Expert answer:Advertising/PR Final Case Study-Amazon final proje

  

Solved by verified expert:I need a case study analysis based on Amazon’s baby registry ad issues. I’ve attached all information that may help as well as links to sources. The case study “should” be around 10 pages double spaced, but can be a bit shorter if there isn’t too much information (I would try to hit around 7) There needs to be at least 5 sources total (primary and secondary) and everything in MLA format and 12pt font times new roman NO PLAGIARIZING! It is due Wednesday the 26th at 11pm, so if I could have it by Wednesday at 11am that would be AMAZING. Thank you! https://www.wsj.com/articles/new-parents-complain-…https://abcnews.go.com/GMA/Family/parents-complain…https://mashable.com/article/amazon-baby-registry-…https://www.foxbusiness.com/features/new-moms-clai…https://tech.slashdot.org/story/18/11/29/1441213/n…https://qz.com/1478347/how-amazon-hijacked-the-bab…https://www.ktbs.com/news/incaseyoumissedit/amazon…
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ADV 425
Public Relations
Strategy
Session 5
Andrew Corner, M.A., APR
Professor of Practice
330 Communication Arts
and Sciences
E: cornera@msu.edu
P: 517-896-8995 (cell)
Best of Cannes Lions
ADV 425
Phase 1:
Formative
Research
Smith’s Planning Process
Four Phases, Nine Steps
◼ Phase 1: Formative Research
◼ Phase 2: Strategy
◼ Phase 3: Tactics
◼ Phase 4: Evaluative Research

Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Phase
1: Formative Research
◼ The data upon which
communication programs are
built
◼ Two kinds
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Strategic
Research
◼ Systematic gathering of
information about issues and
publics that affect an
organization
◼ Particularly as the organization
engages in two-way models of
PR
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Tactical
Research
◼ Information obtained to
guide production and
dissemination of messages
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Phase
1
◼ Involves a comprehensive
situation analysis
◼ Draws info from 3 areas:
◼ Situation
◼ Organization/client
◼ Intended
Publics
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Phase
1
◼ Gather background on the issue
◼ Assess organizational
performance and reputation
◼ Catalogue resources
◼ Identify and analyze key publics
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Gather
information in 3 ways
◼ Casual research
◼ Secondary Research
◼ Primary Research
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Casual
research
◼ What is already known
◼ Interview people “in the know”
◼ Brainstorm
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Secondary
Research
◼ Review existing information
◼ Internet
◼ Google
◼ Libraries
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Primary
Research
◼ Generate original information
◼ Methods in Appendix A
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Phase
1: Formative Research
◼ 3 steps:
1.
2.
3.
Analyze the Situation
Analyze the Organization
Analyze the Publics
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Step
1 – Analyze the Situation
◼ “Situation”
is a set of
circumstances facing an
organization
◼ Situations are stated as nouns
◼ (The verb gets added in a goal)
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Situations
can be positive or
negative
◼ Smith calls them
Opportunity
◼ Obstacle

Smith’s Planning Process
An opportunity may be viewed as an
obstacle by a client (or vice versa)
◼ A perceived obstacle might actually
be an opportunity
◼ A perceived opportunity could
become an obstacle
◼ How? Any ideas?

Smith’s Planning Process
Bottom Line:
◼ You must come to consensus with
the client, decision-makers and the
communications team as to which
one it is.

STEP 1: ANALYZING THE SITUATION
Basic Planning Questions
1. What is the situation facing the
organization?
2. What is the background of the
situation?
3. What is the significance or importance
of the situation?
© Routledge
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Phase
1 Step 2 – Analyze the
Organization
◼ Figure out what kind of
organization it is
◼ Business vs nonprofit
◼ Commercial vs noncommercial
◼ (ask for examples)
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Business
or Commercial
◼ For-profit
◼ Public,
private
◼ Small/local
◼ Regional
◼ Multi-national
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Business
or Commercial
◼ Green
◼ Woman-owned
◼ Minority-owned
◼ Start-up
◼ Home-based
◼ Online
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Business
or Commercial
◼ Green
◼ Woman-owned
◼ Minority-owned
◼ Start-up
◼ Home-based
◼ Online
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Nonprofit
or Noncommercial
◼ “Social benefit organizations”
◼ Nonprofits
◼ Government
◼ Membership
◼ NGOs
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Nonprofits
◼ Schools
◼ Hospitals
◼ Museums
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Government
◼ Agencies
◼ Military
units
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Membership
◼ Unions
◼ Consumer
interest groups
◼ Trade groups
◼ Associations
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ NGOs
◼ Focus
on advocacy and social
change
◼ May be local, regional, national
or international
◼ Examples?
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ You
need to know what kind of
organization you are dealing
with
◼ Look to mission/vision/values
statements
◼ Look at tax information
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Public
Relations Audit
◼ Analyze strengths and
weaknesses from a PR or
communications perspective
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ When?
◼ Before
important campaigns
◼ Before introducing a new
product or service
◼ After management changes
◼ Every 5-7 years
◼ After a crisis
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ SWOT
◼ Traditional
way to do an audit
◼ Evaluate internally and
externally
◼ Must be an honest assessment
◼ Even if the boss doesn’t want to
hear it.
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ SWOT
◼ Begin
internally
◼ Look at performance and
structure
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ SWOT
◼ Performance:
quality of goods
and services or viability of
causes or ideals
◼ Current quality AND past quality
◼ Evaluate organizational
leadership’s level of satisfaction
with quality
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ SWOT
◼ Structure:
the purpose or
mission as it relates to the
situation at hand
◼ PR’s role in organizational
administration
◼ Also resources: people,
equipment, time, budgets ($)
FIX HERE
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Find
the niche
◼ What is the organization’s
specialty?
◼ What makes it unique or
different?
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Look
for an ethical base
◼ Is there an ethical ideal?
◼ Is it directly stated?
◼ Does it apply to the entire
organization or is it tied to
individuals?
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Look
for internal impediments
◼ Obstacles that could limit the
effectiveness of the PR program
◼ Examples
◼ Lack of organizational support
◼ Incompetence
◼ Political infighting
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Look
for internal impediments
◼ Obstacles that could limit the
effectiveness of the PR program
◼ Examples
◼ Egos
◼ Shortsighted executives
◼ Company favorites
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Look
for internal impediments
◼ Obstacles that could limit the
effectiveness of the PR program
◼ These are not insurmountable
◼ But they must be managed
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ SWOT
◼ Then
look externally
◼ What is public perception?
◼ What do people on the outside
think?
◼ Based on visibility and
reputation
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Visibility
◼ Extent
to which an organization
is known
◼ Do people know about it?
◼ What do they know about it?
◼ Is what they know accurate?
Smith’s Planning Process






Reputation
How people evaluate the information they have
The general, overall and long-term impression
Based on word AND deed
“social capital”
The most important PR asset


Can change and may be inconsistent across publics
Generally lags behind the attempt to influence it
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ In
general:
◼ The stronger an organization’s
visibility and more positive its
reputation, the greater the
ability to build on it.
◼ What does this mean?
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Low
Visibility
◼ Do more to create awareness
◼ Poor reputation
◼ Work to rehabilitate public
perception by
Offering quality performance then
◼ Telling people about it

Smith’s Planning Process
◼ In
general:
◼ An entity with a good reputation
gets the benefit of the doubt in
times of crisis.
◼ Current Example
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Michigan
State University
◼ Classic Examples
◼ BP – Deepwater Horizon
◼ Tiger Woods – lots of girlfriends
◼ Johnson & Johnson – Tylenol
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Look
at the external
environment
◼ Supporters
◼ Competitors
◼ Opponents
◼ Others
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Supporters
◼ Actual
or potential
◼ Look for groups that share
similar interests and values
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Competitors
◼ People
or groups doing the
same thing as your client
◼ High competition

PR tries to highlight differences from
competitors
◼ Low competition
◼ Less advocacy and more relationshipbuilding
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Proximity
moderates
competitiveness
◼ Competitors = people or
enterprises in the same space as
your client
◼ Farther away = less threat
◼ Farther away may actually be an
ally, supporter or colleague
Smith’s Planning Process
Opponents
◼ Rivals
◼ Actively against the client
◼ Maybe because of a specific action
or statement
◼ Maybe just because
◼ Opponents actively try to fight the
client – either reputation or for real
◼ MSU vs. U-M

Smith’s Planning Process
Opponents come in different flavors
◼ Advocate
◼ Dissident
◼ Anti
◼ Activist
◼ Missionary
◼ Zealot
◼ Fanatic

STEP 2: ANALYZING THE ORGANIZATION
Basic Planning Questions (Internal Environment)
1. What is the quality of the organization’s
performance?
2. What communication resources, including budget,
are available?
3. How supportive is the organization
of public relations activity?
© Routledge
STEP 2: ANALYZING THE ORGANIZATION
Basic Planning Questions (Public
Perception)
1. How well known is your organization?
2. What is the reputation of your
organization?
3. How do you want to affect this reputation?
© Routledge
STEP 2: ANALYZING THE ORGANIZATION
Basic Planning Questions (External Environment)
1. What is the major competition for your
organization?
2. What significant opposition exists?
3. Is anything happening in the environment that can
limit the effectiveness of the public relations
program?
© Routledge
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Step
3: Analyze the Publics
◼ Address the right groups to
avoid waste and missed
opportunities
◼ Examine each public to develop
effective strategy
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ What’s
a public?
◼ A group of people that:
◼ Shares a common interest in
relation to an organization
◼ Recognizes the significance of
that interest
◼ Sets out to do something about
it
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ What’s
a public?
◼ Publics are homogeneous
◼ Similar in interest and
characteristics
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ What’s
a public?
◼ Publics are usually aware of the
situation and the relationship
with the organization
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ What’s
a public?
◼ Publics think the issue is
relevant
◼ Publics are actually or
potentially organized to act
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Publics,
Markets, Audiences,
Stakeholders
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Publics
◼ Cannot
be chosen
◼ They just are
◼ Like your family – you can’t
choose your mother, father or
siblings, etc.
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Publics
◼ For
or against, you have to deal
with them
◼ They exist because of their
interaction with the organization
or because there is a common
issue
Smith’s Planning Process
Markets
◼ More like friends
◼ An organization is attracted to
markets for various reasons
◼ An organization selects (or maybe
defines) these groups
◼ An organization makes a conscious
decision to associate with them

Smith’s Planning Process
Audiences
◼ People who pay attention to a
particular medium of communication
and receive messages through it
◼ TV watchers
◼ Twitter followers

Smith’s Planning Process
Stakeholders
◼ Groups with a vested interest in an
organization
◼ Usually some kind of ownership
◼ Stockholders
◼ Members
◼ Employees

Smith’s Planning Process
Publics are
◼ Distinguishable
◼ Homogeneous
◼ Important
◼ Large enough
◼ Accessible

Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Categories
of Publics
◼ Customers
◼ Actual
◼ Potential
◼ Secondary
◼ Shadow
Constituency
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Categories
of Publics
◼ Limiters
◼ Intercessory
◼ Opinion
Leaders
◼ Vocal Activists
◼ Key or Strategic
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Analyzing
Key Publics
◼ “get inside their minds”
◼ Use research techniques

Appendix A
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Analyzing
Key Publics
◼ Consider the consequences a
public has on the organization
◼ Consider the consequences the
organization has on the public(s)
◼ Actual consequences or
◼ Potential consequences
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Stages
of Development
◼ Nonpublic
◼ Latent Public
◼ Apathetic Public
◼ Aware Public
◼ Active Public
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Analyze
Characteristics of
Publics
◼ PR Situation
◼ Organization
◼ Communication Behavior
◼ Demographics
◼ Personality Preferences
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Analyze
Characteristics of
Publics
◼ Be careful of stereotyping
◼ Examine the cultural context
◼ Consider saving face
Smith’s Planning Process
◼ Rethink
public
◼ If you can’t find common traits,
you may be defining the public
to generally or too broadly
Smith’s Planning Process

Final Step: Create a Benefit
Statement
Articulate the benefit or advantage
your product or service can offer this
public OR
◼ The way your product or service can
help satisfy the public’s need OR
◼ The way your product or service can
solve the public’s problem(s)

STEP 3: ANALYZING THE PUBLICS
Basic Planning Questions (Identifying
Publics)
1. Who are the major publics for the
organization?
2. Who are the key publics for this situation?
3. Who are the major opinion leaders
for these publics?
© Routledge
STEP 3: ANALYZING THE PUBLICS
Basic Planning Questions (Analyzing
Publics)
1. What is the nature & type of each key
public?
2. What are the major wants, interest,
needs & expectations of each public?
3. What benefits can you offer this public?
© Routledge
That’s it!
◼ That’s
all for now!
◼ We’ll discuss Smith’s Phase 2
(Strategy) in the next Session.
◼ “See” you then!
◼ Don’t forget to finish your
assignments and …
◼ Go Green!
Conclusion to Session 5
READINGS AND
ASSIGNMENTS
Assignments





Case #1
Wounded Warrior Project
Prompt available on D2L
Read the article and answer the
questions
Submit in writing


Microsoft Word format
Due: 11 p.m. Thursday, May 23
ADV 425
Public Relations
Strategy
Session 6
Andrew Corner, M.A., APR
Professor of Practice
330 Communication Arts
and Sciences
E: cornera@msu.edu
P: 517-896-8995 (cell)
Best of Cannes Lions
ADV 425
Phase 2: Strategy
Smith’s Planning Process
Four Phases, Nine Steps
◼ Phase 1: Formative Research
◼ Phase 2: Strategy
◼ Phase 3: Tactics
◼ Phase 4: Evaluative Research

Phase 2: Strategy
Step 4: Establish Goals and
Objectives
◼ Step 5: Formulate Action and
Response Strategies
◼ Step 6: Develop the Message
strategy

STEP 4: ESTABLISHING GOALS AND
OBJECTIVES
 Positioning:
Process of managing how
an organization distinguishes itself with
a unique meaning in the mind of its
publics
 Positioning
Statement: A single concise
sentence (where possible) that
identifies how an org wants to be
perceived by relevant publics
© Routledge
STEP 4: ESTABLISHING GOALS AND
OBJECTIVES
 Goal:
Rooted in organization’s
mission or vision
 Reputation
management goal
 Relationship management goal
 Task management goal
© Routledge
STEP 4: ESTABLISHING GOALS AND
OBJECTIVES

Objective: Statement emerging
from organization’s goals
© Routledge
STEP 4: ESTABLISHING GOALS AND
OBJECTIVES
Elements of Effective Objectives






Goal rooted
Public focused
Impact oriented
Linked to
research
Explicit
Precise





Time definite
Singular
Challenging
Attainable
Acceptable
© Routledge
STEP 4: ESTABLISHING GOALS AND
OBJECTIVES
Hierarchy
of
Objectives
Awareness (cognitive)




Focus on information
Attention
Comprehension
Acceptance (affective)




Focus on feelings about information
Interest
Attitude
Action (conative)




Focus on response to information
Opinion
Behavior
© Routledge
STEP 4: ESTABLISHING GOALS AND
OBJECTIVES
How to Write an Objective
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Objective for ____ (public)
To have an effect on awareness acceptance
action
Specifically, to create increase maintain
decrease
 attention  comprehension (w/ awareness)
 interest positive/negative attitude (w/ acceptance)
opinion behavior (with action)
About _____ (focus)
Performance level: ______
Timed period: _____
© Routledge
STEP 4: ESTABLISHING GOALS AND
OBJECTIVES
Basic Planning Questions
1.
What are the goals?
2.
What position do you seek?
3.
What are specific objectives
(awareness, acceptance & action)?
© Routledge
STEP 5: FORMULATING ACTION AND
RESPONSE STRATEGIES
Research guides the development of
positioning, goals and objectives.
Positioning, goals and objectives drive PR
action.
PR action takes two basic forms:

Proactive

Reactive
© Routledge
STEP 5: FORMULATING ACTION AND
RESPONSE STRATEGIES
Typology of Proactive Strategies

Action Strategies

Communication Strategies
© Routledge
STEP 5: FORMULATING ACTION AND
RESPONSE STRATEGIES
Proactive 1: Action Strategies

Organizational performance

Audience participation

Special events

Alliances & coalitions

Sponsorships

Strategic philanthropy

Activism
© Routledge
STEP 5: FORMULATING ACTION AND
RESPONSE STRATEGIES
Proactive 2: Communication

Publicity

Newsworthy information

Transparent communication
© Routledge
STEP 5: FORMULATING ACTION AND
RESPONSE STRATEGIES
Typology of Reactive Strategies

Pre-emptive action

Offensive response

Defensive response

Diversionary response

Vocal commiseration

Rectifying behavior

Deliberate inaction
© Routledge
STEP 5: FORMULATING ACTION AND
RESPONSE STRATEGIES
Reactive 1: Pre-Emptive Action

Prebuttal
© Routledge
STEP 5: FORMULATING ACTION AND
RESPONSE STRATEGIES
Reactive 2: Offensive Action

Attack

Embarrassment

Shock

Threat
© Routledge
STEP 5: FORMULATING ACTION AND
RESPONSE STRATEGIES
Reactive 3: Defensive Action

Denial

Excuse

Justification

Reversal
© Routledge
STEP 5: FORMULATING ACTION AND
RESPONSE STRATEGIES
Reactive 4: Diversionary Action

Concession

Ingratiation

Disassociation

Relabeling
© Routledge
STEP 5: FORMULATING ACTION AND
RESPONSE STRATEGIES
Reactive 5: Vocal Commiseration

Concern

Condolence

Regret

Apology
© Routledge
STEP 5: FORMULATING ACTION AND
RESPONSE STRATEGIES
Reactive 6: Rectifying Behavior

Investigation

Corrective action

Restitution

Repentance
© Routledge
STEP 5: FORMULATING ACTION AND
RESPONSE STRATEGIES
Reactive 7: Deliberate Inaction

Strategic silence

Strategic ambiguity

Strategic inaction
© Routledge
STEP 5: FORMULATING ACTION AND
RESPONSE STRATEGIES
Making Ethical Judgments

Duty to ourselves

Duty to client

Duty to company or boss

Duty to professional colleagues

Duty to society
© Routledge
STEP 5: FORMULATING ACTION AND
RESPONSE STRATEGIES
Basic Planning Questions
1.
What proactive strategies
might you develop?
2.
What reactive strategies
might you develop?
3.
How consistent are these
strategies
with past practices of your
organization?
© Routledge
STEP 6: DEVELOPING THE MESSAGE
STRATEGY
Approaches to Communication
Information
Persuasion
Dialogue
(Flow of communication)
(Attempts to influence)
(Quest for understanding)
© Routledge
STEP 6: DEVELOPING THE MESSAGE
STRATEGY
Rhetorical Tradition
Aristotle
Ethos
(Message source)
Logos
(Appeal to reason)
Pathos
(Appeal to emotion)
© Routledge
STEP 6: DEVELOPING THE MESSAGE
STRATEGY
Three C’s of Effective Spokespeople

Credibility

Control

Charisma
© Routledge
STEP 6: DEVELOPING THE ME …
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