Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on bacteriocins and their impact on our lives and agriculture. The seeds for the possible antagonistic interaction between competing bacteria were planted by Pasteur and Joubert in 1877, through their observation of the inhibitory action of some strains of Escherichia coli (E.coli) on the growth of Bacillus anthracis in infected animals. Andre Gratia was the first to uncover the inhibition property of bacteriocins in a compound he named colicin v, which was released by a virulent strain of E.coli bacteria. In 1954, Pierre Frederic uncovered the genetic determinates of colicin, as a conjugation transmissible element that is similar to the F factor. Since then a host of bacteriocins have been discovered, and our understanding of the usefulness of bacteriocins moves forward (Scienceray, 2012).Bacteriocins are a constituent of the wide array of microbial defense systems. All bacteria produce bacteriocins (Riley & Chavan, 2007). These bacteriocins are proteinaceous compounds, which are lethal to bacteria other than the releasing strain. The spectrum of antibacterial activity can vary from the narrow spectrum, with confined inhibition of closely related bacterial species or broad to include several of the other bacterial species (Joerger, 2003). Bacteriocins from gram-positive bacteria are associated with a broader range of antibacterial range of activity. While initial studies were focused on colicins from E-coli and the bacteriocins from other gram-negative bacteria, the current focus of studies on bacteriocins is on the bacteriocins from the gram-positive bacteria, as they are assumed to have more application in humans and in foods and other products (Chen & Hoover, 2003).At first glance, there may be a tendency to classify the bacteriocins as an extension of the traditional peptide antibiotics because they are synthesized peptides. Yet, they are different, and it is in the essence of this difference that their utility .lies. Unlike peptide antibiotics, which are synthesized by enzymes bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized peptides. In addition, while typical antibiotics are active against a broad range of bacteria, bacteriocins have a narrow range of activity within its own bacteria species or closely related bacteria species. Furthermore, there is an important and unique difference in potency. Within its narrow range of antibacterial activity, it is potent in nanomolar concentrations, while in the case of antibiotics a much higher concentration is required for potent antibiotic activity. .
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