Hello, I am looking for someone to write an article on Management as a Basic and Dominant Institution. It needs to be at least 2000 words. The management skills required to solve everyday problems in historic times have given us a base to formulate modern management theories. For instance the management skills required by the ancient Egyptians to build the pyramids. by the ancient Chinese to build the Great Wall of China. the management skills of the Mesopotamians to irrigate their land and wall their cities. of the Romans when building their roads, aqueducts and Hadrian’s Wall. the understanding of uniform work methods by the ancient Greeks soldiers to act out surprise attacks by laying their weapons strategically. use of songs to develop a rhythm to improve their productivity etc. All these man-made constructions required large amounts of human effort and therefore organization i.e. planning, control and coordination. The management function is therefore inherent in human nature even from the times we do not know much about. Keeping in mind what Peter Drucker said (1955), “Management will remain a basic and dominant institution perhaps as long as Western civilization itself survives”, we cannot ignore its truth. To further examine Drucker’s statement, let’s take a look at how management has been used and has evolved to instil itself into our lifestyles. Ancient management functions take roots from the severity of the conditions faced. All the inventions or structures were based on the concept of solving a problem or enhancing the working of the situation. Early development of management theory came with a few events which the people at that time solved according to the means available. Here are some of those events. 17th Century – Industrial Revolution During the industrial revolution in the seventeenth century, agricultural methods started to improve in Europe to the extent that surpluses were generated which in turn were used for trade. This brought the expansion of trade routes global scale meeting East to the West. This phase of time brought many challenges to the people who answered them with advancements in technology such as in textile manufacturing. Hargreaves’s spinning jenny, Arkwright’s water frame and Compton’s mule were also notable accomplishments. The steam engine first developed in 1698 by Thomas Savory, was harnessed by James Watt. Improved hygiene and diet, including the boiling of water to make tea (from the East,) led to expanding populations. 18th Century – Adam Smith’s The Factory System Seeing the time lags in the factory system, Adam Smith, in the eighteenth century, advocated making work efficient by means of specialization. He advocated breaking the work down into simple tasks.  War of Independence The War of Independence also brought with it challenges for the military to gain a competitive advantage over the enemy force. Facing a shortage of musket parts in the United States, Eli Whitney proposed the manufacturing of muskets by means of using interchangeable parts. Though the idea was viewed with initial scepticism, his process was successful in producing large quantities of interchangeable parts. Thus was born the process of tooling up for production. At this time Whitney developed and used techniques such as cost accounting and quality control.
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