Solved by verified expert:Write an essay that agrees or disagrees with this statement: “Soccer in the U.S.A. is the sport of the future—and always will be.” Begin by stating your position clearly, then draw on the assigned materials to construct a persuasive argument. (at least 700 words.)
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Men’s soccer in the united states. From ethnic sports. To major league soccer.
Soccer in the united states. Are to be found in the industrial northeast. Places
like new jersey the home state of christine. The current president of the united
states soccer federation. An economics professor from columbia named sunil gulati.
Has argued that. So-called modern u.s. soccer history began not in one nine hundred
fifty when the united states. Shocked england. In the greatest upset. In the
history of the world cup. But actually in one thousand nine hundred eighty nine.
When paul kelly judy’s. Goal at the trinidad and tobago stadium.
Qualified the united states for its first world cup finals tournament. Since one
thousand nine hundred fifty. Here’s what kind of judy told the l.a. daily news.
Many years later when the goal came true that was getting the best of us at the
time. It was instinctive i receive the ball from top but almost about forty yards
Pushed it forward. But a defender calls me down. I beat him to my left and just hit
it. And when i sighed dipping. I knew it had a chance. And when it went in we were
all just thrilled to death because a zero zero time. Meant trinidad would have
advanced instead of us.
When the game was over what i had done. Or what we had done. Started to settle in.
So the story. Of soccer in the united states. Is in part. A story about people.
Creating cultural space. In a new place. A lot of what i’m going to say today and.
Much of what you see in the first half of this presentation comes courtesy of. Tom
mccabe a historian. Of united states soccer. At rutgers university. Much of the
history of the game in this country. Is about why the sport didn’t really make it.
Why it’s not at the level of baseball or american football or basketball.
Or even hockey. One of the earliest scholars to tackle this issue was the political
scientist andre markets. Who made an argument that. Soccer didn’t make it. Because
it was squeezed out of america’s quote unquote sporting. Space. Early on. Markets.
Wrote a book with steve hellerman. About ten years ago.
Entitled offside. Soccer in america exceptionalism. Where they explain this
marginalization. In some detail. They’ve won germans more recent soccer in a
football world. Is more specifically about the game of soccer doesn’t really delve
into the other major. Us sports. Like markets and hellerman. But certainly suggests
that soccer and its history in this country.
Is nearly invisible. Certainly marginalized and less than noteworthy. What we do
know. Thanks for the work of many historians including. Tom mccabe. Is that the
game began in elite colleges. Very much as we saw an important tradition arising
out of nineteenth century britain. And also in latin america and africa in this
And it was incubated. In cities. In america the game survived and even thrived in.
Ethnic enclaves. Of the east coast. And we’re going to spend most of our time.
Tracking this story. In northern new jersey. It has a fascinating role in northern
new jersey. In the growth of u.s. soccer over time.
For example in eight hundred sixty nine. Rocker is played against princeton. In
what is sometimes referred to as the first college football game. In the u.s.. But
mccabe’s own research shows that in fact. This game. Could be the first college
soccer game. This of course had to do with the hybrid rules.
There was more kicking than handling in this game. It was more similar to soccer.
Than to rugby. Let alone what became gridiron football. The scots as we know in
this class. Were absolutely critical. In the spread of the game disproportionately
influential. Perhaps more so than many englishman. And we see this story in
northern new jersey as well.
And in the northeast as a whole. Were scots irish. In english. Emigrated to work in
the factories. There are also. Capitalists businessmen entrepreneurs who moved to
the united states in the second half of the nineteenth century. And there were
three major industries for example. In and around. Northern new jersey.
That should be highlighted. Clark thread company. Originated from scotland. Set up
shop in newark and east new work in one thousand nine hundred sixty four. Here at
their factories. Along the passaic river. In this image. Other companies that were
notable in this. Hotbed of soccer. Was marshall linden which arrived in carney in
eight hundred eighty three.
And mandolin only him which moved from scotland. In eight hundred eighty seven. So
the diffusion of soccer to the united states reveals. Close connections between.
Industry. Immigration. And sport. And immigrants from britain and ireland. Brought
with them not just their religion but their work skills. And their culture.
Including a culture of soccer.
To the united states. Rather than think. Of soccer in the united states having one
point toward you and it’s more useful to think of many cradles of u.s. soccer. And
again we’re going to use the newark example as. Our case study. The clarke thread
company which i mentioned before i came to newark in one thousand nine hundred
sixty six and expanded in one thousand nine hundred developed a brand called.
o.n.t.. Initials that stood for our new thread. A product whose name was a
cornerstone of the company’s marketing efforts. Well into the twentieth century.
And it was this factory. That developed. Soccer’s first powerhouse in the u.s..
Interesting lee. In one thousand nine hundred four. The founding meeting. Of the
american football association.
And by this of course i mean soccer. Met in the firehouse. At the clark thread
factory. In one thousand nine hundred five the first. National match was played on
u.s. soil between. o.n.t.. The clark team. And a canadian team. At clark field.
Here’s a photograph of a match in one thousand and five at clark field noticed a
As a backdrop. Here’s another image an area one. Of clark thread company in one
thousand nine hundred six. Still visible at the far right. Is the soccer field.
Football if necessity and social identity. Were interlinked. In the us. Ethnic
groups founded not only company teams. But also clubs. Much like they did in
britain and elsewhere.
Here’s a map of newark compiled in one thousand and eleven. This shows a
cosmopolitan city. But a segregated one as well. Were two thirds of the population.
Was comprised of so-called foreigners. And that included. Children born in the
united states. To foreign born parents. Ethnic soccer. Led to the founding of
And attracted large crowds. And ethnic festivals. Soccer. Was always played. Where
there was german americans. In elizabeth new jersey. Portuguese americans in fall
river. Or ukrainian americans. In new work. Here are some images of teams. From
that era. The old firm. Crossed the ocean. You can see this in the formation of
kearney rangers and scots americans who competed against celtic ac and carney
Here’s another side from that period. West hutson football club. One thousand and
five. And the scots americans. In one nine hundred twenty s.. If you notice. In the
background. There are a couple of men leaping over the fence. To catch a glimpse of
the action. Thomas cahill. Is another man from northern new jersey whose role in
the history of u.s. soccer is important and sometimes has been called the father.
Of american. Rocker. He was born in st louis but moved to newark in one nine
hundred ten as an employee of the. Spalding sporting goods company. He was the
editor in fact of spalding’s official soccer football guide. He helped organize the
united states football association which became a full fee for member.
In one thousand thirteen. Ok who was a key organizational figure in the first pro
league in this country. The american soccer league. He also managed the first u.s.
international tours. In one thousand sixteen thousand nine hundred nineteen. In one
nine hundred twenty to scandinavia. Here’s an image of the one nine hundred
U.s. national team dubbed the all americans. Which toward norway and sweden. Here
are some of their players. Ready to embark on this exciting journey. The american
soccer league was the first successful pro league. In the united states. One nine
hundred twenty one thousand nine hundred thirty one can be considered.
U.s. soccer’s first golden era. With crowds ranging from five hundred to fifteen
thousand. Not just in newark. Carney and. Harrison but also in part target in fall
river massachusetts. Providence rhode island. All up and down. The northeast
corridor or. There was a league that bequeath growing coverage of the game.
And respect. From mainstream media. Many of its stars were imported from the
british isles. But there were many homegrown players as well. You can read more
about the a.s.l. in dave when durance chapter. Assigned for this week. The a cell
is famous. Among other things for producing. The so-called babe ruth of soccer as
one american reporter dubbed.
Archie stark. Who was born in glasgow. And moved to carney new jersey in one nine
hundred twelve. He began. A pro career at seventeen that would ultimately lead him
to the hall of fame of soccer in the us. He. Ten years in the a a cell. Including
for one of its most famous sides.
Bethlehem steel. In pennsylvania. He scored two hundred fifty three league goals in
his career including a phenomenal season in one nine hundred twenty four nine
hundred twenty five in which he scored sixty seven goals in forty four games. That
total of sixty seven goals. Stood as the world record for professional soccer until
this year when we’re going to messi of barcelona.
Broke the record. Archie stark played for the united states national team but he
did not go to the one nine hundred thirty world cup in europe why due to family and
work reasons. He stayed in new jersey. After retiring from soccer. And opened a
local bar. The american soccer leagues demise.
Came as a result of a fracture a side a war among soccer officials. Dubbed the
soccer war of one nine hundred twenty eight. And then of course. The effects of the
great depression. The league disbanded in one nine hundred thirty one. And the
second era. Of so-called ethnic soccer ensued.
It was during this time also that the united states participated in its first world
cups. Homegrown players helped the u.s. to a third place finish in one nine hundred
thirty the u.s. speed belgium and paraguayan a single elimination tournament.
Before losing. To argentina in the semifinals. In one thousand thirty four at the
world cup in italy.
The united states lost in the first round heavily seven to one. To italy in world
war two and its aftermath. Brought a period of drought in u.s. soccer these were
barren years. And underpinning. These difficulties was a kind of ongoing cultural
marginalization. If not discrimination against the beautiful game.
Check out this strip. From a superman comic for instance. Amazingly it was during
this barren period in u.s. soccer. That the u.s. national team scored the greatest
upset. In world cup history. It was in brazil and been awarded a zone in one nine
hundred fifty. That the u.s. defeated mighty england.
One nil. There was only one american reporter at the game. Den to mix skimming. Of
the st louis post dispatch. And in his estimation. England in their general play.
He wrote. Appeared superior to that of the winners. Except on the scoreboard. Years
later he compared the result. To a baseball team from oxford university.
Beating. The new york yankees. It was clearly a case of david and goliath. On the
football pitch. Perhaps the english approach the game with a bit of arrogance. They
left out. Stanley matthews one of their greatest players of all time. The match a
century went unnoticed. At home in the us internationally.
There was shock and disbelief. That a team of amateurs. And semi professionals. Had
beaten. The masters of the game. England missed. Many chances. But it is pretty
clear that they underestimated the united states’s resolve. Late in the first half.
Joe get sions a haitian immigrant who was working as a dishwasher.
In brooklyn. When he was selected for the team. Made contact on a flying header to
put the ball into the net and give the united states. The lead. The americans were
quite lucky in the game according to match reports. But they did defend. Very very
tightly and aggressively. Reports in the english press.
Had the following to say about the debacle. The daily mail for example blamed. Bad
shooting. Over in the second half and failure to settle down on the small pitch.
The daily telegraph wrote that the problem was the small ground. And the close
marking of the defenders. Which seem to spoil the englishman’s close passing game.
This extraordinary. Game. In the united states and world soccer history. Was
memorialized recently in the film. The miracle match. Based on the book by jeffrey
douglas. The game of their lives. Reaping forward nearly twenty years. We now find
ourselves in one nine hundred sixty eight. When the north american soccer league.
Was established. Despite the passion and commitment. Of individuals and. A few
business men. The league was no more than a glorified semiprofessional.
Organization until one nine hundred seventy five. That was the year that the
brazilian superstar bill a was signed by the new york cosmos. And the arrival of
finally put soccer on the map.
In a new and different way. In the united states. You can read about this era of
u.s. soccer. In the assigned reading. For this week. Drawn from gavin newsom’s
book. Once in a lifetime. Thanks to playing cosmos and the spirit interest now
being shown in the us. For the game.
The league expanded and expanded very quickly. Acquiring new exposure. It survived
until nine hundred eighty four when it shut down. Due mainly to. Overexpansion.
Playing in markets where there was little. Little or no support. And sometimes.
Interest in the game of soccer. Poor media coverage particularly on television.
This interest from sponsors.
And importantly a lack of soccer specific stadium. The cosmos themselves. Played on
the artificial surface. Of giant stadium in new jersey. A stadium built for
football. American football. Despite the demise of the n.a.s.l.. There are some
important legacies. For soccer in this country. Particular that you think. College
shocker grew exponentially.
During the era of the n.a.s.l.. And this helped move soccer. In the united states.
Closer to the mainstream. And just a few years later. The u.s. men’s national team
won that famous game. In trinidad and tobago. Qualifying for its first world cup
final tournaments. In forty years. Tony meola.
And john harkes. Hailed from northern new jersey. One thousand nine hundred ninety
four the united states. Hosted the world cup. There was a tree. Come through. I was
in graduate school at the time and managed to follow my beloved italy. All the way.
To the final against brazil. But more importantly for the united states.
Nearly three point six million spectators. Watched the matches an average of nearly
sixty nine thousand per game. This still stands as a world record. And this despite
the expansion of the tournaments after nine to ninety four from twenty four to
thirty teams. Alexi lalas in his unorthodox. Style. Became the poster child of the
renaissance of soccer.
Us by the way those u.s. uniforms. In the wake of the one nine hundred ninety four
world major league soccer. Was established in many ways this was a successor to the
n.a.s.l.. But it also had some important differences with its predecessor from the
seventy’s and eighty’s. You can read all the details.
In the assigned reading
on making. Soccer major
inaugural match between
By eric wynalda. Of the
by matthew stratton or. Charles parish and john are right
league in the usa. And beyond. Here’s a program from the
san jose clash. And d.c. united. Resolved by a late goal.
clash. What’s interesting about that first season.
Was the renewal of the. Kind of final. Championship game. That d.n.a. cell had
introduced. Back in the days of paying it was the soccer bowl. M.l.s. called it.
The m.l.s. cup. So after regular season. There was a playoff format. And the first.
M.l.s. cup was played at foxboro stadium in massachusetts the home of the new
And i was fortunate enough to be in attendance with my wife along with thirty
thousand or so fans. In a flood of nearly biblical proportions. D.c. united and
l.a. galaxy. Put on a phenomenal show. And the pope. Of d.c. united scored a golden
goal. I.e. sudden death goal to win it in extra time.
Now the m.l.s.. Had an overall strategy that hinged on its ability to combine the
two historic strands of u.s. soccer culture. And that is the ethnic working class
game. As well as the suburban middle class and mostly white game. This explains why
the m.l.s. so were gresley targeted. The growing latino population.
In the u.s.. And why also in pursuing its commercial agenda it sought to transform
the nation’s. Legions of youth soccer players. Into consumers. Of the product. The
construction of soccer specific stadium in the m.l.s.. Has helped boost its
popularity. And improve the quality of the game. Columbus crew stadium was the
Soccer specific stadium built in the m.l.s. era. And it became an example of the
kind of model that was being reproduced. Throughout the first decade of the twenty
first century. And that is to build stadiums that were between twenty and twenty
five thousand seats in size. And today fourteen.
Of the nineteen m.l.s. teams play their games. In soccer specific grounds. The
arrival of david beckham in two thousand and seven. Seem to hark back to the n.a.s.
sells their strategy of the. Nine hundred seventy s.. You can read more about the
effect of beckons arrival in angela ross’s piece of science for this week.
Let’s close today’s lecture with a question. After one hundred fifty years or so
has soccer in the united states. Finally moved beyond its promise to be the sport.
Of the future.
Today’s lectures about women’s soccer. Will get a historical overview of the games.
And then focus in on the united states experience. When we think of women’s soccer.
We tend to think of players like mia hamm. The wonderful american striker. But mia
hamm’s success. Was built. Really on a foundation of struggle.
Over the course of the century. By women. Internationally. Will struggle to play
the game on an equal level. With men. The first recorded women’s match. Took place
in inverness scotland. In eight hundred eighty eight. In the eight hundred ninety
s. there were matches played throughout scotland and england. This image.
From the graphic. Weekly newspaper. Shows a match involving the british ladies’
football club. In one thousand nine hundred five. The first major period of growth.
Interestingly just like as in the men’s game. Took place during the years. Of world
war one. And immediately after. And often times as we’ll see in a moment.
It was women who were now working in factories who had taken the factory jobs of
men drafted into the armed forces. And who were dying. On the front lines. Women’s
matches. Were often against the male teams. Particularly youth teams. But also some
adult teams. And mainly for charity. The most famous.
Of these industrial company teams. Of the world war one period. Without question
was dick kerr ladies. Football club. It was founded in preston england in one nine
hundred seventeen and it was essentially the company team. Of dick kerr. Munitions
and engineering works. The women. Joined the company. In one thousand nine hundred
And according to a wonderful history of the team. By barbara jacobs. The company
was making things like. Locomotives. Cable drums pontoon. Bridges. Pontoon boats
and. Briefly even see planes. For a couple of years but by the one nine hundred
seventy. It was mainly producing munitions. Making about thirty t …
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