it presents a model for estimating the consumption rates among
students. The information presented agrees with the research by Bronson et al. (2017) on the
increased prevalence of narcotics violations. The qualitative research was advantageous as the
respondents were issuing their facts without any compromise of either having to pinpoint an
individual or issue an accurate figure on the students involved. It is however disadvantageous as
it would be very difficult to determine the actual extent of the drug use in the institution thereby
making it difficult to design measures on how to tackle the issue.
In their quantitative Journal of hazardous materials, Gushgar et al. (2018) summarize
some of the factors that have caused the increasing rates of drug abuse. According to the article,
the drug industry which includes pharmacists and doctors has gone rogue by making available
narcotic drugs to potential abusers. Law enforcement that is supposed to protect against such
occurrences “has gone to sleep,” meaning it has failed. This research relates to my topic because
it helps define the source of the problem. Thus, the article relates to the others herein used in the
sense that it connects the problems to the source. This article is advantageous as it addresses the
issue from the root course, giving facts and figures on where the problem starts. The authors
went out of their way to investigate the root cause of the narcotic violation and found it to be
those in charge of distributing the same drugs. However, the methodology used did not
investigate/ research the issue fully, for example, there are other clients who come in with fake
prescriptions in order to get their hands on certain drugs. It also does not talk about the main
reason that leads the practitioners to make available narcotic drugs to potential abusers.
On their article about Anesthesia & Analgesia, Soelberg et al. (2018) research about the
opioid crisis in the U.S. The article summarizes some of the causes of the crisis as well as how
the various levels of government can work together to manage the crisis. The article relates to
my topic because it not only provides statistics on narcotics violations, but it also shows the
causes of these violations and what can be done to prevent further deterioration. The research
agrees with Bronson et al. (2017) and Johnson et al. (2018) on the rising incidences of drug
abuse, including fatalities, and the causes. The research combines a series of researches done
previously and the fact that it is qualitative research, gives facts pertaining to both the causes and
how well to manage narcotic violations. The article does not, however, issue the various agencies
that are tasked with managing the spread of narcotics violations. Despite that, and not issuing
actual figures, I believe the quality of the information in the article can best be used to prevent if
not address the issue of narcotic violations.
The data point applies to the research question in the way that the control was efficient to
tackle the menace. The number of individuals addicted to the narcotic drugs which in turn are
harmful to the body significantly reduced as per the research conducted. Studies show that due to
the legislations enforced, the number of addicts has gone down meaning low consumption of the
drug (Wisehart, 2019). Additionally, the International Narcotics Control Strategy Report
(INCSR) recently released a report giving positive improvement in the fight against the abuse.
The data point applies in the way that the penalties reduced the abusers. The research
found out that there are heavy penalties imposed on the offenders which significantly led to the
reduction in the human population engaging in the abuse. Such penalties that are even still in
force include jailing of the abusers, heavy fines, and so on. Statistically, penalties as a form of
control is effective in regulating drug abuse (Albonetti, 2016).
Age was a significant component and applied in the research to know the age limit that
embraced the narcotic violations and those that gave in concerning the abuse. The bigger portion
was made up of the youth. Generally, youths are the part of the population that engage in abuse
of the narcotic drugs (Schwinn et al., 2015). Also, the sampled population currently abusing the
drugs had poor health status.
The data point gives a clear picture of the drugs that were responsible for the addiction
and narcotic violations at large. Methadone, morphine, marijuana, and heroin are examples of the
dangerous drugs that affects the population in the community. Methadone and heroin were the
major types of the drugs that majority of the population abused and as well had far-reaching
consequences health wise.
What is evident in the articles, is they all suggest in one way or the other, the increase in
narcotic violations from schools, prisons, pharmacies, and other health care facilities. This trend
if not addressed sooner or later might turn into a national disaster.
The main objective of this article by Yamamoto & Ran (2013) is to conceptualize the role
of a community newspaper in drug abuse violations and the negative effects either directly or
indirectly. The author of the article has used social learning theory, which revolves around the
learning process where the social structure, interaction and situations result in a deviant behavior
from people. The research design in this article is a correctional design that explores the
relationship between the community newspaper and drug violations. The main data collection is
through random sampling of United Stated counties and the data was analyzed using OLS and
negative binomial regression models. Conclusively, a declaration of no possible conflict of
interest, as acknowledged by the author, in respect to the results, the research, and data collected.
The article by Hsing (1996) is based on an analysis of arrests in 48 states regarding
narcotics and illegal drug violations. The question in this study is determining the legal and
policy implications of these arrests. The author of the article has used social control theory,
which presumes that some people can get to an extent of devising and implementing any form of
criminal activity. The author has used a descriptive design of research that seeks to describe the
status of the given phenomenon. In my opinion, the research was done in an ethical manner and
the author has copyrights to this research in order to protect the validity of the results.
The article by Abeyratne (2008) has its research based on the objective of researching
more trafficking of narcotics and illegal drugs through the air. According to the author, this
problem has blown into unmanageable proportions thus; the main criminological theory used in
this research is routine activities theory, which put forward that routine-based activities in the
social order create openings for criminal actions. The author used descriptive design to answer
the question of why air transport has increasingly been using to transport narcotics especially in
countries like Mexico. This study used raw data to get results to their study so no ethical
implications were raised in this case.
Spapens, Müller, & van, (2015) provides a study, on a regulatory perspective, the Dutch
drug policy on soft drug. The article empirical conclusions are based on statistical data from the
year 1965-1970 of the prosecutions of violations of the Opium Act. The authors have also used
strain theory where they have provided reasons to explain why people in Dutch engage in drugs.
Therefore, there are no ethical implications in this research it is only based on existing data. The
research answers whether the current situation in Dutch that revolves around the legalization of
cannabis in Dutch thus the country becomes an example of other countries struggling with
developing regulatory policies of soft drugs.
Finally, the article by Bartilow (2014), answers the question on the correlation between
drugs and narcotics war and human rights in the United States. The author uses Simultaneous
Instrumental Variable Model that is designed to yield equitable estimates, which mainly relies
more on the existing research and data. Phenomenology, a type of qualitative research design,
which provides the study of phenomena such as experiences, events, and situations have been
used in this study to show the results of war on drugs and narcotics to the human rights.
Therefore, no ethical implications are highlighted in this research.
Methods have been put in place to regulate narcotic violation, some of them are the Act
of Controlled Substances which is part of the federal statute, and it is responsible for regulating
the manufacturing as well as the distribution of the controlled substances like narcotics. Narcotic
violation is viewed by the general population along with the media as a medico-criminal issue,
the likely future pattern. A good attention deal is focused towards the changing epidemiology
together with sociology for narcotic abuse since the changes with the government policy are not
intelligible without the knowledge of a changing demographic along with social backgrounds for
users themselves (Courtwright, Joseph, and Des Jarlais, 2013).
There have been many debates due to the narcotic violation, with some individuals
supporting the policies put in place to address the violation while others are opposing the
policies. Those supporting the policies argue that these policies have a track record that is
successful suppressing the use of the illicit drug because they were developed one hundred years
ago. They support these policies put in place to address the narcotic violation because the
violation has highly increased, which affects many young people aged between 14 years to 25
years. While the people who opposes the policies for addressing the violation of narcotics argue
that the spectacular drives by police, stringent laws, vigorous prosecution along with addicts as
well as peddler’s imprisonment has proved to be useless, enormously expensive ways of
correcting the evil, unjustifiably as well as unbelievably cruel at their application towards the
unfortunate victims of drug.
The negative aspects of narcotic violation are not balanced to the positive outcomes
because you find that the negative aspects are many and have more severe impacts to the health
of a person as compared to the positive results. For instance, whenever individuals use drugs,
they manipulate the pleasure as well as a reward system within their brain to gain some
advantage, as well as more than the perceived benefit. The drugs such as narcotic tap inside the
wiring along with modifying the users’ feelings for pleasure together with their emotion,
movement along with motivation (West and Brown, 2013).
Several hard drugs like narcotic may have around two to ten times impact to the natural
behaviors at triggering the users’ pleasure along with reward Centre. The strong response makes
the users take narcotic drugs repeatedly. Thus the repeated use, mostly at high doses, is mainly
associated with considerable harm. Some of the harms are caused by using more narcotic in one
time, i.e., violation of narcotics as well as try being immediate. The harms caused by the
violation of narcotic are; injury, heart disease, cancer as well as even death if one continues
violating the drugs and do not seek medical attention.
Individuals can make changes in their lives to reduce the negative aspects as well as
positive outcomes brought up by narcotic violation through seeking medical attention as well as
abiding by the policies put in place by the state to curb the abuse of narcotics. For instance,
specialized treatment may break the drug use cycle along with the bad behaviors which ensue
among the long-term drug users. The treatment goes far up to the extent of ending the drug use,
although this requires close medical supervision. The treatment is done through; detoxification,
treatment assistant through medication, behavioral counseling, evaluation as well as co-occurring
disorders treatment and the relapse prevention long-term plan (Klingemann, Sobell, Barker,
Blomqvist, Cloud, Ellinstad and Junker, 2012).
Courtwright, D. T., Joseph, H., & Des, Jarlais, D. (2013). Addicts who survived: An oral
history of Narcotic use in America before 1965. Univ. of Tennessee Press.
Klingemann, H., Sobell, L. C., Barker, J., Blomqvist, J., Cloud, W., Ellinstad, T., &
Junker, C. (2012). Promoting self-change from problem substance use: Practical implications
for policy, prevention, and treatment. Springer Science & Business Media.
West, R., & Brown, J. (2013). Theory of addiction. John Wiley & Sons.
Abeyratne, R. (2008). The illicit transport of narcotic drugs by air. Journal of Transportation
Security, 1(4), 229-255.
Bartilow, H. A. (2014). DRUG WARS COLLATERAL DAMAGE: US counternarcotic aid and
human rights in the americas. Latin American Research Review, 49(2), 24-46,295,299.
Hsing, Y. (1996). An analysis of arrests regarding illegal drugs: The determinants and policy
implications. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 55(1), 53.
Spapens, T., Müller, T., & van, d. B. (2015). The Dutch drug policy from a regulatory
perspective. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 21(1), 191-205.
Yamamoto, M., & Ran, W. (2013). Drug abuse violations in communities: Community
newspapers as a macro-level source of social control. Journalism and Mass Communication
Quarterly, 90(4), 629-651
American Public Health Association. (2013). Defining and implementing a public health
response to drug use and misuse. Policy, (201312).
Bronson, J., Stroop, J., Zimmer, S., & Berzofsky, M. (2017). Drug use, dependence, and abuse
among state prisoners and jail inmates, 2007–2009. Washington, DC: United States
Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Albonetti, C. A. (2016). Mandatory minimum penalties. Advancing Criminology and Criminal
Justice Policy, 155.
Schwinn, T. M., Thom, B., Schinke, S. P., & Hopkins, J. (2015). Preventing drug use among
sexual-minority youths: findings from a tailored, web-based intervention. Journal of Adolescent
Health, 56(5), 571-573.
Wisehart, D. (2019). Drug Control and International Law. Routledge.
Gushgari, A. J., Driver, E. M., Steele, J. C., & Halden, R. U. (2018). Tracking narcotics
consumption at a Southwestern US university campus by wastewater-based
epidemiology. Journal of hazardous materials, 359, 437-444.
Johnson, M., Eriator, I., & Rodenmeyer, K. (2018). Backstories on the US opioid epidemic.
Good intentions went bad, an industry has gone rogue, and watchdogs gone to sleep.
The American journal of medicine, 131(6), 595-601.
Soelberg, C. D., Brown, R. E., Du Vivier, D., Meyer, J. E., & Ramachandran, B. K. (2017).
The US opioid crisis: current federal and state legal issues.
Anesthesia & Analgesia, 125(5), 1675-1681.
CJ-300 Research Methods of CJ
Nicole Obeni
Scientific Method
Research is a crucial undertaking that is used by scientists to systematically investigate a
phenomenon and answer a particular question. A research project usually aims at understating a
particular problem that the scientist is interested in and from which they are to provide solutions
to a problem (Osterburg, 2000). Scientists come up with theories and hypotheses that are usually
tested in a research project using various approaches. Scientific method in psychological studies
is an approach used in conducting a research study in order to understand the psychological aspects
of a study group or population in which the researcher is interested in. A psychological research
projects usually aims at understanding the behavioral patterns of a particular study population with
respect to the cognitive and biological properties. Scientific method helps a researcher to conduct
the research in a systematic manner.
The approach starts by derivation of educated guesses that will provide the fundamentals
for the hypotheses and the study variables which will be measured. The research can collect data
through an experimental study or case study description while testing the theories. Writing the
report is considered a crucial part in scientific research that involves documenting the research
exercise that will discuss the findings of the research. In order for a researcher to document the
findings, they need to conduct a background study on the topic which in chosen. The background
study analyses the problem from which the research project is based and also provide a justification
for the need of the research undertaking (Nuzzo, 2014). The background analysis is considered as
the beginning of a research report and usually comes in the first chapter to provide the goals and
objectives of the research. A literature review of similar research and theory justification is also
reported in the second chapter of a report as well as the research gap.
The research report will document the research methodologies used in data collection and
analysis in the third chapter. The researcher …
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